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Neuroscience of Learning-CFC2010

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Neuroscience of Learning-CFC2010

  1. 1. The Neuroscience of LearningThe Neuroscience of Learning Carlos F. Camargo, PhDCarlos F. Camargo, PhD Ohana Foundation Lecture Series 2005Ohana Foundation Lecture Series 2005 Korean Education Development InstituteKorean Education Development Institute
  2. 2. What is learning?What is learning? CHANGING the structure &CHANGING the structure & actions of NEURONS so theyactions of NEURONS so they HOLDINFORMATION inHOLDINFORMATION in LONG TERMMEMORY inLONG TERMMEMORY in TEMPORAL&PARIETALTEMPORAL&PARIETAL LOBES of the CORTEXLOBES of the CORTEX
  3. 3. LEARNING requiresLEARNING requires NEURONS to CHANGENEURONS to CHANGE
  4. 4. Learning requires MANYLearning requires MANY neuron changesneuron changes BUTtwo majorchanges areBUTtwo majorchanges are 11 Changing the amounts ofChanging the amounts of neurotransmitters thatneurotransmitters that neurons produceneurons produce 2 Changing the connections2 Changing the connections between neuronsbetween neurons
  5. 5. ((1) Learning requires neurons to make1) Learning requires neurons to make MORE & LESS & DIFFERENT transmittersMORE & LESS & DIFFERENT transmitters
  6. 6. (2) Learning requires neurons to make NEW LINKS(2) Learning requires neurons to make NEW LINKS & DELETE EXISTING LINKS with other neurons& DELETE EXISTING LINKS with other neurons
  7. 7. + & -+ & - Bad NewsBad News &&Good NewsGood News forfor TeachersTeachers in Current Neurosciencein Current Neuroscience FindingsFindings
  8. 8. 4 NEGATIVES & 54 NEGATIVES & 5 POSITIVESPOSITIVES 44 importantimportant negativenegative findings fromfindings from neuroscienceneuroscience 5 important5 important positivepositive findings fromfindings from neuroscienceneuroscience
  9. 9. Bad news finding # 1Bad news finding # 1 WEHAVEWEHAVENONO INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONINTRINSIC MOTIVATION TO LEARNTO LEARN ACADEMIC MATERIALACADEMIC MATERIAL
  10. 10. We are motivated toWe are motivated to LEARNLEARN to get 4to get 4 PRIMARY BODY REWARDS:PRIMARY BODY REWARDS: FoodFood WaterWater SexSex Drugs of AbuseDrugs of Abuse
  11. 11. And we are motivated toAnd we are motivated to LEARNLEARN toto get 5 Primary Social Rewardsget 5 Primary Social Rewards Feel pleasant touchFeel pleasant touch((Rolls et al. 2003Rolls et al. 2003)) See attractive facesSee attractive faces ((Aharon et al. 2001Aharon et al. 2001)) Hearpositive wordsHearpositive words ((Hamann &Mao 2002Hamann &Mao 2002)) Interact with othersInteract with others ((Rilling et al. 2002Rilling et al. 2002)) Gain social statusGain social status ((Tooby &Cosmides, 2002Tooby &Cosmides, 2002))
  12. 12. Human motivation systemHuman motivation system Rewarding experiencesRewarding experiences triggeramygdala activitytriggeramygdala activity triggerdopamine releasetriggerdopamine release triggerfrontal lobetriggerfrontal lobe activityactivity
  13. 13. AMYGDALAAMYGDALA ComputesComputes Emotional intensity ofEmotional intensity of an experiencean experience Degree of negative orDegree of negative or positive emotionpositive emotion
  14. 14. Increased DopamineIncreased Dopamine ISIS the Rewardthe Reward
  15. 15. FRONTAL LOBEFRONTAL LOBE Stores the reward valueStores the reward value of experienceof experience Activates behaviorsActivates behaviors leading to the mostleading to the most rewarded outcomerewarded outcome
  16. 16. All other complex experiences areAll other complex experiences are conditioned with primary rewardsconditioned with primary rewards $$USEOFMONEYUSEOFMONEY WORKINGWORKING LEARNINGLEARNING FOLLOWING RULESFOLLOWING RULES
  17. 17. Motivation to LearnMotivation to Learn School Subjects is ConditionedSchool Subjects is Conditioned Most culturesMost cultures conditioncondition childrenchildren with 3 primary rewards forsuccessfulwith 3 primary rewards forsuccessful learning usinglearning using foodfood educatoreducator && parent approvalparent approval increased peersocial statusincreased peersocial status
