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Employee motivation foundations and practices

Employee motivation foundations and practices, explain about motivation, Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy, employee motivation, Expectancy Theory of Motivation,Goal Setting and Feedback,Organizational Justice,Job Design and Empowerment

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Employee motivation foundations and practices

  1. 1. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Employee Motivation: Foundations and Practices
  2. 2. 5-2 Motivation Defined The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior Exerting particular effort level (intensity), for a certain amount of time (persistence), toward a particular goal (direction).
  3. 3. 5-3 Drives and Needs Drives (aka-primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives)  Neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium  Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions Self-concept, social norms, and past experience Drives (primary needs) Needs Decisions and Behavior
  4. 4. 5-4 Drives and Needs Needs  Goal-directed forces that people experience.  Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals  Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience Self-concept, social norms, and past experience Drives (primary needs) Needs Decisions and Behavior
  5. 5. 5-5 Self-Self- actual-actual- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Seven categories capture most needs Five categories placed in a hierarchy Need toNeed to knowknow Need forNeed for beautybeauty Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory
  6. 6. 5-6 Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory Lowest unmet need has strongest effect When lower need is satisfied, next higher need becomes the primary motivator Self-actualization -- a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied Self-Self- actualactual -- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Need toNeed to knowknow Need forNeed for beautybeauty
  7. 7. 5-7 Evaluating Maslow’s Theory Lack of support for theory Maslow’s needs aren’t as separate as assumed People progress to different needs Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated Self-Self- actualactual -- izationization PhysiologicalPhysiological SafetySafety BelongingnessBelongingness EsteemEsteem Need toNeed to knowknow Need forNeed for beautybeauty
  8. 8. 5-8 What Maslow Contributed to Motivation Theory More holistic  integrative view of needs More humanistic  Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct More positivistic  Pay attention to strengths, not just deficiencies
  9. 9. 5-9 What’s Wrong with Needs Hierarchy Models? Wrongly assume that everyone has the same needs hierarchy (i.e. universal) Instead, likely that each person has a unique needs hierarchy  Shaped by our self-concept -- values and social identity
  10. 10. 5-10 Learned Needs Theory Drives are innate (universal) Needs are amplified or suppressed through self- concept, social norms, and past experience Therefore, needs can be “learned” (i.e. strengthened or weakened through training)
  11. 11. 5-11 Three Learned Needs Need for achievement  Values competition against a standard of excellence;  Want reasonably challenging goals Need for affiliation  Desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes  Avoid conflicts Need for power  Desire to control one’s environment  Personalized versus socialized power
  12. 12. 5-12 Four-Drive Theory Drive to BondDrive to Bond Drive to LearnDrive to Learn • Drive to form relationships and social commitments • Basis of social identity • Drive to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information Drive to DefendDrive to Defend • Need to protect ourselves • Reactive (not proactive) drive • Basis of fight or flight Drive to AcquireDrive to Acquire • Drive to take/keep objects and experiences • Basis of hierarchy and status
  13. 13. 5-13 Features of Four Drives Innate and hardwired -- everyone has them Independent of each other (no hierarchy of drives) Complete set -- no drives are excluded from the model
  14. 14. 5-14 How Four Drives Affect Needs 1. Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information 2. Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention 3. Mental skill set uses social norms, personal values, and experience to translate competing drives into needs and effort
  15. 15. 5-15 Four Drive Theory of Motivation Mental skill set uses social norms, personal values, and experience to translate competing drives into needs and effort Drive to Acquire Social norms Drive to Bond Drive to Learn Drive to Defend Person al values Past experience Mental skill set resolves competing drive demands Mental skill set resolves competing drive demands Goal-directed choice and effort Goal-directed choice and effort
  16. 16. 5-16 Implications of Four Drive Theory Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives 1. employees continually seek fulfillment of drives 2. avoid having conditions support one drive over others
  17. 17. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Expectancy Theory of Motivation Employee Motivation: Foundations and Practices
