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Bitumen Emulsion Manufacturer and Bitumen VG10 VG20 VG40 Supplier

Ebon Industries is a Bitumen Emulsion Manufacturer and Bitumen Supplier of in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, rajasthan, Maharashtra, MP, UP, India. Ebon Industries is especially designed to fulfill the requirements of a specialized road contractor or road and waterproof materials producer for manufacturing volumes of cationic and anionic bitumen emulsion. Ebon is used latest Cutting edge technology for producing bituminous products. Ebon makes road and waterproof materials more flexible at low temperatures and resistant to softening in warm conditions. Ebon Industries Pvt. Ltd. manufactures & supplies various grades of bitumen, special emulsion & applied products strengthening the road engineering industry of India. Ebon manufactures innovative & high quality bituminous products like Bitumen Emulsion, Rapid Setting 1 (RS1), Rapid Setting 2 (RS2), Medium Setting (MS), Slow Setting 1 (SS1), Slow Setting 2 (SS2), Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB), Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB), Bitumen VG10, Bitumen VG 20, Bitumen VG30, Bitumen VG40, Bitumen 90/15, Bitumen 85/25, Bitumen 30/40.

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Bitumen Emulsion Manufacturer and Bitumen VG10 VG20 VG40 Supplier

  1. 1. EBON INDUSTRIES PRIVATE LIMITED Registered office: PIoI No.72/7, Site address Contact 5ecIer’— 2/A, canar. inagr, Gulurat, |ndIr: —3E10O2 PIot No.3'I s/1 , Vudvusa Read, B/ h HP PelroI Pump, Nha, / Hloge Oran, Tn| uI<n: Pranm, District: Subarkunlba, Gujarat, |ndIu~3E3?05 9824847585 I 99742B9I89 mfo@ebonmdustnes com www. ebonindusIrIes. com Iocebook/ ehonrnduslnes nnm. :u. in Smoother! “
  2. 2. E‘ With today's rapidly developing road industry and increasing demand ofgreen technology, the role of maintenance application has become more and more important. The durability of a road mainly depends on the raw materials, weather conditions and traffic condition. The assurance of maintenance quality and the use of proper technology, the efficiency and durability of the road will be greatly enhanced, if is our mission to deliver the right maintenance to our customer and accelerate the road industry development. ,,
  3. 3. Ebon assures that we work hand in hand with leading road consultant 8. constru ‘on autho s to satisfy the bituminous requirement by bringing to your doorstep advanced solution with the pertect balance of cost result ratt @ Products: Eban manufactures & supplies yarious gracles of bitumen emulsion , bitumen and spe ial emulsion & applied products. The company manufactures lnnovativei competitive 8. high quality Bitumen emulsion (R51, R52, MS, ssl, SS2, CRMB, PMB) along with road repairproouct. Bitumen Emulsion manufactured liere is ofCatiariictypes. Usually, it is the type at aggregate and climate that defines what type of Bitumen Emulsion should be used especially in tropical and with extreme climatic conditions countries Cationic Emulsion represents more than 95% of the world consumption today Laboratory: Ebon iias numerous operating faciities and keeps highly qualilied employees, engineers and workers at their RB. D laboratory. Our lab not only tests and research on specific requests/ products from clients but is also engaged in upgrading their knowledgeandteclinologyuscige. 6% Machinery: Machines are fully automatic with imported technology. Sustainability and high quality products with large capacity of storage facility. As per client's requirement can also provide product in bulk as well as indrum. EBON
  4. 4. Bitumen Emulsion Technology Bitumen, as a binder used in a road construction industry, needs to be temparorilyliquefied by any aiithe 3 methods listed below before it can fulfill its rate as a protedetive coating and adhesives for road pavement. Ebon Emulsion Plant Unlike "Hot Mix” or "Cutback”, the bitumen emulsion technology relies on the breaking and setting property of tlie rnicro—size—blturnen particle surrounded by surfactant chemicals. Thus, the application can be applied to cold and wet aggregate surlaces, significantly increasing the etticiency of the maintenance process with great canyenience of Bitumen 1 Heat the bitumen up to a high temperature so as to get a “Hot mix". Dilute the bitumen with solvents Emulsion 2 to form a "Cutback” handling and logistic arrangement ofthe raw material on site Some Main Emulsion Application V V V V Pre—coclt Tack Coat Chip $EUl($urfoce Dressing) Slurry Seal and Micra—Surfacirig Cold Recycling and virgin Cold Mix Open Grade Cold Patching Mix V V t= og seal Prime Coat Soil Stabilization Water Proofing Agent chemicals 3 With aid lrom chemicals and other additives Mix the bitumen with water to form a bitumen emulsion. v >5 A.
