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PREVALENT RURAL DISTRIBUTION
Rural distribution can be categorized in to two models
Smaller companies adopt wholesale activation route.
Bigger and sizeable companies adopt the retail route.
RURAL DISTRIBUTION MODEL
Stockists from nearby urban markets cover four to five
rural markets per day.
And they cover around 60-70 km per day to reach rural
They operate mostly on a cash basis .
They provide better control over distribution.
Gets stock from super stockists appointed in the district.
Super stockists cover 10-15 sub-stockists in the district.
The sub-stockist covers all the outlets in his rural market
like the regular stockists,by extending credit and
DISTRIBUTION MODELS OF
The rural distribution models of all FMCG
co’s can be divided in to two models.
Distribution model 1(DM1)
Distribution model 2 (DM 2)
C & FA
Distribution model 1
In Distribution Model 1 company appoints a sub-
distributor to penetrate deeper into rural areas up to
the 5000 population villages.
The rural distribution services the wholesale market
in the rural areas.
The wholesaler becomes important because of the
assortment that he keeps and the volume that he
generates and the customers to whom he caters.
DM1 has a larger number of points appointed in the
DISTRIBUTION MODEL 2
In DM 2 ,mostly co’s with a limited no of SKU’s and
high sales volume adopt this model.
This is the simplest model compared to DM1.
This model minimizes distribution costs, allowing the
co’s to offer better margins to the distributors and
other channel members to push the sales.
Wholesale locations work as feeder markets from
where the co’s caters to the requirements of nearby
Distributors sell large volumes and earn good money
in addition to regular margins.
Retailer( local) Retailer( rural)
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DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF
DURABLE GOODS COMPANIES
Durables are purchased largely from small &
Number of locations for distribution is a few
These are managed by a few channel partners.
Examples of Good durable goods company are:
PHILIPS & LG
LG DISTRIBUTION MODEL
C & F Agents
New Rural District Office
Exclusive Dealers Multiple Dealers
LG’S DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY
Introduced Company’s Rural Office at the
Separate stocking point (Warehouse) to
manage logistics of achieving deeper market.
Appointed Dealers & Exclusive dealers.
C & F agent act as large distributor. They do
not own goods but provide logistical support.
Urban Distributor Rural Stockist
PHILIPS DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY
Each depot cater at least 1 state.
Divided the pops(electrical wholesale outlets)
Distribution network covers 15000-20000
EMERGING DISTRIBUTION MODELS
SHG distribution model
Agriculture input dealers
SHG DISTRIBUTION MODEL
SHG is a group of 10-15 women organized by
government bodies or NGOs, who come together to
form a mutual thrift group, to inculcate savings
discipline and boost feelings of self worth among
Members of SHGs get matching loans from rural banks
to set up income generating enterprises.
There are over 10 lakh SHGs across India.
HINDUSTAN LEVER’S PROJECT
Interested women from SHGs were appointed as
shakti entrepreneurs; they borrow money from
their group corpus and provide services to 6-10
villages, covering a population of 6,000-10,000.
They receive stock from HLL rural distributors and
make sales to both retailers and direct
consumers in villages.
This increased penetration into the rural market
for HLL and the ability to reach out to small
villages that are often left out of the distribution
HINDUSTAN LEVER’S PROJECT
HLL earlier had only 70,000 villages in its ambit,
but after the launch of project shakti this number
has more than double.
Small villages below 2000 population size are most
common in rural areas. Project shakti was able to
succeed in penetrating into small villages.
The biggest beneficiaries of this project are the
shakti entrepreneurs, who in some cases have
been able to augment their incomes up to Rs.
THE HUB-AND-SPOKE SYSTEM
PEPSI AND COKE: PIONEERS OF
THE HUB-AND-SPOKE MODEL
Since soft drinks are sold in returnable glass
bottles, one cannot sell through the conventional
FMCG wholesale channel, to drive availability in
Therefore, Pepsi, has chosen a hub-and-spoke
distribution format. The spoke is typically closest
to the retail outlets and is serviced by a hub
distributers, who is supplied directly from the
manufacturing plant or the companies
This format allows for large loads travelling longer
distance and short loads doing short distances,
an arrangement that is cost effective.
Two or more companies come together to form a
syndicated trading organization, to jointly
distribute a collective group of household
products in rural markets by sharing distribution
Cavinkare used the distribution network of
Amrutanjan pain balm, for its Chik shampoo.
PROBLEMS WITH THE SYNDICATED
MODEL OF DISTRIBUTION
• Markets for coverage of two companies is
• Terms of payments are different.
• As the salesman of only one company
accompanies the van, he pushes his own products
and is lax about booking orders for the other
• The salesman does not make serious efforts to
collect payments for the other company.
NYKS HAAT DISTRIBUTION MODEL
Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan, a central
government organization, was well established to
promote and develop cultural and sports activities
in rural India. It has regional office in all states
and local offices in most districts.
NYKS hires young people as National Service
Volunteers (NSV) on a fixed term, 2 years contract
and pays a monthly stipend of Rs. 2,000. NSVs are
graduates, in the 18-35 age group and belong to a
NSVs retire at the end of 2 years to make way for a
PROJECT DISHA: A NEW LOW-COST
LAST MILE DISTRIBUTION MODEL
Colgate used ex-volunteers/youth club members
to promote and sell company brands in rural
Each ex-volunteers was equipped with branded
bicycles, umbrellas, storage boxes, T-shirts and
As against a typical van operation cost Rs.
3000/day, the volunteer model costs the company
less than that per month.
In India there are over 12,000 petrol pumps spread
across the country, 60% of which are located on
highways close to villages.
These pumps, in addition to selling petroleum
products, have also started selling consumables
like food products and toiletres.
Oil companies are exploring the possibility of
selling agri inputs, LPG cylinders and other
rural-based items from these outlets.
AGRICULTURAL INPUT DEALERS
There are about 2,62,000 fertilizer dealers across
the country. Fertilizer companies have retail
outlets within a range of 5 Km. of any village.
Marketers could explore the possibility of
partnering them and utilizing their
infrastructure for selling products.
Hero Honda Motors has 400 dealers all over
the country. The company has reported
the emergency of an unofficial channel of
distribution-village mechanics, local real
estate agents and shopkeepers.
These people take the motorcycles, usually
in twos and threes, from company dealers
after providing adequate security deposits
and display them outside their premises
for closing the sale.