  18. 18. 5-18 E-to-P Expectancy P-to-O Expectancy Outcomes & Valences Outcome 1Outcome 1 + or -+ or - EffortEffort PerformancePerformance Outcome 3Outcome 3 + or -+ or - Outcome 2Outcome 2 + or -+ or - Expectancy Theory of Motivation
  19. 19. 5-19 Increasing E-to-P-to-O Expectancies Increasing E-to-P Expectancies  Assuring employees they have competencies  Person-job matching  Provide role clarification and sufficient resources  Behavioral modeling Increading P-to-O Expectancies  Measure performance accurately  More rewards for good performance  Explain how rewards are linked to performance
  20. 20. 5-20 Increasing Outcome Valences Ensure that rewards are valued Individualize rewards Minimize countervalent outcomes
  21. 21. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Goal Setting and Feedback Employee Motivation: Foundations and Practices
  22. 22. 5-22 Effective Goal Setting The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives Effective goals are:  Specific  Relevant  Challenging  Commitment  Participation (sometimes)  Feedback
  23. 23. 5-23 Characteristics of Effective Feedback Effective Feedback Effective Feedback SpecificSpecificSpecificSpecific RelevantRelevantRelevantRelevant TimelyTimelyTimelyTimely CredibleCredible SufficientlySufficiently frequentfrequent SufficientlySufficiently frequentfrequent
  24. 24. 5-24 Evaluating Goal Setting and Feedback Goal setting is one of the most respected theories in terms of validity and usefulness Goal setting/feedback limitations:  Focuses employees on measurable performance  Tied to pay - employees motivated to set easy goals  Goal setting interferes with learning process in new, complex jobs
  25. 25. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Organizational Justice Employee Motivation: Foundations and Practices
  26. 26. 5-26 Elements of Equity Theory Outcome/input ratio  inputs -- what employee contributes (e.g., skill)  outcomes -- what employee receives (e.g., pay) Comparison other  person/people against whom we compare our ratio  not easily identifiable Equity evaluation  compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other
  27. 27. 5-27 Correcting Inequity Feelings Reduce our inputs Less organizational citizenship Increase our outcomes Ask for pay increase Increase other’s inputs Ask coworker to work harder Reduce other’s outputs Ask boss to stop giving other preferred treatment Change our perceptions Start thinking that other’s perks aren’t really so valuable Change comparison other Compare self to someone closer to your situation Leave the field Quit job Actions to correct inequity Example
  28. 28. 5-28 Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of procedures used to decide the distribution of resources Higher procedural fairness with:  Voice  Unbiased decision maker  Decision based on all information  Existing policies consistently  Decision maker listened to all sides  Those who complain are treated respectfully  Those who complain are given full explanation
  29. 29. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Design and Empowerment Employee Motivation: Foundations and Practices
  30. 30. 5-30 Job Design Assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs Organization's goal -- to create jobs that allow work to be performed efficiently yet employees are motivated and engaged
  31. 31. 5-31 Job Specialization Dividing work into separate jobs that include a subset of the tasks required to complete the product or service Scientific management  advocates job specialization  also emphasized person-job matching, training, goal setting, work incentives
  32. 32. 5-32 AdvantagesAdvantages DisadvantagesDisadvantages Evaluating Job Specialization Less time changing activities Lower training costs Job mastered quickly Better person-job matching Job boredom Higher absenteeism/turnover Lower work quality Lower motivation
  33. 33. 5-33 WorkWork motivationmotivation GrowthGrowth satisfactionsatisfaction GeneralGeneral satisfactionsatisfaction WorkWork effectivenesseffectiveness Job Characteristics Model FeedbackFeedback from jobfrom job KnowledgeKnowledge of resultsof results Skill varietySkill variety Task identityTask identity Task significanceTask significance MeaningfulnessMeaningfulness AutonomyAutonomy ResponsibilityResponsibility IndividualIndividual differencesdifferences CriticalCritical PsychologicalPsychological StatesStates Core Job Characteristics OutcomesOutcomes
  34. 34. 5-34 Job Enrichment Given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning one’s own work 1. Clustering tasks into natural groups  Stitching highly interdependent tasks into one job  e.g., video journalist, assembling entire product 2. Establishing client relationships  Directly responsible for specific clients  Communicate directly with those clients
  35. 35. 5-35 Dimensions of Empowerment MeaningMeaning CompetenceCompetence Employees believe their work is important Employees have feelings of self- efficacy ImpactImpact Employees feel their actions influence success Self-Self- determinationdetermination Employees feel they have freedom and discretion
  36. 36. 5-36 Supporting Empowerment Individual factors  Possess required competencies, able to perform the work Job design factors  Autonomy, task identity, task significance, job feedback Organizational factors  Resources, learning orientation, trust

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