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Ocean zones

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Ocean zones

  1. 1. Ocean Zones Ms. Mills January 10, 2007
  2. 2. Exploring the Ocean <ul><li>People have been interested in the ocean since ancient times because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a route for trade and travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern scientists study the characteristics of ocean waters and the ocean floor </li></ul>
  3. 3. Exploring the Ocean <ul><ul><li>SONAR – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so und, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>na vigation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and r anging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is used to measure the depth of the ocean floor by sending sound waves down into the ocean and measuring how long it takes for the sound wave to return. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Exploring the Ocean <ul><li>4 Main Sections of the Ocean Floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental slope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abyssal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-ocean ridge – continuous mountain range separated by a central valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains beneath the Ocean – seamounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canyons beneath the ocean – trenches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanoes can also be found on the ocean floor. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Exploring the Ocean <ul><li>Plates – pieces of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. </li></ul><ul><li>Plates can converge and diverge. </li></ul><ul><li>Seafloor spreading – occurs when plates diverge and magma (hot molten or melted rock) oozes up through the cracks, cools, and hardens, causing the seafloor to spread. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ocean Habitats <ul><li>3 zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intertidal – reaches from highest high tide line to lowest low tide line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neritic – lowest low tide line to edge of the continental shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-Ocean – beyond the edge of the continental shelf </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ocean Habitats <ul><li>How do scientists classify marine organisms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By where they live and how they move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Classifications: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plankton –are tiny algae and animals that float in the water and are carried by waves and currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nekton – free swimming animals that can move throughout the water column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benthos – organisms that inhabit the ocean floor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ocean Habitats <ul><li>Food web – the combination of all the feeding relationships in a habitat </li></ul>
  9. 9. Intertidal Zone <ul><li>Organisms in the rocky intertidal zone are subject to variable conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on whether the tide is high or low, these organisms may be covered with water or exposed to dry land. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature and salinity vary with conditions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intertidal Zone <ul><li>Estuaries – coastal inlets or bays where rivers (freshwater) mix with the ocean (saltwater) </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater and freshwater mixed together is called brackish. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of coastal wetlands found in estuaries are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mangrove forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt marshes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Neritic Zone and Open-Ocean <ul><li>Neritic zone is home to a huge variety of organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight can penetrate the water allowing algae to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A steady supply of nutrients washes from the land into the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwelling </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Neritic Zone and Open-Ocean <ul><li>Two types of habitats in neritic zone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kelp forests </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Neritic Zone and Open-Ocean <ul><li>Coral reefs- made of living things; form in shallow tropical waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoll – forms when reef forms around a sinking island. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Neritic Zone and Open Ocean <ul><li>Kelp forests- grown in cold neritic waters where there is a rocky floor. </li></ul><ul><li>They are large, heavy algae. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea otters help kelp to survive by eating the urchins that feed on them. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Neritic Zone and Open-Ocean <ul><li>Only a small part (surface zone) receives sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Water has fewer nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioluminescence – the production of light by living things. It helps organisms in the deep zone to find food in the dark waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrothermal vents – an area where water sinks through the cracks in the ocean floor, is heated by magma and rises back up. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Resources from the Ocean <ul><li>Living Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People depend on the ocean for fish and other organisms to eat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean organisms are also used in different products such as paints and detergents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aquaculture – the farming of saltwater and freshwater organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Resources from the Ocean <ul><li>Nonliving Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans use the ocean for water, fuels and minerals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels can be found on the continental shelves. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Resources from the Ocean <ul><li>Minerals can also be found beneath the ocean floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Nodules – when metals concentrate around pieces of shell and black lumps form </li></ul>
  19. 19. Resources from the Ocean <ul><li>Ocean Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some ocean pollution is a result of natural occurrences. Most is a result of human activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil Pollution, sewage, trash and chemicals can all pollute ocean water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who does the ocean belong to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than half of it belongs to no nation….so who should clean it up??? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ocean Zones <ul><li>Good Luck!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to bring your notes!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul>