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FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019
Understanding Smallholder Farmers’
Post-Harvest Behaviors: Evidence from
Malawi
Tabitha C. N...
Research problem and objectives
One of the major post-harvest challenges that smallholder
farmers face includes crop dama...
The Setting
We working with NASFAM farmers from Mchinji and Lilongwe
districts of Central Malawi.
Focusing on grain crop...
Research Methods
We using clustered Randomized Control Trials to evaluate
causal effects of our interventions on outcomes...
FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019
Effects of Amending Soil with Organic Matter on Population Change
of Aspergillus flavus and ...
Research problem and objectives
• There is no sufficient documentation on how different sources and rates of
organic soil ...
The Setting
Supply chain
• The study identifies the pre-harvest period of the groundnut crop as
the first critical loss po...
Research Methods
GHG emissions
• Soils were sampled prior to amendment with treatments and tested for
organic carbon conte...
FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019
Quantifying GHG emissions of agrifood chain and associated
food loss and food waste in China...
Research problem and objectives
• Research problem
What are the patterns and scales of food loss and food waste along the
...
The Setting
• Supply chain
Six processes, including agricultural production, postharvest handling and
storage, processing,...
Research Methods
• GHG emissions
Production stage: Considering the emissions resulted from the
production of each food ca...
FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019
A Stepping-Stone to the evidence base for the mitigation of
N2O emission from reduced food l...
Research problem and objectives
• What is the problem your research addresses?
What is the potential / How efficiency
for ...
The Setting
• Supply chain
The supply chains includes 155 crop and 11 livestock commodities, the
major categories are cere...
Research Methods
N2O emissions
Life cycle assessment (LCA), ecosystem modelling and process-based
modelling , remote sensi...
FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019
Food waste reduction entrepreneurship initiative and
associated impacts: a Life Cycle Sustai...
Research problem and objectives
• PhD Student Business
• Marketing standards related to aesthetic issues or packaging defe...
The Setting
• Supply chain: fruits and vegetables
• Location: São Paulo, Brazil
• Problem (cooperation – the company first...
Research Methods
GHG emissions
- Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Social Impact
- Social-Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA)
Economic...
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CLIFF-GRADS webinar series session 3 - Student research presentations

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CLIFF-GRADS student research presentations given on 9 July 2019 from the third session of the CLIFF-GRADS webinar series. This session focused on mitigating climate change from food loss and waste.

Students:
Tabitha Nindi (Purdue University) - Understanding Smallholder Farmers’ Post-Harvest Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi
Norah Machinjiri (Haramaya University, Ethiopia) -Effects of Amending Soil with Organic Matter on Population Change of Aspergillus flavus and Antagonistic Microbiome; and on Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut in Malawi
Li Xue (University of Southern Denmark) - Quantifying GHG emissions of agrifood chain and associated food loss and food waste in China Xia Liang (The University of Melbourne) - A Stepping-Stone to the evidence base for the mitigation of N2O emission from reduced food loss and waste in China and Myanmar
Daniele Matzembacher (UFRGS, Brazil) - Food waste reduction entrepreneurship initiative and associated impacts: a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment

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CLIFF-GRADS webinar series session 3 - Student research presentations

