Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Utilizamos tu perfil de LinkedIn y tus datos de actividad para personalizar los anuncios y mostrarte publicidad más relevante. Puedes cambiar tus preferencias de publicidad en cualquier momento.
Families and social policyFamilies and social policy
• Topic learning objectives
• When you have studied this topic, you
s...
A comparative view of family policyA comparative view of family policy
• Policies = measures taken by public bodies, e.g.
...
Changes in family structureChanges in family structure
• Cross cultural examples from different societies
and historical p...
Abolishing the familyAbolishing the family
– Guaranteed equality between the sexes
– Women entered paid employment on a va...
China’s one-child policyChina’s one-child policy
• Some laws/policies affect family directly, e.g.
China; government disco...
Social policy has changed over time• The way governments tackle social policy has changed
substantially since the Second W...
Views on policy
• Different perspectives have different views on
role/effects of policy.
• Functionalism – functionalists ...
Criticisms of functionalist views
• Complete the questions on page 82.
• Functionalists assume policies benefit all
• Howe...
New Right (NR)
• NR = Conservative ideology: influence social policy.
• Traditional family = ‘natural’, with biological di...
Murray (1984)
• Murray argues that benefits are ‘perverse incentives’
rewarding irresponsible behaviour,
• E.g. if state m...
Criticism of NR & New Labour
• NR views on the family reflect ‘familial ideology’
• Functionalists state policies can bene...
1979 Conservative Government
believed in reduced state intervention
• In 1979 the conservative party was elected with
Marg...
“nanny state”
• They thought the UK had become a “nanny
state” with too much government control over
individual lives.
• T...
Means testing
• Means testing – refers to when you only get
benefits if your household income is below a
certain level. E....
The Conservatives legislated to protect
people in a traditional family.
• The Conservatives valued traditional, nuclear
fa...
Rights and responsibilities of
individuals in family.
1. The Child Support Agency was established
in 1993 to force absent ...
Criticisms of New Right and
Conservative government
• Until 1997 state policy was about ensuring that the family
unit did ...
New Labour (NL) promised a
compromise between the old ideologies
• New Labour came to power in 1997 led by Tony Blair.
1. ...
The Third-way
• However, they have shown an awareness of, and a
concern for, diversity of family life.
• Lewis (2007) note...
New Labour
• NL like the NR supports the traditional family as
usually the best place to bring up children.
– Labour’s New...
Feminist believe that social policy is
designed to patriarchy
1. Feminists believe that the NR want to reinforce a
sexist ...
Criticisms of feminist views
• Not all policies maintain patriarchy, e.g. women’s
refuges, equal rights to divorce.
• Drew...
Marxists argue that social policy is designed to
protect capitalism
• Marxists also oppose the policies of NR.
• They argu...
Jacques Donzelot (1977)• Rejects ‘march of progress’ view of social policy 
better society.
• Argues policy = form of sta...
Practice exam questions
c) Identify three examples of ways social policies/laws
affect family life.
e) Assess the view tha...
Próxima SlideShare
Cargando en…5
×

Families and social policy

11.559 visualizaciones

Publicado el

AS Sociology Social or government policies and theories of government polices overview

Publicado en: Educación
  • How can I improve my memory before an exam? How can I improve my study skills? learn more... ■■■ https://bit.ly/2GEWG9T
       Responder 
    ¿Estás seguro?    No
    Tu mensaje aparecerá aquí
  • How can I improve my memory and concentration? How can I improve my memory for studying?▲▲▲ https://tinyurl.com/brainpill101
       Responder 
    ¿Estás seguro?    No
    Tu mensaje aparecerá aquí
  • Tired of being scammed? Take advantage of a program that, actually makes you money! ♣♣♣ http://scamcb.com/ezpayjobs/pdf
       Responder 
    ¿Estás seguro?    No
    Tu mensaje aparecerá aquí
  • Get access to 16,000 woodworking plans, Download 50 FREE Plans... ▲▲▲ http://tinyurl.com/y3hc8gpw
       Responder 
    ¿Estás seguro?    No
    Tu mensaje aparecerá aquí
  • Want to preview some of our plans? You can get 50 Woodworking Plans and a 440-Page "The Art of Woodworking" Book... Absolutely FREE ●●● http://ishbv.com/tedsplans/pdf
       Responder 
    ¿Estás seguro?    No
    Tu mensaje aparecerá aquí

