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Bradley Voytek - Cognitive Networks

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Bradley Voytek - Cognitive Networks

In the blink of an eye—less than half a second—dynamic neuronal networks in our brains process, maintain, and act upon an abundance of information. In my research I seek to construct an understanding, from a network perspective, of cognition built upon first principles of neurophysiology and computational models. To do this I incorporate a variety of methods and tools in my research, including intracranial electrophysiological recordings from humans, scalp electroencephalography from healthy younger and older adults, behavioral and neuroimaging studies involving patients with focal brain lesions, data-mining of large-scale databases, and brain-computer interfacing. Specifically my research program aims to answer three questions: 1) What role does the prefrontal cortex play in shaping and coordinating network activity during complex cognition and executive functioning? 2) Under what circumstances is this network altered or disrupted and what are the consequences of such disruption? And, 3) What are the principles that allow for network communication in noisy internal and external environments? My research addresses these questions across multiple scales ranging from basic neurophysiology to population-wide analyses of cognitive data collected from more than 400,000 participants. My goal is to take cognitive science outside of the laboratory and "into the wild" using distributed data collection and large-scale data analysis to help bridge psychology and basic physiology.

In the blink of an eye—less than half a second—dynamic neuronal networks in our brains process, maintain, and act upon an abundance of information. In my research I seek to construct an understanding, from a network perspective, of cognition built upon first principles of neurophysiology and computational models. To do this I incorporate a variety of methods and tools in my research, including intracranial electrophysiological recordings from humans, scalp electroencephalography from healthy younger and older adults, behavioral and neuroimaging studies involving patients with focal brain lesions, data-mining of large-scale databases, and brain-computer interfacing. Specifically my research program aims to answer three questions: 1) What role does the prefrontal cortex play in shaping and coordinating network activity during complex cognition and executive functioning? 2) Under what circumstances is this network altered or disrupted and what are the consequences of such disruption? And, 3) What are the principles that allow for network communication in noisy internal and external environments? My research addresses these questions across multiple scales ranging from basic neurophysiology to population-wide analyses of cognitive data collected from more than 400,000 participants. My goal is to take cognitive science outside of the laboratory and "into the wild" using distributed data collection and large-scale data analysis to help bridge psychology and basic physiology.

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Bradley Voytek - Cognitive Networks

