1. CAPE Sociology
Rostow’s Model for Modernization and Development
Modernization Theory - Economic Perspective
Rostow outlined five stages in the Economic Growth of a Society. These are as follows:
THE TRADITIONAL SOCIETY
1. A traditional society is one in which societies cultural values are based
2. A traditional society is one in which production output is limited.
3. Kinship ties are strong and the community takes presedence over the individual.
4. The major economic enterprise of these societies is agriculture.
5. The social stratification system is based on ascription and social mobility
6. The landowners usually held political power in such societies.
THE PRECONDITIONS FOR TAKE-OFF
This stage is characterised by transition from one system of living/operating
1. Introduction of new ideas and concepts in daily interaction.
2. Growth of banks and other financial institutions
3. Burgeoning of education - philosophy, commerce
4. Investments in new sectors such as transportation, exotic raw materials etc...
5. Changes occur, however are retarded due to the slower change in societal values
and the traditional political system, which is rooted in a landed aristocracy.
In this stage growth is seen as normal and enthusiastically pursued.
1. New methods and technology become integrated in agriculture.
2. Development of various manufacturing industries
3. Financial investments are poured into these sectors,thus further stimulating
both the agriculture, manufacturing and other sectors leading to modernization
2. THE DRIVE TO MATURITY
1. During this stage, development and productivty is sustained
2. Output regularly begin to outstrip the increase in population
3. Newer industries emerge, older industries fade away.
4. The national manufacturing sector becomes self-sufficient, as goods that
were formerly imported are now produced locally.
5. Social institutions change (education, values, customs,beliefs) to suit the needs
of an ever changing society.
6. This stage is said to occur 60 years after 'take off'.
THE AGE OF HIGH MASS-CONSUMPTION
1. The real income per head rise to a point where a large number of persons gain a
command over consumption which goes beyond thier basic food, shelter, and clothing
requirements - for sustenance.
2. The structure of the working force changed in relation to:
* The proportion of urban to total population,
* The proportion of the population working in offices or in skilled factory jobs.
* People become more aware of and desire to acquire as much material wealth
that they can, in-spite of socio-economic positioning.
3. Economic expansion and technological development are no longer viewed as the
primary objective of the nation.
4. New focus on social welfare - attending to the needs of the less fortunate