  5. 5. Rapid Selling Bitumen Emulsion RS Break is rapid even with coarse aggregate of relatively low surface area. Rapid sefling Emulsion is furthersub divided into RS-1 and RS-2 types. Rapid Setting-1 (RS-'| ) Specially designed product for uniform and strong tack coat in bituminous road construction, suitable tor penetration rnacadam and sand seal. Tuck coat ‘V? Tack coat application is a light spray at bitumen Emulsion, which may be hand or machine sprayed it is used to ensure a good bond between an old and a new bituminous surtacing layer. Normally applied very thin and evenly over the entire surface. Obiectives: Ensure a proper bond between existing surface and the new bituminous course being placed over it. Ensure longevity of the road, it is important that the new bituminous suriace bonds firmly with underneath surface. Coat and band loase mineral particles on the surface of the surface layer. Seal surface pores and make the surface wuler— reslslunl, impart structural stability and prevent lateral movement of layers Assist adhesion between the base and . super imposesurface course. : ‘ Advantages ' / Easy and Uniform spray « water resistant and enhances easy drainage of water. ‘: _ / Prevents lateral movements / Low Temperature Cure with , _ ' at structural layers. High Adhesive Properties. ‘ « Enhances structural strength « Provide an impervious layer to of layers prevent water ingress tram table below the road layers Technical specification Product application Quantity in kg / 'l0sqrn area Property / specification Limits Appnmien Residue on 500 micron is 0.05 . A _ sieve [% by mass), max 1 Normal bituminous surfaces 2 la 2 5 ‘ viscosity @ 50 °c (saybalti, sec 20—l00 2 DW and pungw bi, u,"; m_,5 _ storage stability after 24 hours, % man 2 Surfaces 7 5 '° 3 0 I tainclenresiaue by evaporatiort, % min so 3. Granular suriaces treated " . . . with primer 7-5 ‘° 3-O setting time, minutes ~15 . -I . ' Key Properties as per is 8887 2004 4. Non- bituminous surlaces - aranutar base [not primed) 3 5 ,0 4 O « ' - Granular base [not primed) 3'0 ,0 3'5 . » ‘ g ' W Application rate as per MORTH specilications 2 .4’
  6. 6. Rapid Setting-2 (RS-2) A viscaus liauid ernulsian wllh htgln binder cantent. suitable tar surrace dressing, grouting and penetration rnacadarn aaalicatians Applications Surface Dress: g: it consists of appticatian in one or two coats, eacn consisting layer of bituminous binder sprayed an a previously prepared base, followed by a cover of stone ctiias rolled in ta tarrn a wearing course RS»2 tyae callonlc bitumen emulsion is ideal for surface dressing on the shoulders and for protection of freshly laid base caurse. Rate of application tar twa caat surface dressing as per [MORT&H) clause 5lo.2 is 2er32 kg/ losa. rn. Advantages « Easy Spray / Low Temperature cure / Entiances structural strenatli at layers Technical specifica ion Grouli g: For economical construction at low volume reads, a canibined base and wearing courses can be made by an application of R52 catianic bitumen ernulsian an trie laid and compacted aggregates. Tnis aaaticatian can be carried out even wnen tne stane layer is dump. Sand Seal: A bituminous sand application for exlsfing pavement surface to seal the surface and to tunctian as a light-wearing course. rtiali Adnesive Properlles. Prevents lateral movements at structural layers Provide an impervious layer to prevent water lngress from table below the road layers Limits Residue on boo micron IS sieve 1% by massl, max 0.05 viscasity @ 50 “c (suybalt), sec I00-300 staraae stability atter 24 neurs, °/r max t Bindereresidue by evaporaftan, % min 67 setting tirne, rninutes ~15 Key Properties as per ls 83872004 Product application Applicatian Two coat surface dressing Quantity in kg / tosarn area ZB—Cl2 Appllcation rate as aer MORTH saeciticatians Penetration Macadam: it consists at construction at one or more layers ofcompacied crusned coarse aggregates with alternate aaalicatian at biturriinaus binder and key aggregates to be used as base course on roads, sublect to llle reauirernents of tbe averall pavemenfdesign
  7. 7. Ereak is suff carpet. Advantages V No heating required Medium Selling Bitumen Emulsion MS Maintenance tni This high auality material now makes it possible to fill pat hales or carry but palch repair with open graded cold premix rnade on—site. The methods typically used for the repair at pat hates using asphaltemulsionsarethrow—and—ro| l and iull-depth removal and replacement All of these methods involve placing cold mix in the pot hole with a shovel and compacting with a truck tire, vibratory plate carnpactararsteel wheeled raller The Procedure: Blow ofiwciter and debris from the pothole then cut to rectangular shapes with all sides vertical. Remove loose material, spray tack coal at asphalt ernulsian on all side and bottom. Mix prepared at clean (preferably washed] and dry aggregates with MS catianic bitumen ernulsian. Typically l3.2mrn and i i .2rnrn sized aggregates rnixed in 2:1 MS cationic bitumen emulsion content at approx 7% byweightafaggregates ntly slow that the emulsion can be mixed with coarse aggregate containing a high praiaarrian aft e material. Emulsian used far pat hale repair/ patch work. suitable tar 2ornrn pie-mix works best Mix aggregates ernulsian prpperlytp ensure unitarrn (aallng, till entire erriulsian is braken atter that till the premix immediately into the pat hole slightly higher than the adiaining road surface and roll prpperly. cayer the repaired area with lack coat followed by a 6rnrrl(passirigl aggregate by opening the repaired pothole to traffic as soon as workers and equlpmentareclear. Premix carpet: For ecananiical and fast construction of wearing course, emulsian is used far Preniix carpet. Ministry of Road Transport & Highway [MORT&H) has also recommended use of emulsion for this application in their clause 506 2. A tack coat is applied an the cleaned surface The cold rri prepared and spreadayertheexi ingsurface. V Bonds well, damp surfaces, Low ternperature cure, Stable patches V Environment friendly, Ecorlomlcal and Ease in application V Bond with existing surface and least interference with tratfic Residue an coo rnicran is Steve 1% by mass], rnax viscosity @ 50 °c lsaybalt), sec Einderrrtzsidue by evaporation, “/it rnin setting tinie, rninutes Key Properties as per IS 8887 2004 V Resistance to peel atf under traffic and to stripping by water V Minimal preparation time for surface repair with instant setting and fast development of strength Product application Application 005 Premlx carpet 50300 Application as N30 Pothole repair Quantity in kg /1 asqin area 70—2Cll<g Quantity by weight at aggregate 7% Applicatian rate as per MORTH speciricatians
  8. 8. Slow Seiling Bitumen Emulsion SS Break is surricienriy slow ia allow mixing with aggregaie conraining fine mare. -iai of reiaiiveiy high surface area. siow seffing emulsion is further sub divided inio SS-I andss.2 iypes. , r~ . , Slow Selling-1 (SS-1 ): inyeri emulsion usediorprime coaiand fog spray. Obieclivesz To coal and borid loose mineral pariicles on ihe surface of ihe base course To seal surface pores and make flie surface of ihe base course waier— resisiani. To peneiraie ihe exisiing base course i. e., WMM surface so as io plug ihe capiiiary yoids in ii. To harden and ioughen ihe base course suriace. To assisi adhesion beiweeri ihe base and ihe super imposed surface course in caniuriciiori wiih a rack caai Applicolion Caiianic biiurrieri emulsion fa an absorpiiye surface (like low io medium high Porosiiy wei Mix Macadam or waier Bound Macadam), designed io periefraie, plug ihe capillary voids in ihe surface, band and sfabiiize ihe exisiing suriaceandiopramoie adhesion Advantages w superior peneiraiien inio miniaiure pure or sub bases. / Easy spray, Exferided breaking, Low remperarure curing w High adhesive praperiies fhai binds loose aggregafes fogeiher sirongiy surface and lo prorriole adhesion beiweeri ii and ihe consiiucliori course ihai follows. The pavemeriis haying inadeauaie priming of Wei Mix Macadam/ Wafer Bound Macadam may have lesser life due fa nari—aclii'evernerii oipraperiies, as menironedabove. Perielraie ihe cracks and crevices, impari sirerigih io ihe layers Prevenis permeabiliiy of aimospheric air ia ihe bariom layers Preverifs raveling arid rurring, water resislaril and enhances easy drainage iI" w Compaiible wiih Parilarici cemerii Technical specificalion Producl application Property / specilica ion Limiis Applimfion Quanmy in kg Residue on ao0 micron is sieve O 05 / ‘°5°I'" ‘"9" (% by mnsslr max ‘ Prime caai siorage siabiiiry aner 2A hours, % max 2 2 slow iwrosiir a io 9 —MEdIUm parosiiy 9 ,0 ,2 viscasiiy @ 25 °<: (sayboiii, sec 20-100 -High porasiiy 12 ,0 ,5 amdercresidue by evaporaiian, % min 50 Fog may 54 0 Z"}‘gg"g'Cl°/ “ by "°‘""“"l Applicoiion role as per MORTH speciiicaiions Ai 250 OC Af 225 CC 7055 Af 3i 5 0c 3015 Key Properlies as per is any 2004
  9. 9. Slow Selling-2 (SS-2) Specially designed emulsian for prime coal. Suiiable for slurry seal, premix seal coal and fog spray Appl icalion Prime Coal: Appllcalion oi Biiumen Emulsion ssc2 lo an absoroiive surlace, designed io peneiraie, bond and slalailize iliis exisiing suriace and lo promoie adhesion beiweeri ii and ihe consiruciion course ihai follows Recommended raie ofapplicalion is o lo 9 kg per i 0 sq, m Fog Seall Crack Seal: Lighfapplicafian of Biiumen Emulsion SS—2 la an exisiing pavemeni as a seal fa inhibii raveling, oria sealihe siiriace, arbaih. Also used loflll and seal small cracks in exisiing payemenis. rag seal helps io reiuyenaie an old oxidized road surface, ihus exiending iis lire. Recommended raie oi appiicaiion is 5 io 10 kg perlOsq, m Slurry Seal: Ii is a surface iieoimeril Premix Seal: Premix is a mixluie oi for siruciuraily sound roads wliere ihe Fine aggregaie, Forllarid cemeni filler. wearing course has deierioraied. bifumeri emulsions and addiiiorial Slurry seals are mlxlures of fine wafer. They may be used fa seal wide . . oggregaie, Parflarid cemeni filler, cracks, fill voids and minor 4 _ biiumen emulsions and addiiional depressions. Recommended rare oi , "~ waier. when freshly mixed, ihey have appiicaiion isl0ioi2 kg perlOsq. m. ihick consisiericy& can be sprayed lo a ihickness of i5 — 5 mm. They may be used lo seal cracks, arresi freiling and rill voids and minor depressions. Recommended raie of appiicaiion is loioi2kgperl0sa. m. Advunluges v Good peneiraiion inio miniafure « Penelraie ihe cracks and crevices, pores of sub bases, Easy spray, impari sirengih io ihe layers Exiended breaking I »/ Low iemperaiure curing, High « Preveriis permeabiliiy of adhesive propenies, Bonds well ia airriospheric air io ihe boiiom ‘ V: cool, damp subsiraies/ suriaces layers . . ,1 nu . er. . . 1-. .. s _ , . ~ _ V Binds loose aggregaies iogeiher / Prevenis raveling and ruiiing, slrongly, Preverils Iaieral rnovernerii wafer resisiani and enhances __ oi siruciiiral layers easy drainage oi waier , ' Technical specilicalion Producl appiicaiion Pro e / s at culion L’ ' r - Q“""lllY 3" k9 P "Y P "M5 APP"‘°"°" / losam area Residue on .500 micron IS sieve(% by mass] 0.05 ” Vlscosily @ 50 °C isaybelii, sec 304 50 '’’'’"e ‘°°‘ 6 '° 9 siorage siabiliiy aner 24 hours, E/ D max 2 F°9 ‘”'‘’V 5'l O Binderrresidue by evaooraiion, =/ . min o0 5”” 5"‘ lo '° ‘Q Semng We mmmes 40 Prernix seal coai ioio 12 KEY Pmpemes as W IS 8887 mm Appllcuilori rain as poi MORTH speciricaiions