Families and social policy

  1. 1. Families and social policyFamilies and social policy • Topic learning objectives • When you have studied this topic, you should: – Know some of the ways in which social policies may affect the family. – Understand the different sociological perspectives on families and social policy. – Be able to analyse these perspectives and evaluate their usefulness in understanding the relationship between families and social policy
  2. 2. A comparative view of family policyA comparative view of family policy • Policies = measures taken by public bodies, e.g. schools, NHS, benefits system – usually based on laws introduced by government. • The UK Government often makes laws that are designed to influence family life or structure. • These laws are part of social policy. • Social policy laws covers areas such as divorce, changes to the benefit system which affect family income, reforms to the education system, adoption/fostering and employment.
  3. 3. Changes in family structureChanges in family structure • Cross cultural examples from different societies and historical periods confirm and highlight the extreme ways in which state policies can affect family life. • Abolishing the family – in the Soviet Union after the 1917 Russian Revolution they attempted to destroy the family structure which was seen as an obstacle • In the 1920s the Soviet Government – Made divorce and abortion easier to attain.
  4. 4. Abolishing the familyAbolishing the family – Guaranteed equality between the sexes – Women entered paid employment on a vast scale – The state began to provide workplace and other communal nurseries – It was felt that the traditional family would ‘wither away’ – However the difficulties the Soviet Union encountered e.g. threat of war with Nazi Germany meant a change of policy
  5. 5. China’s one-child policyChina’s one-child policy • Some laws/policies affect family directly, e.g. China; government discourages having more than one child – gives extra tax allowances, free health care. • Women pressurised to be sterilised after first child. • Wilson (1985) notes the policy is supervised by workplace planning committees; women must seek permission to try and get pregnant and there is both a waiting list and a quota for each factory. • Those who break the agreement must pay a fine.
  6. 6. Social policy has changed over time• The way governments tackle social policy has changed substantially since the Second World War. • In the 1945-1979 period the state’s social policy was rather interventionist. • The Welfare State which was set up by a Labour government in 1948, supported families through benefits, public housing, family allowance and free health care. • People paid into a national insurance scheme to pay for the welfare state. It was universal – everyone had the same benefits and services. • Many NR believe that policies in the ’60s & ‘70s was an attack on family values e.g. Legalisation of abortion.
  7. 7. Views on policy • Different perspectives have different views on role/effects of policy. • Functionalism – functionalists see society as built on harmony and consensus (shared values and value consensus). • The state acts in the interests of the whole society – policies benefit all, help families perform functions. • Fletcher (1966) argues the introduction of welfare state led to policies to support family, e.g. NHS, doctors, hospitals, etc. – helps family care for members.
  8. 8. Criticisms of functionalist views • Complete the questions on page 82. • Functionalists assume policies benefit all • However, feminists suggest policies benefit men, not women. • Assumes ‘march of progress’ – policies improving family life. But can make things worse, e.g. cutting benefits to poor.
  9. 9. New Right (NR) • NR = Conservative ideology: influence social policy. • Traditional family = ‘natural’, with biological division of labour; male breadwinner/female nurturer. • So long as parents perform these roles, family will be self-reliant/able to care for members. • NR criticise welfare policies for undermining family’s self- reliance by providing generous benefits, e.g. to lone parent families (LPFs)  ‘dependency culture’: individuals depend on state to support families
  10. 10. Murray (1984) • Murray argues that benefits are ‘perverse incentives’ rewarding irresponsible behaviour, • E.g. if state maintains children, some fathers abandon responsibilities • Result more LPFs no role models/authority figure for boys and delinquency. • NR Solution to cut welfare spending  give fathers more incentive to work and provide for families.
  11. 11. Criticism of NR & New Labour • NR views on the family reflect ‘familial ideology’ • Functionalists state policies can benefit family. • NR less families on state benefit, the better. • Criticism of NR view – Feminist NR = attempt to justify a return to patriarchal family that oppresses women. – Patriarchal family not ‘natural’, but socially constructed. – Cutting benefits  poor families poorer still.
  12. 12. 1979 Conservative Government believed in reduced state intervention • In 1979 the conservative party was elected with Margaret Thatcher as their leader. • Reacting to several years of political instability, they set about reforming the relationship between society and the state. • The Conservatives were influence by NR ideology. • They believed that nuclear families were the cornerstone of society, but also thought that society as a whole should be freed from interference by state as much as possible.
  13. 13. “nanny state” • They thought the UK had become a “nanny state” with too much government control over individual lives. • They set out to make individuals more responsible for their own lives and decisions – the state would intervene much less in private matters. • So benefits were cut and taxes lowered. • Means testing was introduced for some benefits with the aim of helping only those in genuine need.
  14. 14. Means testing • Means testing – refers to when you only get benefits if your household income is below a certain level. E.g family tax credit. • Mothers were encouraged to stay at home through preferential tax allowances. Families were pushed to take on more responsibility for the elderly through benefit cuts. (Allan 1985) • Mrs. Thatcher’s Conservatives echoed the concerns of Charles Murray, who first coined the phrase ‘culture of dependency’.
