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Job discrimination

It is a job discrimination faced my US and all over the world.

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Job discrimination

  1. 1. JobJob DiscriminationDiscrimination Presented By: Bishal Tamrakar
  2. 2. DiscriminationDiscrimination • Discrimination in its root meaning refers to the act ofDiscrimination in its root meaning refers to the act of distinguishing one object from another.distinguishing one object from another. • In modern usage, the term refers to "wrongfulIn modern usage, the term refers to "wrongful discrimination," or distinguishing among people on thediscrimination," or distinguishing among people on the basis of prejudice instead of individual merit.basis of prejudice instead of individual merit. • E.g. – employment discrimination among religiousE.g. – employment discrimination among religious groupsgroups racial groups – Blacks & Whitesracial groups – Blacks & Whites
  3. 3. Job DiscriminationJob Discrimination • Job discrimination is when business decisions, policiesJob discrimination is when business decisions, policies or procedures are least partially based on illegitimateor procedures are least partially based on illegitimate forms of discrimination that benefit or harm certainforms of discrimination that benefit or harm certain group of people.group of people. • Perfectly rational to discriminate between applicants forPerfectly rational to discriminate between applicants for a job to only those who are most qualified based ona job to only those who are most qualified based on meritmerit
  4. 4. Contd…Contd… • Discrimination in employment involves three basicDiscrimination in employment involves three basic elements:elements: – It must be a decision not based on individual merit.It must be a decision not based on individual merit. – The decision must derive from racial or sexualThe decision must derive from racial or sexual prejudice.prejudice. – The decision must have a harmful impact on theThe decision must have a harmful impact on the interest of employeesinterest of employees • It can be individual or institutional, intentional orIt can be individual or institutional, intentional or unintentionalunintentional
  5. 5. Forms of discriminationForms of discrimination • Isolated behavior (intentional)-Isolated behavior (intentional)- – Intentionally discriminates based on personal prejudice.Intentionally discriminates based on personal prejudice. – An act may be part of the routine, institutionalized behaviorAn act may be part of the routine, institutionalized behavior of a group.of a group. – The act must intentionally discriminate out of personalThe act must intentionally discriminate out of personal prejudice.prejudice. – An act may be part of the isolated behavior of a singleAn act may be part of the isolated behavior of a single individual who unintentionally discriminates because he orindividual who unintentionally discriminates because he or she uncriticallyshe uncritically
  6. 6. Contd…Contd… • An act may be part of the systematic routine of a groupAn act may be part of the systematic routine of a group that unintentionally discriminates because groupthat unintentionally discriminates because group members uncritically incorporate the discriminatorymembers uncritically incorporate the discriminatory practices of society.practices of society. • Discriminatory acts can be categorized according to theDiscriminatory acts can be categorized according to the extent to which they are intentional andextent to which they are intentional and institutionalized.institutionalized.
  7. 7. Evidence of Job DiscriminationEvidence of Job Discrimination • American being stereotypes about women regardingAmerican being stereotypes about women regarding their careerstheir careers • Stereotypes tends to bias people against women takingStereotypes tends to bias people against women taking leadership positionsleadership positions • Differences between men and womenDifferences between men and women
  8. 8. Types of EvidenceTypes of Evidence • Statistical EvidenceStatistical Evidence • Attitudinal evidenceAttitudinal evidence
  9. 9. • Affirmative action (Legal Context)Affirmative action (Legal Context) Originated in the form of somewhat recent civil rightOriginated in the form of somewhat recent civil right legislation.legislation. Started in 1961Started in 1961 States that there should not be job discrimination basedStates that there should not be job discrimination based on color, race, religion, sex or national originon color, race, religion, sex or national origin 1963 equal pay act1963 equal pay act 1964 civil right act1964 civil right act 1967 age discrimination in employment1967 age discrimination in employment 1990 Americans with disabilities act.1990 Americans with disabilities act.
  10. 10. Contd…Contd… 1963 equal pay act1963 equal pay act 1964 civil right act1964 civil right act 1967 age discrimination in employment1967 age discrimination in employment 1990 Americans with disabilities act.1990 Americans with disabilities act.
  11. 11. • Affirmative action (Moral Context)Affirmative action (Moral Context) Arguments for affirmative actions.Arguments for affirmative actions.  Necessary to break the cycle that keeps minorities &Necessary to break the cycle that keeps minorities & women locked into poor pays, low prestige jobs.women locked into poor pays, low prestige jobs.  Necessary to permit fairer competitionNecessary to permit fairer competition  Its defenders argue that compensatory justice demandsIts defenders argue that compensatory justice demands affirmative action programaffirmative action program  Moral issues surroundings affirmative actions areMoral issues surroundings affirmative actions are controversialcontroversial
  12. 12. • Affirmative action againstAffirmative action against  Injures white men & violates their rightsInjures white men & violates their rights  Itself violates the principle of equalityItself violates the principle of equality  Non discrimination will achieve our social goals,Non discrimination will achieve our social goals, stronger alternative action is necessarystronger alternative action is necessary