  18. 18. Bad news finding # 2Bad news finding # 2 THEREISTHEREIS NO EVIDENCENO EVIDENCE FORFOR LEARNING TRANSFERLEARNING TRANSFER
  19. 19. Reviews of research showReviews of research show nono evidence for learning transferevidence for learning transfer Barnett &Ceci (2002 )Barnett &Ceci (2002 ) Clement &LecoutreClement &Lecoutre (2004)(2004) Dixon &Dohn (2003)Dixon &Dohn (2003) Mayer(2004)Mayer(2004)
  20. 20. No transfer means noNo transfer means no free lunchfree lunch NOSPECIFIC TRANSFERmeansNOSPECIFIC TRANSFERmeans Learning toLearning to addadd DOES NOTmakeDOES NOTmake learning tolearning to dividedivide easiereasier NOGENERALTRANSFERmeansNOGENERALTRANSFERmeans LearningLearning math DOES NOTmake youmath DOES NOTmake you a betterlearner“in general”a betterlearner“in general”
  21. 21. Bad news finding # 3Bad news finding # 3 THEREIS NO EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
  22. 22. Gardner’s 11 TotalGardner’s 11 Total IntelligencesIntelligences Linguistic, Musical,Linguistic, Musical, Logical-mathematical, Spatial,Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Bodily-kinesthetic, Personal,Bodily-kinesthetic, Personal, Naturalistic, Spiritual, Existential,Naturalistic, Spiritual, Existential, Mental Searchlight, LaserMental Searchlight, Laser
  23. 23. Gardner’s NewestGardner’s Newest IntelligencesIntelligences ExistentialExistential = feeling at one with the= feeling at one with the cosmoscosmos Mental SearchlightMental Searchlight = people with high= people with high IQ test scores scan widelyIQ test scores scan widely LaserLaser = artists and artisans “who= artists and artisans “who generate the advances (as well asgenerate the advances (as well as the catastrophes) of society”the catastrophes) of society”
  24. 24. Gardner Admits No Supporting DataGardner Admits No Supporting Data Exists for Multiple IntelligencesExists for Multiple Intelligences Allix (2000) no evidenceAllix (2000) no evidence Jie-Qi Chen (2004) no evidenceJie-Qi Chen (2004) no evidence Gardner(2004) no evidenceGardner(2004) no evidence Gardnerand Connell (2000, p. 292)Gardnerand Connell (2000, p. 292) conceded that “there is little hardconceded that “there is little hard evidence forMultiple Intelligencesevidence forMultiple Intelligences theory” (2000, p. 292)theory” (2000, p. 292)
  25. 25. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCHNEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH REFUTES MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCESREFUTES MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES There is consistent significant evidence foraThere is consistent significant evidence fora general intelligence factorG that appears togeneral intelligence factorG that appears to be working memory —this stands againstbe working memory —this stands against Multiple IntelligencesMultiple Intelligences (Colom et al. 2004)(Colom et al. 2004) There is consistent significant evidence thatThere is consistent significant evidence that brain systems forcognitive functions arebrain systems forcognitive functions are overlapping —this stands against Multipleoverlapping —this stands against Multiple Intelligences (Lieberman, 2002)Intelligences (Lieberman, 2002)
  26. 26. NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCHNEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH REFUTES MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES, cont.REFUTES MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES, cont. There is evidence forspecific innate cognitionThere is evidence forspecific innate cognition modules (Gallistel, 2003)modules (Gallistel, 2003) 1 Fast-mapping of word to object1 Fast-mapping of word to object 2 Person recognition of face, voice, clothes2 Person recognition of face, voice, clothes 3 Obligation computation of what we owe others3 Obligation computation of what we owe others and what they owe usand what they owe us 4 Imitation of all aspects of the behaviorof4 Imitation of all aspects of the behaviorof othersothers
