1. Jaipur National University
(Established By Government Of Rajasthan ,Approved By The UGC Act 1956)
A venture of
SEEDLING GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS
2. WHY RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE?
• Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide remote
monitoring capabilities that can benefit applications such as
industrial control, environmental monitoring and defense.
• Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is one of the most exciting
technology that revolutionize the working practices by
increasing efficiencies and improving profitability.
• It is often presented as a replacement for today’s barcodes but
the technologies has much greater possibilities, such as
individual serial numbers for each item and the possibility to
read these numbers at a distance of several meters.
3. INTRODUCTION OF RFID
• Radio-frequency identification(RFID) is the use of wireless non contact system that
uses radio frequency electro magnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to
an object,for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking.
• Radio Frequency identification(RFID) is generic term that is used to describe that
transmits the identity of an object or person wirelessly,using radio waves.It’s
grouped under the broad category of automatic identification technologies.
• RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID attached to an automobile
during production can be used to track its process through assembly line, RFID
identity cards can give employees access to locked areas of a building, and RF
transponders mounted in automobiles can be used to bill motorists for access
to toll roads or parking.
• RFID is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic
coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum uniquely
identify an object, animal or person it is an automatic identification
method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data whenever required using
devices called RFID tags and transponder. It is also called dedicated short range
4. Components of RFID
• RFID stands for radio frequency identification device. This technology allows
transmission of data without contact and line of sight from a data medium, what is
called a transponder, to a reader and vice versa. The term transponder is formed
from the two words transmitter and responder.
• A basic RFID system consists of three components:
i) An antenna or coil
ii) A transceiver with decoder
iii) A transponder(RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information
Basic components of RFID contain:
Tags( chip+ antenna)
An RFID tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into a
product, animal or a person for the purpose of identification using radio waves
Interrogators are useful to read the tags & in certain cases even write on them.
Tags can be almost attached to anything:
Pallets or cases of products, Vehicles, Company assets or personnel, Items such
as apparel,luggage,laundry, People livestock or pets, High value electronics such
as computers, TV’s.
Chip Tags consists of a microchip and a coupling element-an antenna. Most Tags
are only activated only when they are within interrogation zone of the
interrogator; outside they “sleep". Chip tags contain memory.
The size of the tag depends on the size of the antenna, which increases with
range of tag and decreases with frequency.
6. Types Of RFID Tags
There are two basic types of RFID tags:
Active RFID Tags are powered by an internal battery and are typical read/write i.e. Tag
data can be rewritten and/or modified.
• Transmits signal from the micro chip circuit through the power obtained from an
• Can signal at defined time, Multiple tags can be recorded at once.
• High signal range and Larger in size.
Passive RFID Tags operates without a separate external power source and obtain
operating power generated from the reader. Passive tags are consequently much
lighter than active tags, less expensive and offer a virtually unlimited lifetime.
• Contains no power source, Obtains power from the reader.
• Low signal range, Cheaper and smaller than active tags.
7. Working Operation
• A radio frequency identification uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be
identified. Two way radio transmitter- receivers called interrogators or readers
send a signal to the tag and read its response. The reader generally transmit their
observation to a computer system running RFID or RFID middleware.
• The tags information is stored electronically in a nonvolatile memory. The RFID tag
include a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encoded
radio signal to interrogate the tag. The tag receive the message and respond with
its identification information.
• RFID contain at least two parts :an integrated circuit for storing and processing
information, Modulating and demodulating a radio frequency(RF) signal, collecting
DC power from the incident reader signal, and other specialized functions; and an
antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal.
8. ADVANTAGES OF RFID
• The read only Tag code data is 100% secure and cannot be changed or duplicated.
• Very robust Tags that can stand extreme conditions and temperatures. Tags are
available in a great range of types, sizes and materials
• No need for physical contact between the data carrier and communication devices. The
Tags can be used repeatedly, Relatively low maintenance cost.
• No line of sight necessary to read/write data. This makes it possible to use Tags in harsh
environments and in closed containers/structures. When using Bar-code scanners have
to have line of sight to read them.
• Bar code only provides a manufacturer and product type. They don’t identify unique
items but it can identify the item(not just its manufacturer and category).
• Extremely low error rate, No line of sight required
• Long read range, Portable database
• Multiple tags read/write, Tracking people, items, and equipment in real time
9. DISADVANTAGES OF RFID
• RFID systems are often more expensive than Barcode systems.
• RFID technology is harder to understand, Can be less reliable.
• RFID Tags are usually longer than Barcode labels.
• Tags are application specific. No one tags fit all.
• Possibility of unauthorized reading of passports and credit cards.
• More than one Tag can respond at the same time.
Images of RFID
10. RFID V/S BARCODE
FEATURES RFID BARCODE
Ability to read more than Yes No
one item at a time
Read the item while moving Yes No
Line of sight is not required Yes No
Built in security Yes No
Environmental resistance Yes No
Number or reads More Less
• PRODUCT TRACKING
High frequency RFID and HFID/High FID tags are used library book or bookstore
Tracking,jewellery tracking, pallet tracking, building access control, airline baggage
Tracking, and apparel and pharmaceutical item tracking .
• ANIMAL IDENTIFICATION
Implantable RFID tags or transponders can be used for animal identification. The
transponder are more well known as passive RFID technology or simply “chips ”On
This technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional bar codes on libraries
items( books,cds,dvds).The RFID tag contain identifying information, such as books
title or material type, without having to be pointed separate database. The
information is read by an RFID reader, which replace the standard barcode.
RFID are now also implemented in end user application in museum.
• SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITIES
12. RFID TODAY
• The practical applications of RFID today are outstanding. Any inventory
could be instantly located in any warehouse, high risk security institutions
are able to keep a constant eye on dangerous offenders, lost pets can be
returned to their owners...the list goes on.
• RFID technology is continuously advancing, and the very near future will
see science fiction become reality as Radio Frequency Identification makes
its way into everyday functions.
• When a secure form of RFID is created for the consumer population and
privacy issues are resolved, RFID tags will change the world. Organizations
such as EPC Global are spearheading initiatives to standardize regulations
and usage, and numerous reputable companies are spending billions of
dollars and thousands of man-hours to perfect the technology.
13. FUTURE SCOPE
• The world will be very different once Readers and RFID Tags
are everywhere. In an RFID enhanced futures, the benefits
would accurate not just to businesses, but also to consumers.
• Once various limitations like lack of a Global
Standard, security concerns, the cost factors, etc. are
overcome and this technology is fully implemented, it can
transform the way we live our lives.
• It has the potential of revolutionized the way we travel, the
way we open the locks of our homes, the way we purchase
goods, the way we do business and much more.
• The RFID replaces the traditional identification methods like barcode. The RFID
framework provides the freedom for developers/customers to switch different RFID
vendors at any point of Time during the development with minimal effort.
• RFID technology uses waves to automatically identify individual items. After sixty
years of Development, plus the emergence of the internet, FID is being used in
• RFID used in libraries can save patrons time and increase library work efficiency;
can lesson Staff injures; and can do inventory automatically. The greatest
advantage of RFID tracking system Is its ability to scan books/items on the shelves
without tipping them out or removing them.
• There some hurdles needed to overcome before RFID technology becomes
widespread In the world.One major problem is the high costs the other is privacy
issue. In the long run, the RFID technology, when perfected, would eventually be a
big help to human.