  13. 13. • Comparable WorthComparable Worth  Idea that women & men should be paid on the sameIdea that women & men should be paid on the same scale for doing different jobs if they involve equivalentscale for doing different jobs if they involve equivalent skills, effort & responsibilityskills, effort & responsibility  Women have been shunted into low paying jobs, thatWomen have been shunted into low paying jobs, that they suffer.they suffer.  From discriminating labor market & that justiceFrom discriminating labor market & that justice requires that they receive equal pay for doing job ofrequires that they receive equal pay for doing job of equal worth.equal worth.
  14. 14. Extent of discriminationExtent of discrimination • Average benefitsAverage benefits • Placing discriminated groups at lowest levels ofPlacing discriminated groups at lowest levels of institutionsinstitutions • More advantageous positions to preferred onesMore advantageous positions to preferred ones
  15. 15. • Discrimination in USDiscrimination in US (i)(i) The income gap b/w Whites & minorities has notThe income gap b/w Whites & minorities has not decreaseddecreased (ii)(ii) Black unemployment is more than twice as high asBlack unemployment is more than twice as high as WhitesWhites (iii)(iii) Minority poverty rate is 2-3 times of WhitesMinority poverty rate is 2-3 times of Whites (iv)(iv) Poverty rate of families headed by women is 3 timesPoverty rate of families headed by women is 3 times that of male headed onesthat of male headed ones (v)(v) Most higher-paying jobs go to white malesMost higher-paying jobs go to white males
  16. 16. • Glass ceiling – an invisible, but impenetrableGlass ceiling – an invisible, but impenetrable barrier to further promotion sometimesbarrier to further promotion sometimes encountered by women or minoritiesencountered by women or minorities • Increasing problems for women & minoritiesIncreasing problems for women & minorities (i)(i) Women & minorities make up most newWomen & minorities make up most new workersworkers (ii)(ii) Women are steered into low-paying jobs &Women are steered into low-paying jobs & face a glass ceiling & sexual harassmentface a glass ceiling & sexual harassment
  17. 17. • Utilitarian arguments which claims thatUtilitarian arguments which claims that discrimination leads to an inefficient use ofdiscrimination leads to an inefficient use of human resourceshuman resources • Rights arguments violates basic human rightsRights arguments violates basic human rights • Justice arguments which claims thatJustice arguments which claims that discrimination results in an unjust distribution ofdiscrimination results in an unjust distribution of society’s benefits & burdenssociety’s benefits & burdens
  18. 18. UtilityUtility • Discriminating job applicants on the basis of race,Discriminating job applicants on the basis of race, sex, or other characteristics unrelated to jobsex, or other characteristics unrelated to job performance is necessarily inefficient & contrary toperformance is necessarily inefficient & contrary to utilitarian principlesutilitarian principles • Objections encountered:Objections encountered: (i)(i) The jobs shud be assigned on the basis of job relatedThe jobs shud be assigned on the basis of job related qualifications only so long as such assignments willqualifications only so long as such assignments will advance the public welfareadvance the public welfare (ii)(ii) Society as a whole may benefit from some forms ofSociety as a whole may benefit from some forms of sexual discriminationsexual discrimination
  19. 19. RightsRights • Discriminatory practices violate the principleDiscriminatory practices violate the principle in two ways :in two ways : (i)(i) Racial & sexual discrimination is based onRacial & sexual discrimination is based on stereotypes that see minorities as “lazy” orstereotypes that see minorities as “lazy” or “shiftless” & women as “emotional” &“shiftless” & women as “emotional” & “weak”.“weak”. (ii)(ii) Placing members at lower positions, lowerPlacing members at lower positions, lower salaries & lower job opportunitiessalaries & lower job opportunities
  20. 20. JusticeJustice • Principle of equal opportunity – social &Principle of equal opportunity – social & economic inequalities are to be arranged so thateconomic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are attached to offices & positions open tothey are attached to offices & positions open to all under conditions of fair equality ofall under conditions of fair equality of opportunityopportunity
  21. 21. Discriminating practicesDiscriminating practices • Recruitment practices – word of mouth referrals, onlyRecruitment practices – word of mouth referrals, only White males, for MEN onlyWhite males, for MEN only • Screening practices – disqualifying minority class whoScreening practices – disqualifying minority class who are unfamiliar with the language, concepts & socialare unfamiliar with the language, concepts & social situations in the aptitude & intelligence testssituations in the aptitude & intelligence tests • Promotion practicesPromotion practices • Conditions of employment – less wages & salaries toConditions of employment – less wages & salaries to women & minorities, providing secretarial or clericalwomen & minorities, providing secretarial or clerical positions only, less benefitspositions only, less benefits
  22. 22. Sexual HarassmentSexual Harassment •Bullying & coercion natureBullying & coercion nature •Widespread discriminationWidespread discrimination •IllegalIllegal Types :Types : •Quid-pro-quoQuid-pro-quo •Hostile work environmentHostile work environment
  23. 23. Dealing with sexual harassmentDealing with sexual harassment Incase of sexual threats or offers fromIncase of sexual threats or offers from supervisors, they should immediately seek legalsupervisors, they should immediately seek legal adviceadvice Employee encountering sexually harassingEmployee encountering sexually harassing behavior from coworkers should make it clear thatbehavior from coworkers should make it clear that behavior is unwantedbehavior is unwanted Should document the behavior & report it to theShould document the behavior & report it to the appropriate person or office in organization.appropriate person or office in organization.

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