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Quality managment

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Quality managment

  2. 2. Determinants for Quality Four factors determine the long-run quality level of a firm’s purchased materials: • Appropriate specifications for quality requirements • Selection of right suppliers • Realistic understanding with suppliers of quality requirements and creation of the motivation to perform accordingly. • Monitoring of suppliers’ quality/cost performance
  3. 3. Purchasing and quality control For every transaction between customer and supplier, they need to agree on:  the basic requirements of the transaction.  the way in which the requirements are to be realized.  how to check that the requirements are (being) fulfilled.  the measures to be taken when the requirements/expectations are not met.
  4. 4. Quality, Suitability and Reliability What is Quality: Quality in the simplest sense, refers to the ability of the supplier to provide goods and services in conformance with specifications. Or performs in actual use to the expectations of the original requisitioner, regardless of conformance with specificatiions. We speak of a quality product or quality service when both supplier and customer agree on requirements and these requirements are met. Suitability: Suitability refers to the ability of a material, good, or service to meet the intended functional use. In a pure sense, suitability ignores the commercial considerations and refers to fitness for use. Reliability: Reliability is the mathematical probability that a product will function for a stipulated period of time. From procurement stand point, Penalties or premiums may be assessed for variation from design standard depending on the expected reliability impact.
  5. 5. Quality Dimensions Close cooperation between buying and selling organizations can overcome quality problems which stem from goods and services supplied by suppliers. Quality is a complex term, has at least 8 dimensions. 1. Performance: the primary function of the product or service. 2. Features: the requirements. 3. Reliability : the probability of failure within a specified time period. 4. Durability. The life expectancy. 5. Conformance: The meeting of specifications. 6. Serviceability: The maintainability and ease of fixing. 7. Aesthetics: The look, smell, feel and sound. 8. Perceived quality: The image in the eyes of the customer. From a procurement point of view, the ninth dimension should be “procurability” – the short – and long-term availability on the market at reasonable prices and subject to continuing
  6. 6. The cost of quality 30 to 40 per cent of final product cost may be attributable to quality. 1) Prevention costs - the costs of preventing quality errors 2) Assessment costs - the costs related to the timely recognition of quality errors 3) Correction costs - the cost that result from (rectifying) mistakes  Internal error costs: result from mistakes noticed in time  External error costs: are result of flaws identified by the customer
  7. 7. Quality Assurance Quality assurance concerns keeping methods and procedures of quality control up to date The purpose of supplier quality assurance is improvement of supplier quality in the broadest sense, including environmental and sustainability aspects. Quality assurance group plays a key role in supplier certification. SUPPLIER CERTIFICATION: Quality Assurance survey (supplier’s equipment, facilities , personnel , systems) on the supplier’s premises - to ensure that the supplier is capable of meeting the specifications and quality standards required Methods for assessing a supplier’s capabilities: Product audit Provides an image of the degree in which a company succeeds in making everything run perfectly by inspecting final products. Process audit A systematic investigation of the extent to which the (technical) processes are capable of meeting the standards. Systems audit Compares the quality system to external standards (e.g. ISO 9000)
  8. 8. Assessing supplier quality Standard Title ISO 9000 Guidelines for selection and application of ISO 9000 through 9004 ISO 9001 Requirements concerning quality control in purchasing, development, production and sales ISO 9002 Requirements concerning quality control in purchasing, production and sales ISO 9003 Requirements concerning quality control of final inspection and testing ISO 9004 Guidelines for the organization of a quality system The ISO 9000 series of quality assurance standards
  9. 9. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) Total quality management --- a philosophy and system of management focussed on customer (internal or external) satisfaction. . customer can be and is any one in the supply chain who receives materials from a previous step in the chain. Four important features of TQM are: • Quality must be integral throughout the organization’s activities with committed and involved management. • There must be employee commitment and empowerment to continuous improvement supported by performance measures.. • The goal of customer satisfaction and the systematic and continuous research process related to customer satisfaction, drives TQM systems. • Suppliers are partners in the TQM process. For TQM to work, all stages in the production process must conform to specifications that are driven by the needs and wants of the end customers. All processes, those of the buyer and the suppliers, must be in control and possess minimal variation to reduce time and expense of inspection. TQM involves the use of tools, such as Continuous Improvement, quality function deployment (QFD) and statistical process control, to achieve performance improvements.
  10. 10. Continuous Improvement Continuous improvement, sometimes called by its Japanese name, kaizen, refers to the relentless pursuit of product and process improvement through a series of small, progressive steps. Continuous improvement should follow a well-defined and structured approach and incorporate problem-solving tools such as Pareto charts—used to distinquish between criticakl and trivial problems Cause and effect diagrams(fish bone diagram)----possible causes of a problem through brain storming to identify cause of defects Process flow charts---for identifying bottlenecks and non value added activities. Run pilots-to idntify whether process is subject to change or behaves consistently over time Frequency histograms-shows the istribution of some variables that is thought to be important Scatter diagrams----show correlations between two variables typically the problem and potential cause
  11. 11. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) The four integrated stages of the QFD process are: Product planning, to determine design requirements, Parts deployment, to determine parts characteristics. Process planning, to determine manufacturing requirements. Production planning, to determine production requirements. Using the QFD methodology, buyer and supplier integration into the process can benefit the organization by (1) reducing or eliminating engineering changes during product development (2) reducing product development cycle time, ( 3) reducing start-up cycle time, (4) minimizing product failures and repair costs over the product life and (5) creating product uniformity and reliability during production.
  12. 12. Quality Control: Quality control: making sure that the requirements are met and being able to demonstrate this objectively. Process Control: Statistical quality control. Process capability refers to the ability of the process to meet specifications consistently. Statistical process control (SPC) is a technique that involves testing a random sample of output from a process in order to detect if non- randum changes in the process are occurring. Control charts-----upper and lower limits of process variable help in monitoring the process Six sigma Sampling. Sequential Sampling. .
  13. 13. Inspection and Testing Inspection and testing ----- done at two different stages in the acquisition process. 1, Before commitment is made to a supplier, Testing and Samples: Use of samples to test for intended purpose and Laboratory Tests to ascertain conform ation to specific values of parameters. 2. After a purchase commitment has been made, inspection may be required to ensure that the items delivered conform to the original description. The type of inspection, its frequency and its thoroughness vary with circumstances. In setting specifications, it is desirable to include the procedure for inspection and testing as protection for both buyer and seller. Adjustments and Returns: The actual decisions as to what can or should be done with material that does not meet specifications is both an engineering and a procurement question.
  15. 15. What is Inventory? Inventory is in the form 1. raw material, ,Finished/purchased parts, 2. Work in process, 3. Finished goods, Consumables, 4.MRO items /Spare parts 5. resale items, that are held at a location in the supply chain. Independent demand – finished goods, items that are ready to be sold.. a computer Dependent demand – components of finished products.. parts that make up the computer Inventory is one of the biggest corporate assets. One of the major areas of cost leaks is in the area of Inventory Management. To increase profits,It is important to plug cost leaks before they become cost holes. It is sometimes true that a company loses more on non-availability of materal despite high inventory investment. Inventory control is a goldmine for saving. Understanding where (and why) inventory should be positioned in the supply chain can improve customer service, lower total costs, or increase flexibility
  16. 16. Why Inventories? • To gain economy in purchasing --ordering cost / set up cost minimisation -- to avoid frequent order. • Hoarding to prevent future price increase. • To satisfy demand during period of replenishment. • To carry reserve stocks to avoid stock out. • To stabilise production and ensure smooth flow of goods through the productive process : - Seasonal demand vendors - Peak and through of demand to be managed - To levelise resource allocation • To prevent loss of sales. • To satisfy other business constraints. - Condition of minimum order - Seasonal availability. • To provide and maintain good customer service.
  17. 17. Classification of inventory functions Transit or pipeline inventories ---to stock the supply and distribution pipelines linking an organization to its suppliers and customers as well as internal transportation points.In just-in-time (JIT) production, the use of local suppliers, small batches in special containers and trucks specifically designed for side loading in small quantities used to reduce transit inventories. Cycle inventories ----to purchase, produce or sell in lots rather than individual units or continuously. Buffer or uncertainty inventories or safety stocks ---to address variability in demand . efforts to may have substantial payoffs in reduced inventories. ---- increasing supply alternatives, using local sources, reducing demand uncertainty, reducing lead time or having excess capacity can reduce supply variability ------ should be determined by balancing carrying cost against stock out cost. Anticipation or certainty inventories are accumulated for a well-defined future need. Decoupling inventories make it possible to carry on activities on each side of a major process linkage point independently of each other.
  18. 18. COSTS OF INVENTORIES For every items carried in inventory, the costs of having it must be less than the costs of not having it. Inventory exists for this reason alone. Carrying, holding or possession costs include (1) capital costs(cost of storage facilities , equipment to handle inventory), (2) inventory service costs,(handling charges ,storage rentals, labour, and operating costs; insurance premiums) (3) storage space costs and (4) inventory risk costs.(breakage; pilferage; obsolescence) Ordering or purchase costs include the managerial, clerical, material, telephone, mailing, fax, e-mail, accounting, transportation, inspection and receiving costs associated with a purchase or production order. Setup costs refer to all the costs of setting up a production run. Stock out costs are the costs of not having the required parts or materials on hand when and where they are needed. They include lost contribution on lost sales (both present and future), change over costs necessitated by the shortage. Variations in delivered costs are costs associated with purchasing in quantities or at times when prices of delivery costs are higher than at other
  19. 19. Indicators of poor Inventory Management • Stock on hand is high compared to lead time * average consumption • Frequent stock outs • Backlog of orders or frequent failure of delivery commitments of high turn over of customers due to cancellations. • Uniform inventory policy to different items • Adhoc policy on minimum stock maintenance • Uneven production with frequent lay offs and over time working or break down due to • Non-availability of spare parts.] • Discrepancies in stock counts.