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Spontaneous behavior in animals

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Or: Why you don't want self-driving cars to be autonomous vehicles

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Spontaneous behavior in animals

  1. 1. Björn Brembs Universität Regensburg http://brembs.net @brembs
  2. 2. from αὐτός (autós, “self”) + νόμος (nómos, “law”)
  3. 3. Source: Ken Catania
  4. 4. Artist: Dave McKean
  5. 5. I. Steymans
  6. 6. Sensory Input
  7. 7. Motor Output Sensory Input
  8. 8. Under carefully controlled experimental circumstances, an animal will behave as it damn well pleases.
  9. 9. Behavioral variability in a constant stimulus situation:
  10. 10. Decisions or just noise in complex stimulus-response systems?
  11. 11. Maye et al. (2007) PLoS One nonlinearity correlation Nonlinear (choice) Linear/stochastic (noise)
  12. 12. Maye et al. (2007) PLoS One   .1,1 11 nisss o i o i o i o i  
  13. 13. all successful practical uses of probabilities originate in quantum fluctuations Andreas Albrecht and Daniel Phillips (2012): Origin of probabilities and their application to the multiverse. arXiv:1212.0953 [gr-qc]
  14. 14. Source: This is Spinal Tap
  15. 15. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  16. 16. Torque HeatColors operant classical self world
  17. 17. > 530 Mya CREB CRE Long- term memory cAMP PKA Cytoplasm Nucleus Nt DNA rutabaga Modified from: "Comparative psychology: Evolution and development of behavior" (2nd Edition, Psychology Press, 2008)
  18. 18. Brembs & Plendl (2008) Torque HeatColors Torque Heat rut-AC dependent Synaptic Plasticity Protein Kinase C world self rut2080 wtb rut2080 wtb HS noHS PKCi PKCi HS noHS PKCi PKCi
  19. 19. Torque HeatColors Torque Heat world self self WT FoxP RNAi ctrl.
  20. 20. > 530 Mya Aplysia (Mollusks) Drosophila (Arthropods) Humans/mice/birds (Chordates) ??? cAMP PKA Cytoplasm Nucleus Nt DNA Type II cyclase PKC FoxP
  21. 21. Brembs (2009) Curr Biol Colomb & Brembs (2010) Commun Integr Biol Brembs (2010) Proc Roy Soc Brembs (2011) Behav Proc
  22. 22. Cornelia Bargmann 302 neurons, connectome Gordus et al. 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.018
  23. 23. Gordus et al. 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.018
  24. 24. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  25. 25. Marcus Raichle fMRI
  26. 26. The limiting factor in the evolution of brain size was energy supply 40
  27. 27. 41 The additional energy burden associated with […] the environment may be as little as .5-1.0% of the total energy budget. Marcus Raichle (2006): Science 314, p1249
  28. 28. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  29. 29. Why have more than one learning system?
  30. 30. Brembs & Heisenberg (2000) L & M
  31. 31. activepassive Brembs & Heisenberg (2000) Composite ‘operant’ ‘classical’
  32. 32. Training Test composite: turning + color turning
  33. 33. Training Test composite: turning + color turning WT WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test
  34. 34. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test
  35. 35. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min MB Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test habit formation
  36. 36. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min FoxP 16min Impaired OK Impaired Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test
  37. 37. Training Test composite: turning + color turning color WT 8min WT 16min MB 8min Impaired OK OK Self-Learning Test WT 8min WT 16min MB 8min OK Impaired Impaired World-Learning Test Brembs, 2009 MB247 or 17D driving TNT
  38. 38. Ongoing activity modulated by stimuli
  39. 39. Phototaxis: Gáspár Jékely Polychaete: Platynereis dumerilii Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
  40. 40. Light Pressure Gravity benthic pelagic Temperature Salinity Chemicals
  41. 41. G Jékely et al. Nature 456, 395-399 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07590
  42. 42. G Jékely et al. Nature 456, 395-399 (2008) doi:10.1038/nature07590
  43. 43. FVRIamide acTub
  44. 44. Jonathan Wolpaw
  45. 45. Wolpaw TINS (1997) + later data
  46. 46. Wolpaw et al, 1984&94; Carp et al, 2006; Wolf et al, 1995

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