  27. 27. ADAPTED COGNITION MODULES STAND AGAINSTADAPTED COGNITION MODULES STAND AGAINST MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCESMULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Each adapted cognition module is supported byEach adapted cognition module is supported by evidence of its neural operations (MIevidence of its neural operations (MI intelligences are not).intelligences are not). A given adapted cognition module, like MirrorA given adapted cognition module, like Mirror Neuron Tissue, operates using our vision,Neuron Tissue, operates using our vision, hearing, speaking, gesturing, social awarenesshearing, speaking, gesturing, social awareness —this combines parts of 4 of Gardner’s—this combines parts of 4 of Gardner’s intelligences—thus negating their individualintelligences—thus negating their individual existencesexistences
  28. 28. Bad news finding # 4Bad news finding # 4 EVERY SINGLEMEMORY WEEVERY SINGLEMEMORY WE HAVEHAVE ISIS COMPLETELYCOMPLETELY UNSTABLEUNSTABLE
  29. 29. Heraclitus was rightHeraclitus was right
  30. 30. You cannot step intoYou cannot step into the same river twicethe same river twice EVERY TIMEYOU REMEMBEREVERY TIMEYOU REMEMBER SOMETHINGSOMETHING,, IT IS AIT IS A DIFFERENTDIFFERENT MEMORYMEMORY, BECAUSETHE, BECAUSETHE ACTOFACTOFRECALL IS ARECALL IS A RECONSTRUCTIONRECONSTRUCTION
  31. 31. RECALL TRANSFORMSRECALL TRANSFORMS OUR MEMORIESOUR MEMORIES When we RememberWhen we Remember ourbrainourbrain Takes the memory apart,Takes the memory apart, Updates the memory,Updates the memory, Brings the memory toBrings the memory to consciousnessconsciousness Then makes new proteinsThen makes new proteins fora new structure forfora new structure for the memory as it goesthe memory as it goes back into long-termback into long-term storage.storage.
  32. 32. Good news findings # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5Good news findings # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Neuroscience researchNeuroscience research has found 5 promoterhas found 5 promoter mechanisms wherebymechanisms whereby short term learningshort term learning changes into long termchanges into long term learninglearning
  33. 33. 5 major promoters of learning =5 major promoters of learning = INNATELEARNING PROGRAMSINNATELEARNING PROGRAMS(Gallistel,(Gallistel, 2003)2003) REPETITION of INFORMATIONREPETITION of INFORMATION (Squire and Kandel, 2000)(Squire and Kandel, 2000) EXCITEMENTEXCITEMENTat the time of learningat the time of learning (Cahill &Gorski, 2003; LeDoux, 2002)(Cahill &Gorski, 2003; LeDoux, 2002) EATING CARBOHYDRATESEATING CARBOHYDRATES at time ofat time of learninglearning (Korol, 2002)(Korol, 2002) 8-9 HOURS OFSLEEP8-9 HOURS OFSLEEPafterlearningafterlearning (Kuriyama, Stickgold, &Walker, 2004)(Kuriyama, Stickgold, &Walker, 2004)
  34. 34. The first promoters are innate learning programsThe first promoters are innate learning programs called ADAPTED COGNITION MODULEScalled ADAPTED COGNITION MODULES SPECIALIZEDBRAIN MODULES EVOLVEDTOSPECIALIZEDBRAIN MODULES EVOLVEDTO COMPUTESPECIFIC INFORMATIONCOMPUTESPECIFIC INFORMATION OUTSIDEOURCONSCIOUSNESS IN ORDEROUTSIDEOURCONSCIOUSNESS IN ORDER TO MAKETHATPROCESS EASIERANDTO MAKETHATPROCESS EASIERAND FASTERBECAUSETHOSECOMPUTATIONSFASTERBECAUSETHOSECOMPUTATIONS HAVEBEEN IMPORTANTFOROURHAVEBEEN IMPORTANTFOROUR SURVIVALSURVIVAL
  35. 35. INNATE PROGRAMS = Adapted CognitionINNATE PROGRAMS = Adapted Cognition Modules are very specific computation systemsModules are very specific computation systems Adapted cognition modules promote quick and easyAdapted cognition modules promote quick and easy learning of certain types of information:learning of certain types of information: ●●We learn people’s faces, typical movements, voices,We learn people’s faces, typical movements, voices, clothing, odors very easily because we have FACEclothing, odors very easily because we have FACE RECOGNITION TISSUEin ourtemporal lobesRECOGNITION TISSUEin ourtemporal lobes ●● We learn speech and tool use motorskills moreWe learn speech and tool use motorskills more easily because we have special MIRROReasily because we have special MIRROR NEURONS in ourfrontal lobes that copy the speechNEURONS in ourfrontal lobes that copy the speech and movements of othersand movements of others
