3. The ideal bandage
1)optimises environment for healing in every way
2)is comfortable for the patient
3)is easy for the owner to manage
4)is not expensive and biodegradable to dispose of
1)contact = dressing = primary layer
2)padding & support = intermediate layer
( Outer )
( Intermediate )
( Contact )
4. Sterile & final barrier to contamination
touches & protects the wound surface
optimises the wound environment
Transfers exudate to secondary layer
5. TYPES OF CONTACT LAYER
Adherent-stick to the wound like a wet to dry bandage eg:sterile gauze pads
Occlusive layer-water resistant. Keep moisture outside &wound fluid in.
for wounds with established granulation tissue
eg:Hydrocolloid, Hydrogel, calcium-alginate
Semi occlusive layer- allowing fluid to drain into absorbent layer
for open wounds without established granulation tissue
eg:Telfa pads, Paraffin gauze
8. A)Adhesive tape- sticky on one side, form the stirrup to which bandage will attach
B)Gauze- clearing wound exudate & necrotic tissue
C)Cotton cast padding- pliable, highly absorbent, major material of secondary layer
D)Elastikon tape- form tertiary layer, stretchable
E)Sterile pad (if an open wound exists)- serve as primary layer
Antiseptic-stop the growth &action of bacteria. Germicide for wound healing
9. Casts and splints
Protect surgical repairs.
Provide a degree of rigidity. Stabilize a fracture
Allow more comfortable transport of the animal.
The rigidity of a cast will exceed that of a splint
Splints should be applied after a basic bandage is applied
( contact layer, cast padding)
Then fixed to the limb with porous adhesive tape.
10. Aluminium splint rods-they must be cut and bent to shape.
Commercial plastic and metal splints-available in a variety of sizes and shapes.
Thermomoldable plastic splinting material-Manually moulded to the conformation of the area
Fiberglass casting tape- light, durable, and water resistant.
12. BANDAGING LIMBS
• Most common bandaging sites
To protect wound& to support broken leg
It extend down to toes to avoid twist/slip
Adhesive tape stirrups are placed
on the leg to secure the bandage.
A sterile pad covers and
protects the wound.
Cotton padding is wrapped
thickly around the leg.
Gauze is applied over the
cotton padding to compress
and secure the bandage.
The entire bandage is wrapped
with Elastikon tape.
2. 3. 4.
13. BANDAGING TAILS
After surgical repair or tumour removal
Apply final tape(stick directly to tail skin)over bandage
Adhesive tape is wound
spirally around the tail
Wound dressing pad
applied at the tail tip
Padding material is
wound in the direction of
Layer of elastic bandage is
applied to secure the
15. An Elizabethan collar is a stiff cardboard or
plastic cone shaped structure that goes
around the animal’s neck
If an eye needs to be bandaged, place the
bandage over the head to include the affected eye.
An Elizabethan collar prevents an
animal from scratching face injuries
or biting other body injuries.
Bandaging Dog and Cat Torsos
Bandages over the
abdomen/chest - to
protect surgical sites or to
secure surgically placed
structures (chest tubes &
Place torso bandages by
applying rolled cotton around
the chest or abdomen&
covered with rolled gauze and
secured with tape.
17. Bandaging Birds
• Treat leg fracture with a splinted bandage
(Tongue depressor/Schroeder-Thomas splint)
• Temporary support of injuries & fractured bone in wings
• Bandage wing separately from it’s body using gauze & tape
• Some wing bandages incorporate splint
18. Re-Dressing a Wound
When re-dressing a wound - important to know which primary
bandage material best suits the wound’s stage of healing.
The primary layer of the bandage may vary,
Reapply a bandage with the same bandaging technique &
bandaging principles used previously
Apply bandage without constriction, slippage & should be
19. • Most of the bandages are applied as pressure bandages ( to prevent bleeding & swelling)
• Don’t bandage unless absolutely necessary
• A bandage placed too tightly will cut off the blood supply.
A bandage placed too loosely(too much padding) may slip
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING BANDAGE CARE
• The bandage should not get wet, covered with a water resistant sock.
• If the animal suddenly starts licking or chewing, it should be changed
• The interval of bandage change depends on the indications
20. • Many bandages are padded with cotton wool or synthetic fibres-based on ease of use
• Cotton loses elasticity once wet
• Synthetic fibres(Artiflex)-poor absorber of wound fluid& cause irritation
• Padding between toes prevent pressure sores
Robert -Jones bandage-large amount of padding
provide immobilization without compressing vascular supply
Modified Robert-Jones bandage-less padding is used
22. 1.Shoulder support bandage with splint
1. Scapular fractures.
2. comminuted humerus fractures (during transport).
3. Immobilisation after certain shoulder operations.
4. Immobilisation of the elbow after repositioning of elbow luxation.
5. Following soft tissue surgery of wounds in the axillar region.
bandage that should be changed or removed 4 days to 3 weeks
after application, depending on the indication and condition of the bandage
23. In an anaesthetised dog,
cotton padding is applied
between the toes.
padding is wound
around the leg in
A wide roll of cotton wool
or (Artiflex) is applied
It ends behind the dog’s back,
then passed around the neck.
The elastic bandage is applied
from distal to proximal.
24. For immobilisation of the
limb, a splint (thermoplastic
The splint is fixed
with an elastic bandage.
This self-adhesive bandage
is applied lengthwise.
Adding strength to
the entire bandage.