  15. 15. The Conservatives legislated to protect people in a traditional family. • The Conservatives valued traditional, nuclear families. • In 1988, Thatcher described the family as “the building block of society. It’s a nursery, a school, a hospital, a leisure place of refuge and a place of rest.” • The Conservatives created several laws that enforced the rights and responsibilities of individuals in family.
  16. 16. Rights and responsibilities of individuals in family. 1. The Child Support Agency was established in 1993 to force absent fathers and mothers to pay a fair amount towards the upkeep of their children. 2. The Children’s Act 1989 outlined for the first time the rights of the child. 3. The Conservative also considered a law to make divorce more difficult The Family Law Act of 1996– a compulsory cooling off period of one year was proposed before a couple could divorce. In the end they abandoned this idea because they couldn’t find a way to make it work in practice.
  17. 17. Criticisms of New Right and Conservative government • Until 1997 state policy was about ensuring that the family unit did not overwhelm the rights of the individual. • Legislation focused on improving the social and economic position of women, e.g. in 1991 the Conservative government made marital rape illegal. • Children’s rights were improved through successive Children’s act (e.g. 1989), many suggest these policies served to strengthen the family.
  18. 18. New Labour (NL) promised a compromise between the old ideologies • New Labour came to power in 1997 led by Tony Blair. 1. They based their ideology on ‘The Third Way’ – a middle ground between left wing and right-wing politics. • Their policies were destined to be more pragmatic and less ideological than either the 1979 Conservative government or previous Labour government. 2. In their 1998 consultation paper ‘Supporting Families’, they made it clear that marriage is their preferred basis for family life (children) • There more positive policies can improve family life, e.g. – Extra benefit for poor families. (family tax credit)
  19. 19. The Third-way • However, they have shown an awareness of, and a concern for, diversity of family life. • Lewis (2007) notes that in the UK there was no ‘explicit’ family policy. Until 2003 and 2007 when they appointed a minister for Children and a new department for Children, Schools and Families respectively. • In 2005 they introduced civil partnerships, a union a lot like marriage that is available to gay couples. • They’ve also introduced laws allowing any type of cohabiting couple to adopt children. • They have adopted some New Right ideas when it comes to family policy- e.g. they have cut lone parent benefit, supported means-tested benefits and are opposed to universal benefits. (child benefit)
  20. 20. New Labour • NL like the NR supports the traditional family as usually the best place to bring up children. – Labour’s New Deal are designed to help people find paid employment. – Since April 2001, all lone mothers are required to attend annual interviews about job opportunities. – The working families tax credit has been introduced for parents moving from incomes support to low-paid jobs. – EMA has been introduced for those who remain in education after 16 and who parents earn Less than £30,000 – Sure Start programme provides health and support – services for low-income families with – young children.
  21. 21. Feminist believe that social policy is designed to patriarchy 1. Feminists believe that the NR want to reinforce a sexist and exploitative model of the family by keeping women in the home and making them the main support for their children and this continues under NL. – Land suggests by assuming patriarchal family is ideal (Oakley, Gittens, Barrett and McIntosh; cereal packet norm – familial ideology), policies actually help construct and reinforce the family type e.g. – Policy assuming husband main provider – prevents wife claiming benefits and maintains her dependence. – e.g. the differences in maternity and paternity reinforce the idea that the mother is the primary carer (maternity is longer) and the father is the earner and provider.
  22. 22. Criticisms of feminist views • Not all policies maintain patriarchy, e.g. women’s refuges, equal rights to divorce. • Drew (1995) some countries less patriarchal and more ‘individualistic gender regimes’ (policies) • Sweden – policies treat women as individuals not dependents, international differences show policies play a part in social construction of family roles and relationships.
  23. 23. Marxists argue that social policy is designed to protect capitalism • Marxists also oppose the policies of NR. • They argue that reducing benefits to the poor only makes them poorer, that means testing for benefits is degrading to the claimant and likely to dissuade worthy applicants. • They believe that social policies tend to be designed to maintain the capitalist system. • By reinforcing traditional gender roles, social policy moulds women into a reserve army of labour. • Which can be called on, in times of crisis (Wilson 1985) for example working women during the Second World War. • All institutions maintain exploitation. Policies serve interests of capitalism, e.g. low level of benefits for old, disabled – maintained on the cheap, those who can’t be used to produce profits.
  24. 24. Jacques Donzelot (1977)• Rejects ‘march of progress’ view of social policy  better society. • Argues policy = form of state policy over families. • Uses Michel Foucault (1976) idea of power - not just something held by government/state, but within all relationships, including ‘micro’ level e.g. doctors/patients. • Professionals use expert knowledge to exercise power over clients. • Donzelot applies to professionals carrying out survelliance/policing of ‘problem’ (i.e. poor) families seen As causing anti-social behaviour. • Social workers, doctors etc. use knowledge to control and ‘improve’ families, e.g. truants’ parents forced to attend parenting classes. • Criticism of Donzelot view – Doesn’t identify who benefits from policies
  25. 25. Practice exam questions c) Identify three examples of ways social policies/laws affect family life. e) Assess the view that policy maintains inequality within families. • We have now finished this family unit. • Please revise, create summary sheets/spider diagrams, practice past papers and evaluation cards. • Prepare for an end module (families and households) exam.

×