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Hematopoyesis

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Hematopoyesis

  1. 1. HEMATOPOYESIS Hospital Carlos Mac Gregor Sánchez Navarro Dra. Cindy Ledesma De La Cruz SERVICIO HEMATOLOGIA
  2. 2. HEMATOPOYESIS DEFINICIÓN Es un sistema dinámico de maduración celular por el que una cantidad de progenitores (célula madre mutipotencial) es capaz, de producir y mantener, de forma constante, las células circulantes en la sangre periférica. Annals of Oncology 18 (Supplement 1): i9–i13, 2007 Williams. Hematology. Editorial Marban.p 29-45. 2005
  3. 3. En un adulto normal se producen diario: 2500 millones de eritrocitos 2500 millones de plaquetas 1000 millones de granulocitos por Kg de peso corporal Williams. Hematology. Editorial Marban.p 29-45. 2005 Compartimento pluripotencial Bipotencial Unipotencial progenitores Terminal
  4. 4. Cell. 2008 February 22; 132(4): 631–644.
  5. 5. En un adulto joven la médula ósea roja se sitúa en: Esternón, costillas, cráneo, vértebras y pelvis Williams. Hematology. Editorial Marban.p 29-45. 2005
  6. 6. • Se requieren varios elementos: • CÉLULA MADRE HEMATOPOYÉTICA •Espacio físico •Médula ósea •Microambiente •Células fibroblastos, macrófagos, osteoblastos, adipocitos, linfocitos T, células dendríticas. •Ambiente molecular •Factores de crecimiento y citocinas Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  7. 7. CÉLULA MADRE HEMATOPOYÉTICA .Es capaz de autorrenovarse: de perpetuarse así misma • Son multipotenciales capaces de generar todas las clases de CPH y de células maduras de los dos linajes principales de células. Cell. 2008 February 22; 132(4): 631–644.
  8. 8. Blood. 2015 Apr 23; 125(17): 2605–2613
  9. 9. MARCADORES DE LA CÉLULA MADRE CD34+, CD38-, CD 133, CD150
  10. 10. Blood. 2015 Apr 23; 125(17): 2605–2613
  11. 11. Médula ósea • 5% de peso corporal del adulto • Formada por sinusoides • Entre ellos existen células • Matriz fibrosa Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  12. 12. MICROAMBIENTE HEMATOPOYETICO • El MH consiste en una estructura tridimensional, altamente organizada, de células del estroma y sus productos (matriz extracelular, citocinas, quimiocinas, entre otras) que regula la localización y fisiología de las células hematopoyéticas • Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  13. 13. Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  14. 14. Células del Estroma • La palabra estroma deriva del griego que quiere decir “cama” y del latín que quiere decir “colchon. • Anteriormente se pensaba que sólo daba un soporte físico para las células hematopoyéticas Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  15. 15. Células que derivan de la hematopoyesis Macrófagos • Regulan la hematopoyesis mediante interacciones célula– célula • Secreción de citocinas estimuladoras e inhibidoras de la hematopoyesis • Factor estimulante de colonias de macrofagos (FEC-M) de granulocitos y monocitos (FEC-GM) • Interleucinas (IL) como la IL-3, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 y el factor de • necrosis tumoral alfa (TNFα). Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  16. 16. Fibroblastos: • Producen: IL-1, 6, 7, 8, 11, FEC-M, FEC-G, el factor de crecimiento de células Madre (SCM) y el interferón-beta (IFN- β) • Secretan una variedad de moléculas que forman parte de la matriz extracelular, como fibronectina, colágeno tipo I y III, heparán sulfato, acido hialurónico • Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  17. 17. Células que derivan del componente mesenquimal Osteoblastos: • Producen FCG,FCGM,IL6 • IL1 • Angiopoyetina 1 • Factor derivado del estroma Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  18. 18. Adipocitos • Se propone que pudieran Inhibir la hematopoyesis • Regulen el tamaño del nicho hematopoyético Mayani et al, Cancerología 2 (2007): 95-107
  19. 19. AMBIENTE MOLECULAR • Control de la hematopoyesis por factores intrínsecos: Factores de transcripción: son proteínas que se unen a regiones promotoras de genes, modulando la expresión de los mismos y por tanto regulando la producción de las proteínas codificadas por dichos genes. Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  20. 20. • Control de la hematopoyesis por factores extrínsecos: Llamados citocinas o factores de crecimiento • Los factores de crecimiento hematopoyéticos son moléculas necesarias para la proliferación y la supervivencia de los leucocitos y las plaquetas Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  21. 21. PROCESO HEMATOPOYÉTICO CITOCINAS MÁS IMPORTANTES Eritropoyesis Epo, SCF, IL19, IL3, Tpo Megacariopoyesis Tpo, IL3, IL6, IL11, SCF, Epo Formación de eosinófilos IL5, IL3, GM-CFS, Granulopoyesis G-CSF,GM-CSF,IL3,IL6 Formación de macrófagos M-CSF,GM-CSF,IL3 Formación de linfocitos IL7,FL,SCF,IL2,IL4,IL5,IL10, IL13,IL15 Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  22. 22. Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  23. 23. ERITROPOYESIS
  24. 24. MIELOPOYESIS
  25. 25. LINFOPOYESIS Pediatr Integral 2008;XII(5):437-442.
  26. 26. MEGACARIOPOYESIS

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