  10. 10. e Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB) _ CRMB is special type oraituinen whose properties have been improved by the addition of crumb rubber , . ‘ and special types of addr 'ves like hydrocarbon materials, resins etc. Thus altering the physical properties of bitumen makes it more resistant to temperature variations, weather and high trafti: loads, ‘ leading to enhanced pavement life, reduced inaii-nance cast and excellent driving cornton. Application: CRMB can be used for wearing courses at heavy trafficked roads, busy inleresciians, bridge decks and round abouts for increased life of the surting Reducing trattic noise Bus by lane water prooting concrete , - _ H structure, Sand asphalt Heaving traffic lane, Slopes, roundabouts, iunciions industrial and niuitirnodei oiatlorm Providing high skid resistance tthin aveiioy chip seaii Porous asphalt and acoustic thin overioy in stress . Absorbmg Membrane inieriayer (SAMi] For high rainfall regions Airport i runways and parking apron Parking place otbuses and trucks ' I‘ 1 r i . 1 , ‘ Advantages r- ' A I a Lower susceptibility to doity as .2 Higher resistance to deformation at seasonal temperature variations elevated pavement temperature . ' _‘ * ~' I y « A « Better edge resistance properties, « Better water resistance, Prevents ‘ " i 4 » adhesion between aggregate & rutting, Resistance to creep 8. higher 4 e , binder ensure longer lite, strength indirect tensiie strengthen surtace J 8i stability course i i w overoii improved pertormance in V Higher tatigue lite oi mixes due to ‘ ‘ — - 5 extreme climate condition & under high elastic recovery, Delay of i . ‘ - heavy troitic condition cracking is retiective cracking r _ - cmaaa. » recommended tor hotciimate areas ‘ ~ - ‘ CRMB55: recommended for rrtoderciteciimaieareas I -2 CRMB50: recommended iorcaid ciimateareas . Technical spe cation < »_ ' Property / specification CRMB 5o CRMB 55 CRMI so Method specification Penetration at zsic <70 <50 <50 is im we Mi, nng/ Coating l7D—l85°C sottening point, (R8rE], C Min so 55 so is izosisis “mg 159,] 70°C Eiostic recovery ot hail thread in g f ductiiorneter at 15°C % Min. 5° 5° 5° ‘5 '54“ M‘ c§r“n'S2'c? i%f. ’ CV5’ 140 C Fiosh poiril°C Min no 270 no is nos isio End 0, mmpac, ,°, , Hon WC Separation ditterence in soltening point, t R 5. B]”C Max. 4 4 4 ‘3 '54” 7”“ Thin Film oven TestlTFOT] on residue a Reduction in penetration at residue at 25°C Max. 6° 5° 60 ‘S W W a. increase in sottening point, “C Max 7 6 5 ,3 W5 W3 ‘ . c. Elastic recovery at hait thread in ductiiomeiei at 25°C, % Min 35 35 35 is ism 2004 t<ey Properties as pei is I546? 2004 EBON
  11. 11. rum Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) spec 'cations designed tor pavement applications. Heavy traffic intensity in terms or commercial vehicles, overloading or trucks and signiriciant variations in daily and seasonal temperature or the pavement have been responsible ror early development or distress symptoms like raveling, undulations, rutting, cracking, bleeding, shaving and potholing orbituminous surraces. Objectives: iii The polymer dosages and inix designs or the binder are selected to ensure optimum pertormonce to the climate and trattic conditions that prevail on a particular protect izi Extensive research has shown that the use at pertormance ospholts using polymer moditi-ed bitumen binders signiticontly increases stability, strength, Ol'lil—ruHlrig properties and longer iiierspari, as demanded by the industry to nieet today‘s and tonioiiow‘s trattic conditions |3l stirring at circulation ot storage tank be-tote usage eiisuies conipiete iV0mOgClOli/ Gfld| Ct7pCtOIl. ltCdlSillbuil0tilfiititiik Applications Faiyriier/ /iodiiled Bitumen can be used in asphalt mix designs which result in the manutacture otcohesive asphalt mix with good elasticity suitable tor type or tiattic, special attention to be given to the temperature while monutactui ing, lying and copoction are pertormed Advantages I Durable surtoce characteristics, Excellent uFlii—strlpplrig propeities I ttigh coliesivencess, ttigh stitrness modulus leading to greater resistance to perriiarierit detorrnalion, lrnpioved tatigue resistance than increased resistaiice to ietieciive cracks Technical specification Property / spec PMB 