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DNA Structure

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 DNA by the NumbersDNA by the Numbers
  3. 3. 3 DNADNA • The blueprint for an organism’s structure and function • Contains the instructions for making proteins within the cell.
  4. 4. 4 James Watson & Francis Crick’s Model
  5. 5. Rosalind Franklin 5
  6. 6. 6 Why is DNADNA so important? • Found in all organisms (connects all living things to one another) • Medical research – treatments and cures • Agriculture, GMO
  7. 7. 7 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNAChromosomes, Genes, and DNA
  8. 8. 8 The Shape of DNAThe Shape of DNA A “twisted ladder” •Called the double helix.
  9. 9. Subunits: Nucleotides (made of 3 components) 9 nucleotideDeoxyribose sugar 1. base3. phosphate2.
  10. 10. 10 One Strand (side) of DNAOne Strand (side) of DNA • The backbone of the molecule is alternating – deoxyribose sugar – Phosphates • Bases attached to sugars phosphate Deoxyribose sugar bases
  11. 11. 11 Four BasesFour Bases • Adenine A • Thymine T •Cytosine C • Guanine G DNA has four different bases:
  12. 12. 12 Base Pairing:Base Pairing: Complimentary StrandsComplimentary Strands • Adenine (A) with Thymine (T) A T • Cytosine (C) with Guanine (G) C G
  13. 13. 13 Two Stranded DNATwo Stranded DNA
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Knowledge CheckKnowledge Check 1. What are the 3 components that make up DNA? (6 points) 2. Make a simple sketch of a DNA molecule. Use different shapes to represent the 3 different components and label one of each on your sketch. (4 points) 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. How do you think DNA is replicated?How do you think DNA is replicated? 17 Considerations: • Two identical copies of the DNA molecules come from one original DNA molecule. • Special enzymes are involved in DNA replication. (An enzyme is a type of protein that can move, break apart, or attach different molecules to one other.) • The DNA molecule can be broken, torn, or split apart.
  18. 18. 18 •The DNA molecule unravels from the histone proteins around which it is spooled. Step 1Step 1
  19. 19. 19 •A special enzyme called Helicase “unzips” the DNA molecule, breaking it down the middle. Step 2Step 2
  20. 20. 20 •Another enzyme called DNA Polymerase attaches new complimentary nucleotides to each strand, completing two new DNA strands. Step 3Step 3
  21. 21. 21

Notas del editor

  • All life on earth uses a chemical called DNA to carry its genetic code or blueprint.
  • If you unravel all the DNA in the chromosomes of one of your cells, it would stretch out 2 meters. If you did this to the DNA in all your cells, it would stretch from here to sun and back more than 200 hundred times!
  • Why is DNA called the blueprint of life?
  • About better food crops, this area is controversial. There is a Dr. Charles Arntzen who is working on bioengineering foods with vaccines in them. People in poor countries could be immunized against diseases just by eating a banana, for instance.
  • {Show students a model of the double helix. Explain what a spiral is and a helix is.}
  • {Point to the 3-D mode, if you have one, to show the parts as you discuss them.}
  • These four bases are abbreviated by using their respective first letters.
  • {Point to the 3-D model to show the parts as you discuss them.}

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