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Lecture 1 properties of life spr13 handout

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Lecture 1 properties of life spr13 handout

  1. 1. Biology 201Don Campanella, Ph.D. Lecture 1 Properties of Life Reading: Chapter 1: 1-11
  2. 2. Biology is the study of life• What is “life”?• Life = +
  3. 3. What are the properties of living organisms?• Membrane-bound cells (the unit of life)• Highly organized• Composed of organic molecules and water• Metabolism – acquisition and use of matter and energy• Regulation (homeostasis)• Growth and development• DNA – heritable information (genes)• Reproduction• Evolutionary adaptation• Ability to sense and respond to the environment• Exist in ecosystems
  4. 4. Certain natural entities havesome but not all of the properties of life Miller-Urey experiment (p. 59)
  5. 5. Certain natural entities have some but not all of the properties of life viruses = “infectious genetic elements” humanimmunodeficiency bacteriophage virus (HIV)
  6. 6. Biological Organization: A Natural Hierarchy• 1. Ecosystems• 2. Communities• 3. Populations• 4. Individual organisms• 5. Organs• 6. Tissues• 7. Cells• 8. Molecules• 9. Atoms
  7. 7. What is a “species”?• A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring. (p. 489) donkey horse mule
  8. 8. Major Themes in Biology1. Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization...• Anatomy (structure)• Physiology (function) ... which results from adaptation.
  9. 9. 2. Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function.All cells multiply by cell division.How many cells make upthe entire human body?
  10. 10. 3. The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of genes. • DNA • Genes • Traits“the double helix” How many genes are in a human cell?
  11. 11. 4. Metabolic pathways regulate biological systems.• Metabolic pathways – chains of biochemical reactions in cells• Cells use matter and energy to do work.
  12. 12. 5. Organisms exchange matter and energy with their environment. sunlight heat energy “Food Chain”
  13. 13. 6. Symbiosis has a crucial role for nutrition and disease• Symbiosis – Two species living in close association so their bodies or cells are interfused.• mutualists• pathogens normal microbiota
  14. 14. 7. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.• “Evolution” = genetic change over time mutation butterflies at Fukushima  mutation = a heritable DNA random error in DNA
  15. 15. 7. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.• “Evolution” = descent with modification
  16. 16. 7. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life. • “Evolution” = descent with modificationExample – Evolution oflactose tolerance in humans
  17. 17. 7. Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life.• Evolution• Natural Selection• Adaptation• Speciation Tree of Life: