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This paper is an impact assessment of the ZCSPC e-Library funded by the Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED). As part of the College's reportorial obligation to CHED, this study sought to find out the extent of utilization and problems encountered in the use of the ZCSPC e-Library.
Zamboanga City State Polytechnic College e-Library: An Impact Study
Republic of the Philippines
ZAMBOANGA CITY STATE POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
R.T. Lim Blvd., Baliwasan, Zamboanga City
eZamboanga City State Polytechnic College e-Library: An Impact Study
Jocelyn P. Remoto and Christopher A. Climaco
Office of Special Concerns and Linkages
The study aimed to determine the extent of utilization and the problems met in the use of the ZCSPC
e-Library. A total of 363 randomly selected students from the various departments of the College, 68
randomly selected faculty members, the College President and the Vice President for Administration and
Finance (Concurrently Vice President for Technological and Academic Affairs as well as the College
Librarian (designated) were also purposely selected were considered as the sample respondents of the
Survey questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion (FGD) were used to collect the data
needed in providing answers to the research problems.
The findings of the study revealed that more than one-half of the students utilized the e-Library; while
only a little above one-third of the faculty members utilized it. The respondents mainly used the ZCSPC
e-Library for writing their research reports, for their subject assignments, and for their book reports and
A great majority of the faculty respondents did not use the ZCSPC e-Library because there was no
proper and wide information dissemination about it, because of their preference to use their internets at
home, and had no time to go to the library because of their unit overloads (Class schedules and teaching
The respondents also met the problems on the lack of computer units, lack of e-Media, and access
restriction to certain e-Media. They also found the lack of space, tables, chairs and furniture, as well as
slow internet speed as problems in the ZCSPC e-Library.
It was recommended that proper information dissemination of the e-Library must be conducted. The
ZCSPC e-Library must be expanded and must be equipped with quality application softwares and
equipment to make it meet the standard requirement of the world class e-Libraries.
n academic library is an important local
source of teaching and learning activities of
teachers and students in college or university
where it serves its clients with relevant resources
for their research needs. Nowadays, the library
resources and services have been greatly
enhanced with the emergence of the digital age
of information and communication technology.
The common library problems of having
enough library holdings, space, and more
efficient service toward its clients were now
addressed through the electronic resources.
The library can now significantly increase
its library holdings without the worry of an
ample amount of space for book shelves by just
acquiring many of its holdings in the forms of
e-books, e-journals, audio books, educational
videos & e-photos, CD-ROMs, e-thesis, edissertation, and the like which can be accessed
through the library’s internet service and local
database in the computer units.
Level 1 Accreditation
Commenting on the advantages of electronic
resources, Dadzie (2007) writes that electronic
resources are invaluable research tools that
complement the print-based resource in a
traditional library setting. – Egberombe (2011)
In Zamboanga City State Polytechnic
College (ZCSPC), the quality of the academic
library holdings and services is regularly
evaluated by its institutional internal quality
assurance team and by an external quality
assurance team by government agencies like the
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and
the Accrediting Agency of Chartered Colleges
and Universities in the Philippines (AACCUP),
Based on CHED library requirements, the
College has to provide the library with two
to three (2-3) titles of professional journals.
Acquisition of audio-visual materials.
Provision of at least three (3) units of
computer with internet connection to allow
the users free access to online publications
and full-text articles in journals.
The library should engage in networking
activities and link with bigger colleges and
universities in the region for resource
sharing and for collection development.
Level 2 Accreditation
Digital technology paved the way for new
information sources and formats. It has also
changed the way by which information is used,
delivered and processed. Aside from issues in
organization, storage and retrieval, a greater
issue that confronts academic library today is on
how to remain relevant in the digital era,
mindful of low budgets and resentment on the
part of institutional administrators. – (Haunobi
& Okeye, 2008, p. 1 cited by Obille, 2008, p.
The library needs to accommodate the
growing population, facilities and services
that are needed.
Computerization of library references is also
needed to start with the Online Public
Access Catalogue (OPAC).