  1. 1. Cognitive Networks: From Neural to National Assemblies Bradley Voytek, PhD UCSF Department of Neurology bradley.voytek@gmail.com http://ketyov.com
  2. 2. Frontal Cognitive Networks 1. Frontal-dependent working memory networks 2. Decision making and frontal network dynamics 3. Neurophysiology of executive function in aging
  3. 3. Voytek & Voytek, J Neurosci Methods 2012
  4. 4. Prefrontal Working Memory Network 1. Prefrontal lesions impair “top-down” control 2. Dynamic network reorganization 3. Rapid information (re)routing
  5. 5. Visual Working Memory Task c.f.: Vogel & Machizawa, Nature 2004
  6. 6. Brain and Behavior - Causal Relations Source: Damasio et al., Science 1994
  7. 7. Frontal Lobe Lesions Source: Voytek & Knight, PNAS 2010
  8. 8. Lateralized Presentation Non-match Match (1080-2580 ms) y s) la 0 m de 08 + test 1 80- (1 + + (0-180 ms) memory e + tim Ipsilesional Contralesional Source: Voytek & Knight, PNAS 2010
  9. 9. Working Memory Deficits Non-match Match 3.0 ** ipsi- (1080-2580 ms) y s) la 0 m de 08 + test 0- 1 contra- accuracy (d') 8 (1 accuracy (d') + + (0-180 ms) memory e + tim 2.5 * * * 2.0 Control PFC BG Ipsilesional Contralesional L / R Source: Voytek & Knight, PNAS 2010
  10. 10. EEG
  11. 11. Top-Down Network Dysfunction Controls Patients 0.6 µV 0.4 µV -0.6 µV -0.4 µV Posterior Hemispheric Posterior Hemispheric Alpha Differences Alpha Differences P = 0.15 P = 0.045 Source: Voytek & Knight, PNAS 2010
  12. 12. Visual Working Memory Maintenance Source: Vogel & Machizawa, Nature 2004
  13. 13. Ipsilesional Contralesional -4 * -4 CDA amplitude (μV) CDA amplitude (μV) -2 -2 PFC 0 0 2 2 300 900 300 900 -4 -4 CDA amplitude (μV) CDA amplitude (μV) -2 -2 BG 0 0 2 2 stimulus 300 900 stimulus 300 900 onset time (ms) onset time (ms)
  14. 14. Why aren’t Deficits Complete? Source: Voytek, et al., Neuron 2010
  15. 15. Dynamic Network Compensation Source: Voytek, et al., Neuron 2010 c.f.: Voytek, et al., PLoS ONE 2012
  16. 16. Prefrontal Working Memory Network 1. Prefrontal lesions impair “top-down” control 2. Dynamic network reorganization 3. Rapid information (re)routing
  17. 17. Frontal Cortical Network Coordination 1. Frontal networks in cognitive control 2. Frontal networks are dynamic 3. Oscillatory coupling subserves network activity
  18. 18. Electrocorticography
  19. 19. Electrocorticography WARNING GRAPHIC
  20. 20. Electrocorticography
  21. 21. Why ECoG? Source: Voytek, et al., J Cogn Neurosci 2010
  22. 22. Frequency Decomposition
  23. 23. Neurophysiology of Communication c.f.: work by Miller EK; Fries; Singer; etc.
  24. 24. Coherence
  25. 25. Coherence
  26. 26. Communication through Coherence source: Fries, Trends Cogn Sci 2005 c.f.: Voytek, et al., NeuroImage 2012
  27. 27. Spectral Topography Source: Voytek, et al., Front Hum Neurosci 2010
  28. 28. Frontal Theta/Gamma Coupling Source: Voytek, et al., Front Hum Neurosci 2010 c.f.: Canolty, et al., Science 2006
  29. 29. Visual Alpha/Gamma Coupling Source: Voytek, et al., Front Hum Neurosci 2010
  30. 30. Watrous et al., Nat Neurosci 2013
  31. 31. Source: Voytek, et al., in revision
  32. 32. Rostro-caudal Frontal Organization Source: Badre & D’Esposito, Nat Rev Neurosci 2009
  33. 33. Phase/Amplitude Coupling Networks Source: Voytek, et al., in revision
  34. 34. PFC Phase/Amplitude Coupling Source: Voytek, et al., in revision
  35. 35. Phase/Amplitude Coupling Networks Source: Voytek, et al., in revision
  36. 36. “Cognitive” Brain Computer Interface Source: Voytek, in progress c.f.: work by Ro; Thut; Herrmann; etc.
  37. 37. Frontal Network Coordination 1. Frontal networks in cognitive control 2. Frontal networks are dynamic 3. Oscillatory coupling subserves network activity
  38. 38. Aging and Cognition 1. Behavioral noise increases in aging 2. Neural noise increases in aging 3. Altered network communication in aging
  39. 39. Age and Response Time Source: Voytek & Gazzaley, in preparation
  40. 40. Theories of Cognitive Aging Frontal Atrophy Neural Noise Source: Andrews-Hanna et al., Neuron 2007
  41. 41. Neural Noise Hypothesis Source: Voytek, et al., under review
  42. 42. Aging Increases Neural Noise Source: Voytek, et al., under review
  43. 43. Aging Increases Neural Noise Source: Voytek, et al., under review
  44. 44. Aging Decreases PAC Source: Voytek, et al., under review
  45. 45. Aging and Cognition 1. Behavioral noise increases in aging 2. Neural noise increases in aging 3. Altered network communication in aging
  46. 46. Where We Are Now 1. Frontal networks critical (causal) in cognition 2. Rapid network plasticity 3. Oscillatory mechanisms subserve frontal control 4. Frontal involvement in aging and neural noise
  47. 47. Age and Response Time Source: Voytek & Gazzaley, in preparation
  48. 48. Flanker Interference Source: lumosity.com
  49. 49. Age, Distractibility, & Practice Source: Voytek & Gazzaley, in preparation
  50. 50. n-back Working Memory Source: lumosity.com
  51. 51. 50 States 267,776 participants 16,288 participants IQ Source: Voytek & Gazzaley, submitted
  52. 52. 51 Countries 109,907 participants 9,985 participants IQ Source: Voytek & Gazzaley, submitted
  53. 53. Future Directions
  54. 54. Support National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke NS021135 National Institute of General Medical Sciences Institutional Research and Career Development Award (IRACDA) UCSF Information Technology Innovation Award The Feldman Family Foundation University of California President's Postdoctoral Fellowship Program Society for Neuroscience - Neuroscience Scholars Program
  55. 55. Cognitive Networks: From Neural to National Assemblies Bradley Voytek, PhD UCSF Department of Neurology bradley.voytek@gmail.com http://ketyov.com

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