  36. 36. ADAPTED COGNITION MODULESADAPTED COGNITION MODULES ALSO INCLUDEALSO INCLUDE COMPUTING FREQUENCIESCOMPUTING FREQUENCIES BASIC COUNTING SKILLSBASIC COUNTING SKILLS COMPUTING WHATOTHERS OWEUS ANDCOMPUTING WHATOTHERS OWEUS AND WHATWEOWETHEMWHATWEOWETHEM FASTMAPPING OFWORDLABELTO OBJECTSFASTMAPPING OFWORDLABELTO OBJECTS ANDSITUATIONSANDSITUATIONS COMPUTING SOCIALSTATUS ANDINSULTS TOCOMPUTING SOCIALSTATUS ANDINSULTS TO SOCIALSTATUSSOCIALSTATUS
  37. 37. The 2The 2ndnd Learning Promoter isLearning Promoter is REPETITIONREPETITION Squire &Kandel (2000)Squire &Kandel (2000) Reviewed neurobiology of learningReviewed neurobiology of learning Brain forms long term memoriesBrain forms long term memories depending ondepending on ““the numberof times the event orthe numberof times the event or fact is repeated”fact is repeated”
  38. 38. REPETITIONREPETITION Squire &Kandel (2000)Squire &Kandel (2000) Reviewed neurobiology ofReviewed neurobiology of learninglearning Brain forms long term memoriesBrain forms long term memories depending ondepending on ““the numberof times thethe numberof times the event orfact is repeated”event orfact is repeated”
  39. 39. Repetition causes neurons to makeRepetition causes neurons to make MORE and LESS neurotransmitterMORE and LESS neurotransmitter
  40. 40. Repetition causes neurons to make MORE andRepetition causes neurons to make MORE and FEWER CONNECTIONS with other neuronsFEWER CONNECTIONS with other neurons
  41. 41. ORIGIN OF TEACHINGORIGIN OF TEACHING IS REPETITIONIS REPETITION We all unconsciously repeat importantWe all unconsciously repeat important information in conversationsinformation in conversations All cultures teach important stories by verbalAll cultures teach important stories by verbal repetitionrepetition Chinese educators were taught to say everythingChinese educators were taught to say everything TWICE…TWICE… Most educators discover that repetition isMost educators discover that repetition is valuablevaluable
  42. 42. The 3The 3rdrd learning promoter islearning promoter is EXCITEMENTEXCITEMENT LeDoux has studied the brainLeDoux has studied the brain for30 years &reportedfor30 years &reported (2002) that “we(2002) that “we rememberparticularlyrememberparticularly well…those things thatwell…those things that arouse ouremotions”arouse ouremotions”
  43. 43. Cahill & Gorski (2003)Cahill & Gorski (2003) researchresearch
  44. 44. Excitement automatically increasesExcitement automatically increases certain neurotransmitterscertain neurotransmitters
  45. 45. Excitement sets NEURON CONNECTIONS inExcitement sets NEURON CONNECTIONS in the “ON” positionthe “ON” position
  46. 46. The 4The 4thth learning promoter islearning promoter is EATING CARBOHYDRATESEATING CARBOHYDRATES Greenwood and Winocur (2001) research:Greenwood and Winocur (2001) research: high-fat diet impairs brain glucose metabolismhigh-fat diet impairs brain glucose metabolism needed to form long term memoryneeded to form long term memory Korol (2002) research: eating carbohydratesKorol (2002) research: eating carbohydrates enhanced memoryenhanced memory (Smith, 2003) research: lack of breakfast(Smith, 2003) research: lack of breakfast impairs learningimpairs learning
  47. 47. Eating carbohydrates gives the brain glucoseEating carbohydrates gives the brain glucose to organize new synapse locationsto organize new synapse locations
  48. 48. Eating carbohydrates provides glucose to makeEating carbohydrates provides glucose to make glycoproteins that bind neurons to one anotherglycoproteins that bind neurons to one another
  49. 49. EXTREME DIETINGEXTREME DIETING IMPAIRS LEARNINGIMPAIRS LEARNING A majority of young women ageA majority of young women age 12 to 30 yrs in the US are on fad12 to 30 yrs in the US are on fad diets.diets. During periods of dieting, theirDuring periods of dieting, their learning will be significantlylearning will be significantly slowed and it will be harderforslowed and it will be harderfor them to retain informationthem to retain information..