Mindful of the College’s budget shortage,
the ZCSPC administration resorted to submitting
a proposal to CHED for financial assistance for
accreditation, particularly for the enhancement
of the library. The latter approved the proposal
through its Institutional Development Assistance
for Accreditation program or CHED-IDAA
amounting to P200,000.00 in 2010.
approach of seeking for alternative source of
fund to augment the budget deficiency of the
College is a common practice among
government schools as supported in the study of
Ubogu and Okiy (2011) where it revealed that
the main source of funding in the libraries is
government subvention. In addition to funding
received from the government, the libraries can
derive funds from alternative sources such as
gifts and donations.
To be at par with the digital age on the
aspect stated by Haunobi & Okeye (2008, p. 1)
as cited by Obille (2008, p.114), the quality
assurance teams, particularly the AACCUP
accreditors, made a number of recommendations
during their Level 1 and Level 2 accreditation
visits, for the improvement of the ZCSPC
library. These recommendations, under Area 7
of the AACCUP tool, are as follows:
The ZCSPC Administration decided to
utilize the fund in the installation of the ZCSPC
e-Library, with internet connection (WiFi Zone),
5 computer units and 100 titles of e-journals
worth P130,000.00 of annual subscription, to
address the AACCUP recommendations.
Arms (2005) defines e-Library as
“managed collection of information, with
association, services, where the information is
stored in digital formats and accessible over a
Majority of the respondents stated the problem
of slow server to access e-resources which takes
a lot of their slot time to retrieve the relevant
This is also true in the study of Velmuruga
(2012), which he found out that the common
problem faced by the users is the slow internet
speed which takes a lot of their slot time to
retrieve the relevant information.
Statement of the Problem
objective of the study was to determine the
extent of utilization of the ZCSPC e-Library and
the problems commonly encountered by the
students and faculty members in the use of said
The study of Habiba and Chowdbury (2012)
analyzed the status of electronic resources
facilities and services provided by the Dhaka
University Library (DUL). The study found that
76% are student users and half of the
respondents used e-resources for learning
purposes and majority preferred to use electronic
journals. On the other hand, Egberongbe (2011)
found that unfamiliarity with electronic
information was the major reason that would
discourage users from accessing electronic
resources in the University of Lagos Library. A
large number of users were using electronic
resources for research and study and for keeping
abreast with new developments in their areas of
Specifically, it aimed to provide answers to
the following problems:
1. What are the types of e-media available
in the ZCSPC e-Library?
2. To what extent has the e-Library been
utilized by the students and the faculty
members of the Zamboanga City state
Polytechnic College, Zamboanga City?
3. What are the problems commonly
encountered in the use of the ZCSPC eLibrary?
4. What are the future plans for the
upgrading and development of the
Sharma (2009) conducted a study to
highlight the preferences and importance of
online resources among the teachers and
research scholars. The study revealed that most
of the respondents access e-journals because the
respondents feel that e-resources are timesaving. The study of Issa and Daura (2009)
revealed that the University of Llorin Library
has provisions for students to use e-Library
resources. There is a computer section with
internet connectivity for accessing the resources.
Most students are aware of the e-Library but do
not use them because they lack the skills. They
have not been formally taught the use of eLibrary resources.
Related Studies There have been a number
of studies conducted that discuss the impact of
e-resources used in the colleges and universities
Mostofa (2013) examined the
existence of various e-resources which are
available in some selected Private University
Library at Dhaka, in Bangladesh. The study also
highlights different types of electronic resources
used by students, the purposes and frequency of
using electronic resources and the problems
faced by the students while accessing and using
the electronic resources in the library. The
finding reveals that majority of the students
prefer to use e-thesis. It further reveals that
accessing electronic resources is not free from
problems. The problems encountered while
using the e-resources mainly came from four
factors: 1. breakdown of the system, 2. high
cost of surfing time, 3. problems of power
outage when using computer, and 4. slow server.
The study of Kaur and Verma (2009) found
that the usage of e-journals is increasing; this is
due to awareness among the users about the
library e-resources and services.
The qualitative analytical
survey research was used as the research design
for this study. Its respondents where the students
of the different departments of the College,
namely: a.) Graduate School; b.) Teacher
Education Department; c.) Department of
Technology Education; d.) Department of
Maritime Education; e.) Department of Arts and
Sciences; and f.) Institute of Technical
Education. A sampling size of three-hundred
and sixty-three (363) were randomly selected
from a total of student population of fourthousand four-hundred and ninety (4,490). The
cluster random sampling technique was used in
the sample selection.