120 PM! 70 mil do Method Penetration at 25’C 90450 50420 3050 is im iris soitening point, [R&B), C Min 50 55 (,0 is l? nS int Elastic recovery or hair thread in ductilometer at i5”C % Min. 7° 7° 7° ‘” ‘W W‘ Elosh pointic Min. 220 no no is int iris separation ditterence in soltening pom ( R & Em Max 3 3 3 is isssz zoos thin Flim oven Tesi(TFOT) on residue a. Reduction in penetration at residue at 25°C Max 35 35 35 ‘S W3 M b increase in sattening point, ’C Max 7 6 5 ,5,“ M c. Elastic recovery oi halt thread in duciilometer at 75‘C, °/ ri Min 50 5g 50 lSl5A4t1 mm t<ey Pioperties as per is i54éZ 2004 Storage, Health and Safety - ‘ Strlrigelit treating and handling piocedures must be followed atolltinies as pei manutocturer guideline iieot as hot bitumen sei ious risk otbuins. Follow personal hygiene oiid protection pioceduiesat all times PMB 120: recommended for cold climate aieas PMB 70: recommended for modeiaie climate areas PMB 40: recommended iar hot climate aieas
  12. 12. Bitumen grades VG-I 0, VG-20, VG—30, VG-40 Bitumen is o therrnapiastic material and its stiffness is dependent on temperature. The ternperaturecvs-stiffness relationship of bitumen is dependentonthesourceofcrude oilortdthemethcidofrefining, The Bureau of Indian Standards tats) introduced paving grade bitumen specifications [lS- 737 i950) for the first time in the year i950 and classiiled it on penetration. The specifications were revised in the years l9a2 and i992 Toirnprove the quality atlaitumen, BlS revised | Se73c i992 specifications based on Viscosity (viscosity at o0°cl in July 200a. As per these spec" ications, there are tour grades vol 0, vs. 20, VG-30 & VG-40 A few qualification lesls like specific gravity, water content, ductility, loss on heating is Farass breaking point were removed tram l5: 73. W92 specifications as these tests do nothaveanyrelationship either with the quality or performance of the product. The Penetration grades have been replaced by viscosity grade Bitumen. According to viscosity Different Grades of Bitumen marketed by Indian Oil : VG-I0 BITUMEN: It is widely used in spraying applications such as surfocearessing and pavinginverycold cllmoteinlieu of old be/ l 00 Penetration grade. It is also used to manuiacture Bitumen Emulsion and Modified Bitumenproducts. VG-20 BITUMEN: It is used for paying in cold climate 8i high altitude regions VG-30 HITUMEN: it is primarily used to construct extra heavy duty Bitumen pavements that need to endure substantial trafilc loads. it can be used in lieu of 60/70 Penetration grade. (degree offluidity) grading, higher thegrade, stitfertheBitumerl. Tests are conducted at 60°C and i35°C, which represent the temperature of road suriace during summer (hot climate, similar to northern parts of indie) and mixing temperature respectively. The penetration at 25"C, which is annual average pavement temperature, is also retained VG-I0 BITUMEN: It is used in highly stressed areas such as intersections, near toll booths and truck parking lots in lieu of old 30/40 Penetration grade. Due to its higher viscosity, stitter. Bitumen mixes can be produced to improve resistance to shaving and other problems associated with higher temperature and heavy tratftcloads. Table: Viscosity Grade: (VG) BITUMEN SPECIFICATION AS PER IS 73: 2006 Characteristics Absolute viscosity, 60°C, poises, min Kinematic viscosity, l35"C, csr, rnin Flash point, C, rnin solubility in trichloroethyiene, % rnin Penetration at 25°C softening point, C, rnin Tests on residue trom thin film over test/ RTFOT i viscosity ratio at we, max ii. Ductility at 25°C, cm, min, after thin tilm over test VG-to VG-20 VG-30 VG-40 500 i600 2400 3200 250 300 350 400 220 220 220 220 99 0 99 0 99 0 99 0 80~'l 00 60-80 5o—7o 40-60 40 45 47 50 4.0 4 0 4.0 4.0 75 50 40 25 AL ll -. —i. rr-ittt, -ltci-te. mun. .n. ... .1.ite. II in II. t. ..tiic. i-tie llllll‘hIiK= }~-III|5Nl= mIL: IlW4=l~‘l: fl:IiNgxaliilllllllllflhd, ‘I. l