  50. 50. The 5The 5thth learning promoter is 8-9learning promoter is 8-9 HOURS OF SLEEPHOURS OF SLEEP SPECIALISSUESPECIALISSUEof the journalof the journal LearningandMemoryLearningandMemory (2004 V11, N6) reports a(2004 V11, N6) reports a wide range of evidence forwide range of evidence for consolidation of learningconsolidation of learning during sleepduring sleep
  51. 51. Macbeth (Macbeth (2.2.46-51)2.2.46-51) Sleep that knits up the ravell’d sleave of care,Sleep that knits up the ravell’d sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labour’s bath,The death of each day’s life, sore labour’s bath, Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course,Balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course, Chief nourisher in life’s feast.Chief nourisher in life’s feast.
  52. 52. SLEEP IS ASLEEP IS A FREE LEARNING TOOLFREE LEARNING TOOL DREAMING SLEEPpromotes differentialDREAMING SLEEPpromotes differential strengthening of neurons in networksstrengthening of neurons in networks holding learned informationholding learned information NON-DREAMING SLEEPactivates calciumNON-DREAMING SLEEPactivates calcium channels that biologically repeat the neuralchannels that biologically repeat the neural path of learning to force long term storagepath of learning to force long term storage
  53. 53. DREAMING SLEEP causes differentialDREAMING SLEEP causes differential strengthening by alteringstrengthening by altering neurotransmittersneurotransmitters
  54. 54. NON-DREAMING sleep causes new neuronNON-DREAMING sleep causes new neuron CONNECTIONS to be automatically repeatedCONNECTIONS to be automatically repeated
  55. 55. Research shows that TOO LITTLE SLEEP orResearch shows that TOO LITTLE SLEEP or IMPAIRED SLEEP = IMPAIRED LEARNINGIMPAIRED SLEEP = IMPAIRED LEARNING Alcohol ingested after a day of learning inhibitsAlcohol ingested after a day of learning inhibits dreaming sleep and impairs memory storage ofdreaming sleep and impairs memory storage of the day’s informationthe day’s information Drugs of abuse used after learning have similarDrugs of abuse used after learning have similar bad effects on sleep and the day’s learningbad effects on sleep and the day’s learning A majority of teens, college students andA majority of teens, college students and working adults in the US are sleep-deprivedworking adults in the US are sleep-deprived
  56. 56. Of the 5 major learning promotersOf the 5 major learning promoters INNATELEARNING PROGRAMSINNATELEARNING PROGRAMS(Gallistel,(Gallistel, 2002)2002) REPETITION of INFORMATIONREPETITION of INFORMATION (Squire and Kandel, 2000)(Squire and Kandel, 2000) EXCITEMENTEXCITEMENTat the time of learningat the time of learning (Cahill &Gorski, 2003; LeDoux, 2002)(Cahill &Gorski, 2003; LeDoux, 2002) EATING CARBOHYDRATESEATING CARBOHYDRATES at time ofat time of learninglearning (Korol, 2002)(Korol, 2002) 8-9 HOURS OFSLEEP8-9 HOURS OFSLEEPafterlearningafterlearning (Kuriyama, Stickgold, &Walker, 2004)(Kuriyama, Stickgold, &Walker, 2004)
  57. 57. TEACHERS CAN CONTROLTEACHERS CAN CONTROL ONLY 2 PROMOTERSONLY 2 PROMOTERS RepetitionRepetition && ExcitementExcitement
  58. 58. TEACHERS CAN CONTROLTEACHERS CAN CONTROL ONLY 2 PROMOTERSONLY 2 PROMOTERS RepetitionRepetition && ExcitementExcitement
  59. 59. BUT TEACHERS CAN ALSOBUT TEACHERS CAN ALSO PERMIT AND ENCOURAGEPERMIT AND ENCOURAGE HEALTHY CARBOHYDRATE SNACKINGHEALTHY CARBOHYDRATE SNACKING  ANDAND TALK TO STUDENTS AND PARENTS ABOUT THETALK TO STUDENTS AND PARENTS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF SLEEPIMPORTANCE OF SLEEP

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