  1. 1. FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019 Understanding Smallholder Farmers’ Post-Harvest Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi Tabitha C. Nindi (Purdue University ) CLIFF-GRADS WEBINAR
  2. 2. Research problem and objectives One of the major post-harvest challenges that smallholder farmers face includes crop damage by molds and storage pests that can damage up to 30 percent of the grain stocks in six months.  Lack of efficient storage technologies results into:  More post-harvest losses Food insecurity.  Grain quality loss  reduced market value Lower incomes.  Exposure to storage chemical and aflatoxin  Compromised food safety. Another challenge includes limited access to credit  Inability for smallholders to increase productivity or invest in effective technologies that are capital intensive.
  3. 3. The Setting We working with NASFAM farmers from Mchinji and Lilongwe districts of Central Malawi. Focusing on grain crops including maize, soybeans, Groundnuts and common beans. We introduced and are evaluating the impact of the Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS) bags on reducing post-harvest losses amongst other outcomes. • The PICS bag is a low‐cost hermetic storage technology that farmers could use to store crops throughout the year to take advantage of seasonal price increases
  4. 4. Research Methods We using clustered Randomized Control Trials to evaluate causal effects of our interventions on outcomes including post- harvest losses, food security, expenditure on storage chemicals, post-harvest labor use and agricultural revenues. Our interventions include (i) the technology intervention (The PICS bags), (ii) financial training plus group storage and (iii) credit intervention. We are collecting post-intervention data to examine the effects of our storage interventions and determine effective incentive mechanisms for farmers to exploit seasonal price fluctuations and also reduce storage losses.
  5. 5. FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019 Effects of Amending Soil with Organic Matter on Population Change of Aspergillus flavus and Antagonistic Microbiome; and on Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut in Malawi Norah Machinjiri Haramaya University (Ethiopia) CLIFF-GRADS WEBINAR
  6. 6. Research problem and objectives • There is no sufficient documentation on how different sources and rates of organic soil amendments affect the population of aflatoxin producing fungi and their natural antagonists. • In addition, the mitigation potential of these sources in relation to their potential to reduce groundnut-based food loss to aflatoxins has not been explored The study will therefore: • compare the effects of commercial organic fertilizer and farmyard manure on changes in population of A. flavus, Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens • evaluate the effects of organic matter soil amendments on aflatoxin contamination in groundnut • Compare amounts of net carbon retained by soils amended with farmyard manure and commercial organic fertilizer at varied rates
  7. 7. The Setting Supply chain • The study identifies the pre-harvest period of the groundnut crop as the first critical loss point to aflatoxin contamination Location • An experiment was laid out at two research stations in the central region of Malawi: Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (Lilongwe) and Chitala Agricultural Research sub-Station (Salima) Intervention • Farmyard manure (FYM) and commercial organic fertilizer (COF) were identified as potential organic soil amendments for the reduction of pre- harvest aflatoxin contamination while enhancing soil carbon sequestration • A randomized complete block design with 3 replications was employed with FYM applied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 & 7 tons/ha; and COF at 0, 0.2, 0.4 & 0.6 tons/ha.
  8. 8. Research Methods GHG emissions • Soils were sampled prior to amendment with treatments and tested for organic carbon content. • Soils have been sampled again after harvest to compare amounts of net carbon retained across treatments in the season. FLW estimates • Food loss estimates will be done qualitatively by testing aflatoxin content (using ELISA technique) in groundnut samples from all treatments • Results will be compared to determine the treatments that result in tolerable aflatoxin levels ( > 15ppb by Malawian standards). • Potential food loss to aflatoxins will also be assessed by comparing population change of Aspergillus flavus and its antagonistic microbiome across treatments.
  9. 9. FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019 Quantifying GHG emissions of agrifood chain and associated food loss and food waste in China Li Xue University of Southern Denmark CLIFF-GRADS WEBINAR
  10. 10. Research problem and objectives • Research problem What are the patterns and scales of food loss and food waste along the whole Chinese food supply chain and the associated GHG emissions? • Research objectives Quantifying the magnitude of GHG emissions induced by each product category; Identifying the hotspots along the food supply chain with the highest emissions; Discussing GHG emissions mitigation strategies on the entire food supply chain.
  11. 11. The Setting • Supply chain Six processes, including agricultural production, postharvest handling and storage, processing, distribution, retailing, and consumption. Two markets (raw food materials and processed food products) and their import and export flows were also considered. • Location China is the most populous country with 22% of the world total population but only 7% of world’s arable land. The rural-to-urban migration and increasing living standard lead to diet structure change. China is experiencing a high level of food loss and food waste. • Location Identify any interventions for reducing food loss and waste and emissions The implementation of the “Eight Rules” of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China since 2012.
  12. 12. Research Methods • GHG emissions Production stage: Considering the emissions resulted from the production of each food categories. Other stages: The carbon footprint (CF) coefficients of food were calculated based on the BCFN Double Pyramid Database (2016). • FLW estimates Field study on consumer food waste:conducted field survey and weighed food waste in restaurants in four case cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Lhasa) in China. Field study on supply chain losses of major agrifood products: rice, wheat, maize, vegetables, etc. Literature data collection: searched for literature published in Chinese and English containing food loss or food waste rate of one food commodity at each process.
  13. 13. FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019 A Stepping-Stone to the evidence base for the mitigation of N2O emission from reduced food loss and waste in China and Myanmar Xia Liang The University of Melbourne
  14. 14. Research problem and objectives • What is the problem your research addresses? What is the potential / How efficiency for the mitigation of N2O emissions from reduced food loss and waste in China and Myanmar • List up to three research objectives • Develop a standardized methodology for estimating the N2O emissions along the food supply chains for each major food categories; • Promote a national estimation of FLW and N2O emissions by integrating ‘big data’ mining, meta-analysis and process-based modelling in China and Myanmar; • Expand the evidence base for the mitigation of N2O emissions from reduced FLW;
  15. 15. The Setting • Supply chain The supply chains includes 155 crop and 11 livestock commodities, the major categories are cereal crops; oil crops; pulses; vegetables and melons; roots and tubers; sugar crops; fruits; tree nuts; other crops; meat and milk from cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats; meat from pigs; and meat and eggs from chickens. • Location China and Myanmar • Location Identify any interventions for reducing food loss and waste and emissions China: national policies and regulations relevant to food losses and food waste can be categorized as two groups that address food waste generation and that deal with food waste treatment by several government ministries and agencies. Myanmar: have not identify any interventions
  16. 16. Research Methods N2O emissions Life cycle assessment (LCA), ecosystem modelling and process-based modelling , remote sensing, field monitoring, ‘big data’ mining and meta- analysis. FLW estimates Life cycle perspective: “food losses” (pre-consumer stage) “food waste” (consumer stage)
  17. 17. FOOD LOSS AND WASTE JULY 2019 Food waste reduction entrepreneurship initiative and associated impacts: a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment Daniele Eckert Matzembacher UFRGS, Brazil CLIFF-GRADS WEBINAR
  18. 18. Research problem and objectives • PhD Student Business • Marketing standards related to aesthetic issues or packaging defects cause some products to be rejected, although neither food quality or safety is affected - aesthetic standards concerning weight, size, shape and appearance of food product. • This research aims to measure food waste reduction and associated sustainability impacts of Brazilian entrepreneurship initiatives in fruits and vegetables that do not meet retail aesthetic standards • 1) To quantify the food that would be wasted by the producers – due to market problems - and that are rescued by the company • 2) To perform a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify associated emission reductions • 3) To perform a Social-Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) • 4) To perform a Social Return on Investment (SROI)
  19. 19. The Setting • Supply chain: fruits and vegetables • Location: São Paulo, Brazil • Problem (cooperation – the company first accepted and now does not answer – negotiating)
  20. 20. Research Methods GHG emissions - Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Social Impact - Social-Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) Economic Impact - Social Return on Investment (SROI) FLW estimates - The tree structure - A general framework for food waste quantification in food services (Mattias Eriksson - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)

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