Table 1 (Types of e-Media in the ZCSPC
e-Library Commonly Used by the Students and
the Faculty Members)
(e.g. modules, journals,
Types of e-Media
A sampling size of sixty-eight faculty
members was randomly selected through the use
of the systematic random sampling technique.
As reflected on Table 1, the available
e-media (or e-resources) in the ZCSPC e-library
commonly used were the following:
The College President and the Vice
President for Administration and Finance
(Concurrently Vice President for Technological
and Academic Affairs as well as the College
Librarian (designated) were also purposely
selected as respondents of the study.
a. e-Books. The data indicated that 67 or
18.46% of the students had used it;
while, 19.12% of the faculty members
had also utilized it.
b. e- Periodicals. It was the e-media which
was ranked second in the utilization.
Sixty-four (64) or 17.63% of the
students and ten (10) or 14.71% of the
faculty members indicated that they had
utilized this e-media.
c. Educational Videos. There were 23 or
6.33% of the students who claimed
utilization and eight (8) or 11.76% of
the faculty members also claimed the
d. e-Photos. Only 16 or 14.41% of the
students had used this e-media; while
only four (4) or 5.88% of the faculty
members had also utilized it.
e. Audio Books. The number of student
users on this e-media decreased to ten
(10) or only 2.78% of them utilized it.
Again, there were four (4) faculty
members who had utilized this e-media.
Data were collected using both the interview
and the focus group discussion (FGD). A survey
questionnaire was also used in the data
Results and Discussions
A. Problem Number 1. The first problem
investigated in the study was to identify the
types e-media commonly used by the
students and by the faculty members of the
College. Table 1 presents the data on the
available e-media commonly used by the
students and teachers.
In The interview of the College Librarian, it
was revealed that e-journals with 100 titles
covering topics for various courses in the
College were available in the e-Library.
Furthermore, those e-books for “hard-to-findtitles” and other requested titles were also
downloaded in the e-Library of the College.
the College. A little less number of them of onehundred and seventy-four (174) or 47.93%
claimed they did not use the e-Library. The data
revealed that a little over one-half of the students
had made use of the services available in the
e-Library of the College.
On the other hand, the faculty members
appeared to have less utilized the e-Library.
Only about twenty-four (24) or 35.29% of this
sample group claimed utilization of the
e-Library; while a greater number of forty-four
(44) or 64.71% of them revealed they did not
utilize the e-Library.
Several suggestions were also made by the
faculty members during the interview. The four
common suggestions are listed below:
a. The e-Library should have Online
Public Access catalogue or the OPAC.
b. There must also be available e-books on
technology, professional journal for on
the different blocks and areas of
specialization for technology and
c. E-Books and educational videos must
also be provided in the ZCSPC e-library
especially in the field of Science and
d. The e-Library must also have e-thesis
There were four major reasons for the
utilization of the e-Library of the College. Table
3 (Reasons for utilizing the ZCSPC e-Library)
presents the data.
Table 3 (Reasons for Utilizing the ZCSPC
B. Problem Number 2. The extent of
utilization of the ZCSPC e-Library by the
students and the faculty members was the
second problem investigated in the research
study. The data on Table 2 (Extent of
e-Library Utilization by the Students and
Faculty Members) revealed the findings
Among the students, “subject assignments”
was the major reason for the e-Library
utilization. It registered a claim for utilization
with 46.28% from the student sample group.
“Book report” was claimed by fifty-one (51) or
14.05% of the students as their reason for using
the e-Library. Forty (40) or 11.02% of them
(student sample group) utilized the e-Library for
writing their research report (i.e. thesis writing);
while nineteen (19) or 5.2% of them claimed
“article review” as their reason for the e-Library
Table 2 (Extent of e-Library Utilization by the
Students and the Faculty Members)
The teacher sample group considered “thesis
writing” as their major reason for utilization of
the e-Library. Fifteen (15) or 22.06% of them
made this claim. The second reason was “subject
assignment”; followed by “article review”. And
Of the total number of randomly selected
student samples of three-hundred and sixty-three
(363), one-hundred and eighty-nine (189) or
52.07% indicated that they used the e-Library of
It is very interesting to observe that both
sample groups (students and teachers) had
revealed similar reasons for not utilizing the
e-Library of the college. This finding is reflected
on Table 4 (Reasons for not Utilizing ZCSPC
C. Problem Number 3. The problems
commonly encountered in the use of the
ZCSPC e-Library were also investigated in
the study. The two sample groups of
respondents had met three common
problems in the e-Library utilization. These
are reflected on Table 5 found below.
