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Camera Culture Ramesh  Raskar Camera Culture Associate Professor, MIT Media Lab http://raskar.info
<ul><li>How can we create an entirely  new class of imaging platforms  that have an understanding of the world that far ex...
Can you look around a corner ?
Can you decode a 5 micron feature from 3 meters away  with an ordinary camera ?
Beyond Multi-touch: Mobile 3D Interfaces?
6D Display Light sensitive 4D display One Pixel of a 6D Display = 4D Display Raskar, Saakes, Fuchs, Siedel, Lensch, 2008
 
<ul><li>A. Introduction‐‐5 minutes  </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cameras of the future ( Raskar , 30 minutes)  * Form factors, Mod...
Looking around a corner via Transient Imaging Coded Aperture Post-capture Focus Control Bokode: Long Distance Barcode Came...
Cameras and their Impact <ul><li>Beyond Traditional Imaging Analysis and synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging optics, ...
New Topics in Camera Research <ul><li>Imaging Devices, Modern Optics and Lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Sensor Technolo...
International Conference on  Computational Photography Papers due  November 2, 2009 http://cameraculture.media.mit.edu/icc...
 
Traditional  Photography Lens Detector Pixels Image Mimics Human Eye for a Single Snapshot : Single View, Single Instant, ...
Computational Photography Computational Illumination Computational Camera Scene :  8D Ray Modulator Display Generalized Se...
Computational Photography  [Raskar and Tumblin] <ul><li>Epsilon Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-level vision: Pixels...
Digital Epsilon Coded Essence Goal and Experience Low Level Mid Level High Level Hyper realism Raw Angle, spectrum aware N...
<ul><li>Ramesh Raskar and  Jack Tumblin </li></ul><ul><li>Book Publishers:  A K Peters </li></ul><ul><li>Siggraph 2009 boo...
Multi-flash Camera for  Detecting Depth Edges
Depth  Edges Left Top Right Bottom Depth Edges Canny Edges
Flutter Shutter Camera Raskar, Agrawal, Tumblin [Siggraph2006] LCD opacity switched  in coded sequence
Traditional Coded Exposure Image of Static Object Deblurred Image Deblurred Image
Can you look around a corner ?
Can you look around a corner ? Kirmani, Hutchinson, Davis, Raskar 2009 Accepted for ICCV’2009,  Oct 2009 in Kyoto Impulse ...
Femtosecond Laser as Light Source Pico-second detector array as Camera
Coded Aperture Camera The aperture of a 100 mm lens is modified Rest of the camera is unmodified Insert a  coded mask  wit...
In Focus Photo LED
Out of Focus Photo: Open Aperture
Out of Focus Photo: Coded Aperture
Captured Blurred Photo
Refocused on Person
Bokode: ankit mohan, grace woo, shinsaku hiura, quinn smithwick, ramesh raskar camera culture group, MIT media lab imperce...
Barcodes markers  that assist machines in understanding the real world
<ul><li>Smart Barcode size : 3mm x 3mm </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Camera:  Distance 3 meter </li></ul>Computational Probes...
Bokode
Defocus blur of Bokode
Image greatly magnified. Simplified Ray Diagram
Our Prototypes
street-view tagging
tabletop/surface interaction
multi-user interaction
Varying Exposure Video Amit Agrawal  MERL , Yi Xu  Purdue , Ramesh Raskar,  MIT
Deblurred Result Blurred Photo
Varying Exposure Video DFT Exposure Time Exposure Time Exposure Time
Can we deal with particle-wave duality of light with modern Lightfield theory ? Young’s Double Slit Expt first null  (OPD ...
Light Fields <ul><li>Radiance per ray </li></ul><ul><li>Ray parameterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position : x  </li></u...
Light Fields for Wave Optics Effects Wigner Distribution Function Light Field LF < WDF Lacks phase properties Ignores diff...
Limitations of Traditional Lightfields Wigner Distribution Function Traditional Light Field ray optics based simple and po...
Example: New Representations Augmented Lightfields Wigner Distribution Function Traditional Light Field WDF Traditional Li...
(ii) Augmented Light Field with LF Transformer WDF Light Field Augmented LF Interaction at the optical elements Augmenting...
Virtual light projector with real valued (possibly  negative  radiance) along a ray real projector real projector first nu...
(ii) ALF with LF Transformer
Converting LCD Screen = large Camera for 3D Interactive HCI and Video Conferencing Matthew Hirsch, Henry Holtzman Doug Lan...
Light Sensing Pixels in LCD Display with embedded optical sensors Sharp Microelectronics Optical Multi-touch Prototype
Beyond Multi-touch: Hover Interaction <ul><li>Seamless transition of multitouch to gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Thin package,...
Beyond Multi-touch: Mobile Laptops Mobile
Design Vision Object Collocated Capture and Display Bare Sensor Spatial Light Modulator
Touch + Hover using Depth Sensing LCD Sensor
Overview: Sensing Depth from    Array of Virtual Cameras in LCD
Design Overview Display with embedded optical sensors LCD   ,  displaying   mask Optical sensor array ~2.5 cm ~50 cm
International Conference on  Computational Photography Papers due  November 2, 2009 http://cameraculture.media.mit.edu/icc...
 
Looking around a corner via Transient Imaging Coded Aperture Post-capture Focus Control Bokode: Long Distance Barcode Came...
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MIT Camera Culture Group Update July 2009

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MIT Camera Culture Group Update July 2009

  1. Camera Culture Ramesh Raskar Camera Culture Associate Professor, MIT Media Lab http://raskar.info
  2. <ul><li>How can we create an entirely new class of imaging platforms that have an understanding of the world that far exceeds human ability and produce meaningful abstractions that are well within human comprehensibility ? </li></ul>Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info
  3. Can you look around a corner ?
  4. Can you decode a 5 micron feature from 3 meters away with an ordinary camera ?
  5. Beyond Multi-touch: Mobile 3D Interfaces?
  6. 6D Display Light sensitive 4D display One Pixel of a 6D Display = 4D Display Raskar, Saakes, Fuchs, Siedel, Lensch, 2008
  7.  
  8. <ul><li>A. Introduction‐‐5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cameras of the future ( Raskar , 30 minutes) * Form factors, Modalities and Interaction * Enabling Visual Social Computing </li></ul><ul><li>C. Reconstruction the World ( Seitz , 30 minutes) * Photo tourism and beyond * Image‐based modeling and rendering on a massive scale * Scene summarization </li></ul><ul><li>D. Understanding a Billion Photos ( Efros , 30 minutes) * What will the photos depict? * Photos as visual content for computer graphics * Solving computer vision </li></ul><ul><li>E. Discussion‐‐10 minutes </li></ul>Course: Next Billion Cameras Wedn at 3:30pm
  9. Looking around a corner via Transient Imaging Coded Aperture Post-capture Focus Control Bokode: Long Distance Barcode Camera Culture Group, MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info BiDi Screen Theory of Light Propagation Light Field Augmented Light Field WDF
  10. Cameras and their Impact <ul><li>Beyond Traditional Imaging Analysis and synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging optics, illumination, novel sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit priors and online collections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better scene understanding/analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture visual essence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior Metadata tagging for effective sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuse non-visual data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond entertainment and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensors for disabled, new art forms, crowdsourcing, bridging cultures, Social stability </li></ul></ul>
  11. New Topics in Camera Research <ul><li>Imaging Devices, Modern Optics and Lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Sensor Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Photography </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Social Computing and Citizen Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging Beyond Visible Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Computational Imaging in Sciences (Medical) </li></ul><ul><li>Trust in Visual Media </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions for Visually Challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras in Developing Countries </li></ul><ul><li>Future Products and Business Models </li></ul>
  12. International Conference on Computational Photography Papers due November 2, 2009 http://cameraculture.media.mit.edu/iccp10
  13.  
  14. Traditional Photography Lens Detector Pixels Image Mimics Human Eye for a Single Snapshot : Single View, Single Instant, Fixed Dynamic range and Depth of field for given Illumination in a Static world Courtesy: Shree Nayar
  15. Computational Photography Computational Illumination Computational Camera Scene : 8D Ray Modulator Display Generalized Sensor Generalized Optics Processing 4D Ray Bender Upto 4D Ray Sampler Ray Reconstruction Generalized Optics Recreate 4D Lightfield Light Sources Modulators 4D Incident Lighting 4D Light Field
  16. Computational Photography [Raskar and Tumblin] <ul><li>Epsilon Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-level vision: Pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-photos by perturbing camera parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDR, panorama, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Ultimate camera’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coded Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-Level Cues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regions, Edges, Motion, Direct/global </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single/few snapshot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversible encoding of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional sensors/optics/illum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Scene analysis’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essence Photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-level understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not mimic human eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond single view/illum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ New artform’ </li></ul></ul>
  17. Digital Epsilon Coded Essence Goal and Experience Low Level Mid Level High Level Hyper realism Raw Angle, spectrum aware Non-visual Data, GPS Metadata Priors Comprehensive Computational Photography aims to make progress on both axis Camera Array HDR, FoV Focal stack Decomposition problems Depth Spectrum LightFields Human Stereo Vision 8D reflectance field Dylan’s bicycle Transient Imaging Virtual Object Insertion Relighting Augmented Human Experience Material editing from single photo Scene completion from photos Motion Magnification
  18. <ul><li>Ramesh Raskar and Jack Tumblin </li></ul><ul><li>Book Publishers: A K Peters </li></ul><ul><li>Siggraph 2009 booth: 20% off </li></ul><ul><li>Booth #2527 </li></ul><ul><li>ComputationalPhotography.org </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the Authors </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday at 2pm-2:30pm </li></ul>
  19. Multi-flash Camera for Detecting Depth Edges
  20. Depth Edges Left Top Right Bottom Depth Edges Canny Edges
  21. Flutter Shutter Camera Raskar, Agrawal, Tumblin [Siggraph2006] LCD opacity switched in coded sequence
  22. Traditional Coded Exposure Image of Static Object Deblurred Image Deblurred Image
  23. Can you look around a corner ?
  24. Can you look around a corner ? Kirmani, Hutchinson, Davis, Raskar 2009 Accepted for ICCV’2009, Oct 2009 in Kyoto Impulse Response of a Scene
  25. Femtosecond Laser as Light Source Pico-second detector array as Camera
  26. Coded Aperture Camera The aperture of a 100 mm lens is modified Rest of the camera is unmodified Insert a coded mask with chosen binary pattern
  27. In Focus Photo LED
  28. Out of Focus Photo: Open Aperture
  29. Out of Focus Photo: Coded Aperture
  30. Captured Blurred Photo
  31. Refocused on Person
  32. Bokode: ankit mohan, grace woo, shinsaku hiura, quinn smithwick, ramesh raskar camera culture group, MIT media lab imperceptible visual tags for camera based interaction from a distance
  33. Barcodes markers that assist machines in understanding the real world
  34. <ul><li>Smart Barcode size : 3mm x 3mm </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Camera: Distance 3 meter </li></ul>Computational Probes: Long Distance Bar-codes Mohan, Woo,Smithwick, Hiura, Raskar Accepted as Siggraph 2009 paper
  35. Bokode
  36. Defocus blur of Bokode
  37. Image greatly magnified. Simplified Ray Diagram
  38. Our Prototypes
  39. street-view tagging
  40. tabletop/surface interaction
  41. multi-user interaction
  42. Varying Exposure Video Amit Agrawal MERL , Yi Xu Purdue , Ramesh Raskar, MIT
  43. Deblurred Result Blurred Photo
  44. Varying Exposure Video DFT Exposure Time Exposure Time Exposure Time
  45. Can we deal with particle-wave duality of light with modern Lightfield theory ? Young’s Double Slit Expt first null (OPD = λ/2) Diffraction and Interferences modeled using Ray representation
  46. Light Fields <ul><li>Radiance per ray </li></ul><ul><li>Ray parameterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position : x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction : θ </li></ul></ul>Goal: Representing propagation, interaction and image formation of light using purely position and angle parameters Reference plane position direction
  47. Light Fields for Wave Optics Effects Wigner Distribution Function Light Field LF < WDF Lacks phase properties Ignores diffraction, phase masks Radiance = Positive ALF ~ WDF Supports coherent/incoherent Radiance = Positive/Negative Virtual light sources Light Field Augmented Light Field WDF
  48. Limitations of Traditional Lightfields Wigner Distribution Function Traditional Light Field ray optics based simple and powerful rigorous but cumbersome wave optics based limited in diffraction & interference holograms beam shaping rotational PSF
  49. Example: New Representations Augmented Lightfields Wigner Distribution Function Traditional Light Field WDF Traditional Light Field Augmented LF Interference & Diffraction Interaction w/ optical elements ray optics based simple and powerful limited in diffraction & interference rigorous but cumbersome wave optics based Non-paraxial propagation http://raskar.scripts.mit.edu/~raskar/lightfields/
  50. (ii) Augmented Light Field with LF Transformer WDF Light Field Augmented LF Interaction at the optical elements Augmenting Light Field to Model Wave Optics Effects , [Oh, Barbastathis, Raskar] LF propagation (diffractive) optical element LF LF LF LF LF propagation light field transformer negative radiance
  51. Virtual light projector with real valued (possibly negative radiance) along a ray real projector real projector first null (OPD = λ/2) virtual light projector
  52. (ii) ALF with LF Transformer
  53. Converting LCD Screen = large Camera for 3D Interactive HCI and Video Conferencing Matthew Hirsch, Henry Holtzman Doug Lanman, Ramesh Raskar BiDi Screen *
  54. Light Sensing Pixels in LCD Display with embedded optical sensors Sharp Microelectronics Optical Multi-touch Prototype
  55. Beyond Multi-touch: Hover Interaction <ul><li>Seamless transition of multitouch to gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Thin package, LCD </li></ul>
  56. Beyond Multi-touch: Mobile Laptops Mobile
  57. Design Vision Object Collocated Capture and Display Bare Sensor Spatial Light Modulator
  58. Touch + Hover using Depth Sensing LCD Sensor
  59. Overview: Sensing Depth from Array of Virtual Cameras in LCD
  60. Design Overview Display with embedded optical sensors LCD , displaying mask Optical sensor array ~2.5 cm ~50 cm
  61. International Conference on Computational Photography Papers due November 2, 2009 http://cameraculture.media.mit.edu/iccp10
  62.  
  63. Looking around a corner via Transient Imaging Coded Aperture Post-capture Focus Control Bokode: Long Distance Barcode Camera Culture Group, MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info BiDi Screen Theory of Light Propagation Light Field Augmented Light Field WDF

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