25. 2.PADDED PRESSURE BANDAGE LOWER FRONT LIMB
(INCLUDING THE CARPUS)
1. Treatment of wounds/haemorrhages of the paw
2. Aftercare following surgery of the foot
3. Prevention of licking.
Interdigital spaces are
padded with cotton wool.
Then, cotton wool is applied
around the lower limb,
including the carpus. .
26. The padding is secured with
hydrophilic gauze bandage
The bandage may be
finished by securing it with
free edge of the gauze
bandage is folded backwards,
close the lower part of the
Then, elastic bandage
material is used to secure the
padding & to produce a
27. 3.ELASTIC SUPPORT BANDAGE, HIND LIMB
(INCLUDING THE STIFLE)
1. Prevention of postoperative oedema, both in the wound area
(inflammatory oedema) and more peripheral (congestive oedema).
2. Treatment of peripheral oedema following trauma (femoral fracture)
• Elastic bandages(Gazofix) is usually applied without padding to the (shaved) skin
• The nails of the 3rd and 4th digit remain visible, to check for congestion
• During application, the leg is held in a normal standing position
The bandage is applied in such a way that:
28. The elastic bandage is first
wound around the lower limb,
The bandage is applied
from distal to proximal.
Don’t constrict the
The bandage is then wound in downward
spirals, until the stifle is well covered.
The elastic bandages acts
as a support stocking, for
an optimal venous return
29. 4.PLASTER OF PARIS SPLINT BANDAGE (PLASTER CAST)
Indications for a plaster cast
1. Extra-articular fractures distal to the proximal third of the radius or tibia.
2. Supported fractures, i.e. fracture of only the radius/ulna or of the tibia/fibula.
Plaster cast in human patients-swellings are avoided by keeping the limb in a raised position,
The plaster bandage in companion animals should be weight bearing
should be kept bone dry at all times.
should be protected e.g. by a rubber cover.
plaster splint should be checked daily.
Fracture healing usually takes six to eight weeks.
30. Advantages of applying the plaster in a semi-circular manner
(front limb: applied to the back, hind limb: to the front)
immobilisation of the
fracture- by the plaster &
treatment of the soft tissue
swelling -by the padded
2.The risk of congestion is
less than with a circular
application of the splint;
3. the splint is (lighter)
causing less hindrance to
locomotion without loss of
4. the splint is easy to
change - in case of growth
of the limb concerned,
5.It is also easy to remove
while an oscillating saw is
necessary for circular
31. • Length of the splint is determined.
• Care should be taken to stretch the elbow
• Six of these lengths of plaster of Paris
are folded on top of each other.
• The edges are folded back lengthwise.
creating a ridge in the centre of the splint,
(for better positioning ).
• The splint is folded, submersed in warm
water and is smoothed out on a table top.
• Care should be taken that the plaster
does not dry out or break.
• The layers are transposed as a whole
32. • Hydrophilic gauze is wound around the plaster
(for exact shape of the palmar once hardened).
• During the hardening phase limb should be kept still
• Once the splint is hardened the gauze is removed.
sharp edges or corners are removed
• The splint bandage is finished
using a layer of cotton wool.
• padding are stabilised using
elastic bandage material.
33. EHMER SLING
• used to prevent weight bearing
of a hind limb and may be used after hip luxation
• cause severe pressure sores, if placed incorrectly
1. Cotton wool is placed around the foot
2. A conforming bandage (eg;. K-band) is wrapped around the foot
3. The stifle is then flexed as far as possible
34. 4.The k-band is passed medially (between the limb and
the body) And out over the quadriceps muscle
5.The bandage passes round the back of the tibia to
wrap around the metatarsals.
6.This should look like a figure-of-eight from the front
of the patient
7.Finally, a layer of cohesive bandage is applied
to provide further support
35. VELPEAU SLING
To prevent weight-bearing of fore limb
(after scapular fracture/shoulder dislocation)
1.The carpus and paw are padded with cotton wool
2.The forelimb is flexed as close to the trunk as possible.
36. 3.K band is wrapped around the carpus and
brought up over shoulder
4.The bandage is continued round the body,
passing behind the opposite elbow to wrap
around the body, spreading tension evenly over the limb
5.A cohesive layer (Vetrap, petflex) applied to
• Same indications as Velpeau sling, but the elbow
joint maintains full range of motion.
• Cats tolerate carpal slings better than Velpeau slings
1. Flex the carpus and wrap cotton bandage around it
2. Maintain flexion with an elastic tape
3. Do not flex the carpus above 90 degrees
• Ventral hip luxation (after reposition),
fractures of the plevic floor
1. A self sticking tape is used
2. Enclose both distal tibiae in either a tape.
3. Stick the tapes together, so that the cat may
walk, but straddling is prevented
4. Secure the sling with two pieces of tape
placed on both medial aspects of the tibiae.
gangrene in pressure areas
Circulatory interference(congestion underneath the bandage)
Lead to swelling &peripheral area become cold(hair will fall out)
Parts of toe or footpads may slough off followed by necrosis
40. How can we prevent problems?
• Training veterinary staff.
• Educating clients about bandage aftercare
Drip bag in place ~The toes should be
Doughnuts‘- used to protect
from pressure sores. extra padding
A Medipaw bandage cover
provides brilliant protection
41. PREVENTING BANDAGE MOLESTATION
Wire basket-type muzzles-keep a dog from molesting
a bandage. It must be removed for eating
Side braces - keep a dog away
from its hind quarters.(can be fashioned from aluminium
Elizabethan collars - keep a dog’s
head/mouth away from anything caudal to the device
The care giver will have to take care of