Table 4 (Reasons for not Utilizing the ZCSPC
Table 5 (Common Problems Met in the Utilization
of the ZCSPC e-Library)
I would rather use the
internet at home (e.g.
Google, etc.) for my
I don’t have time to go to
the library since I am fully
loaded with teaching
I was not properly oriented
on the usage of the
I am not attracted to using
the ZCSPC e-Library
Lack of computer
Lack of e-media (e.g.
videos, e-photos, and
Access restriction to
As shown on Table 5, one-hundred and
eighty-two (182) or 50.14% of the student
sample group and twenty-nine (29) or 42.65% of
the teachers claimed “the lack of computer
units” as the major problem encountered in the
use of the e-Library of the College. It was
followed by the problem on the “lack of
e-media”, with 17.36% of the students, and
17.65% of the teachers having met this problem.
The third major problem on “access restriction
to certain e-media” was claimed by 9.4% of the
students, and by 8.82% of the teachers.
A relatively large percentage of both groups
of respondents claimed that “they would rather
use the internet at home (e.g. Google, etc.) for
their research work.” Eighty-one (81) or 22.31%
of the student sample group and twenty-seven
(27) or 39.71% of the teachers claimed it as
reason for non-utilization. It was followed by
“having no time to go to the library due to heavy
loads (19.56% for students; and 25% for
teachers). The reason on “no proper
orientation/information dissemination on the
ZCSPC e-Library” was claimed by 17.63% of
the student sample group and 22.06% of the
There were other problems encountered by
the respondents in the use of the e-Library.
Some of them were:
a. Slow internet speed.
b. Lack of space, tables, and chairs.
c. Number of computer units.
These reasons for non-utilization of the
e-Library were confirmed in their revelations
during the focus group discussion (FGD). Both
groups revealed that they use the internet at
home; that they had unit overloads; and that
there was no proper and wide dissemination on
the ZCSPC e-Library.
In the interview with the College Librarian,
she also confirmed the above as one of the
problems presently plaguing the e-Library of the
4. There will be no hiring of job orders for
the library. Instead, scholars will be
utilized as student-assistant for costcutting measures.
5. Mobilization of fabrication of chairs,
tables, and other furniture for use in the
D. Problem Number 4. The fourth
problem investigated in this study was about the
future plans for the upgrading and development
of the ZCSPC e-Library.
The data for this research problem were
collected through the interview with the
President, Vice President for Administration and
Finance (and also concurrently the Vice
President for Technological and academic
Affairs) of the College as well as the College
The Vice President for Administration and
Finance and concurrently the Vice President for
Technological and Academic Affairs also
proposed the following plans:
1. Develop the ZCSPC Library into a
world class Library. To realize this plan,
he proposed the expansion of the library
by converting the Covered Court as the
Main Library of the College.
2. Apply for membership of the ZCSPC
organizations in the country and in the
other countries of the world.
3. Increase the number of routers in the
library, since the ZCSPC e-Library is
already in a WIFI Zone.
The College Librarian had proposed the
1. There is a need to fill-in the vacated
item for the Librarian position to focus
on the library holdings solely for the
Department of Maritime Education
2. There is a need to hire a job order who
is computer literate to do focus on
encoding all the library holdings/titles
into one database which will be used in
the development of the Online Public
Access catalogue (OPAC) to assist the
users in the utilization of the ZCSPC
3. Revision of the e-Library policy.
He has also similar plans with the College
President for the ZCSPC e-Library, like the
1. Fill-up the vacated item for the College
2. Increase the number of computer units
in the e-Library.
3. Fabrication of chairs, tables, and other
furniture items for use in the ZCSPC
e-Library and in the other offices and
classrooms of the College.
The College President had proposed five
major plans for the ZCSPC e-Library. These are:
1. Expansion of the ZCSPC e-Library
which will include the increase in the
volumes of e-books, e-journals,
e-magazines and other e-media of latest
edition for all the programs of the
2. Increase the number of computer units
for the e-Library.
3. Fill-up the vacated item for the College
7. Both the College President and the Vice
President for Administration and
President for Technological and
Academic Affairs) had proposed the
following plans for the ZCSPC
The findings of the research study were the
1. The common e-media available in the
ZCSPC e-Library were: a.) e-books; b.)
e-periodicals; c.) educational videos; d.)
e-photos; and e.) audio books. It was
suggested that the e-Library should have
Online Public Access Catalogue
(OPAC). It must also have e-thesis and
e-dissertation for writing the research
report of both the students and the
2. More than fifty percent of the students
utilized the e-Library. However, more
than sixty-percent of the faculty
members did not use it.
3. The major reasons for the use of the eLibrary by both the students and the
teachers were: “subject assignment;”
“writing research reports (thesis and
dissertation);” “book reports;” and
4. The main reasons for non-utilization of
the e-Library by the students and the
teachers were: a.) no proper and wide
information dissemination of the eLibrary; b.) their preference to use the
internet at home; c.) having no time to
go to the library due to unit overloads;
and d.) they were not attracted to use the
5. The major problems commonly
encountered by the students and the
teachers in the use of the ZCSPC eLibrary were: a.) lack of computer units
in the e-Library; b.) lack of e-media; and
c.) access restrictions to certain e-media.
6. Other common problems were: a.) lack
of space in the e-Library; b.) lack of
number of chairs and tables; and c.)
slow internet speed.
a. Expansion of the ZCSPC e-Library
to make it world class.
b. Increase the number of computer
units for the e-Library.
c. Filling-up of the vacated item for
the College Librarian.
d. Mobilization of the fabrication of
chairs, tables, and other furniture
items for use, not only in the library,
but also in the other offices and
classrooms of the College.
e. Utilization of scholars as studentaides in the library, instead of hiring
Based on the above findings, it was then
1. More than fifty percent of the students
utilized the ZCSPC e-Library. However,
percent of the faculty members used it.
2. The students and faculty members used
the e-Library for their subject
assignments, writing their research
reports and for book and article reviews.
3. Many of the students and faculty
members did not use the e-Library
because there was no proper and wide
information dissemination of the
ZCSPC e-Library; they preferred to use
their internets at home; and because they
did not have time to go to the library due
to their unit loads (class schedules and
allocation needed for the enhancement
and upgrading of the ZCSPC e-Library.
4. Equip the ZCSPC e-Library with
modern facilities to meet the standard
requirements of world class e-Libraries.
5. Establish linkages and membership with
other national and international eLibraries.
6. Make representations to the Zamboanga
City government for the conversion of
the covered court as the main library of
the College in its effort for expansion.
4. The students and the teachers had
encountered the following common
problems in the utilization of the
ZCSPC e-Library on the lack of
computer units, lack of e-media, and
access restrictions to certain e-media.
5. The students and the teachers had also
observed the following problems which
they encountered in the ZCSPC eLibrary, namely: lack of space, lack of
number of computer units, lack of chairs
and tables, and slow internet speed.
6. Both the College President and the Vice
President for Administration and
Finance had good plans for the ZCSPC
e-Library, like expansion to make it
world class, increase of computer units,
fill-up the vacated item for the College
Librarian, and other furniture items for
use in the library and in the other offices
and classrooms of the College.
Arms, William Y. (2005).
Analysis of the Digital Library published in
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The following recommendations are
suggested to provide more improvements for the
1. A proper and wide dissemination of
information of the existence of the
ZCSPC e-Library shall be mobilized in
all the departments and sections of the
dissemination must be properly
scheduled for effective implementation.
2. A seminar-workshop on the functions
and operations of the different
application softwares in the ZCSPC eLibrary shall be conducted to the
students, teachers and other members of
the College who are non-literate in the
use of the computer.
3. The Administration must explore other
budget sources to increase the budget
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