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Jan Low can non gmo climate-smart crops alone sustain small-scale farming w-out event slide

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Dr. Jan Low presentation during an official COP 23 side event at #COP23 in Bonn, Germany on 8th November 2017. More information: https://cipotato.org/blog/the-land-and-wat…r-climate-change/

Publicado en: Ciencias
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Jan Low can non gmo climate-smart crops alone sustain small-scale farming w-out event slide

  1. 1. Can non-GMO climate-smart crops alone sustain small-scale farming? Jan W. Low Principal Scientist International Potato Center 8 November 2017 Bonn, Germany
  2. 2. The Quick Answer: No! Crops must be in combination with good soil fertility management (access to organic and inorganic nutrient supplies), better water management and small-scale farmers must have an enabling environment that provides them access to knowledge and markets. To adapt to climate-change, we need to: § Produce more adapted crops faster at times under tougher environments… § Produce more with less water… It’s not just about yield, it’s about quality …
  3. 3. Focus: What does this mean for breeding? v Downscale climate change models & crop modelling to drivers of yield & quality loss Breeding programs need: § New methods… § Considerable resources .. because breeding is a numbers game.. § Cheaper and faster tools to assess progress… § Better understanding of the crop § Genome § Physiology & Biochemistry
  4. 4. 1. Climate change will increase food prices 2. Increasing food prices worsens extreme poverty 3. Per capita demand for roots and tubers in SSA significantly higher than cereals in 2050 4. Technological change in roots and tubers essential to dampen food price increases and risk of hunger under any climate change scenario World Bank 2016 Cassava Potato Sweetpotato Yam Other R&T Focus: Roots & tubers in the context of climate change?
  5. 5. In SSA, >95% of sweetpotato & potato are grown on small farms.. Fastest in area expansion in SSA because of high energy output per unit area per unit time.. Sweetpotato (194 MJ/ha/day) vs maize (145 MJ/ha/day) Breeding for small-farms § Yield and pest and disease resistance… especially viruses § Virus resistant varieties enable farmers to retain clonally propagated seed longer without yield decline § Pest resistant varieties– decline in pesticide use § For sweetpotato, conduct trials without fertilizer because farmers do not use fertilizer § Drought and heat tolerance § High nutrient quality § Sweetpotato: address vitamin A deficiency problems § Iron & Zinc in potato; Fe in orange-fleshed sweetpotato § Good taste and market demand
  6. 6. Improved methods & tools led to drought tolerant orange-fleshed sweetpotatoes in Mozambique § Drought is complex § Ability to sprout after dry season § Vine vigor § Adequate yield under good conditions § For quality traits, Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) permitted fast throughput (2 minutes per sample) at a reasonable cost. § Provides protein, dry matter, sugars § Beta-carotene, Ca, rough Fe & Zn § Accelerated breeding scheme § More sites earlier § Reduced cycle from 8 to 4 years § 15 released in 2011; 7 more in 2016 § Farmer involvement § Genetic gain: 0.3 tons/ha/year Improved vine vigor (on right) critical trait in drought breeding program Andrade et al. 2016, Journal of Agricultural Science 1-11.
  7. 7. Our experience with biofortified orange-fleshed sweetpotato in SSA § Neglected crop because considered as crop of the poor, a woman’s crop § Introduced materials usually very susceptible to East African viruses § Adults in SSA have strong preference for high dry matter § Recognized the need to Breed in Africa for Africa § 2 SSA countries breeding in 2005 § 13 countries breeding in 2017 § 3 CIP-led population development programs § Focus on early maturing varieties § 40 of 71 released since 2009 mature <4 mo Low et al., 2017, Global Food Security 14: 23-30 No point in breeding if does not reach farmers: § Launched Sweetpotato for Profit and Health Initiative § 4.2 million households reached by September 2017 SSA Breeders in front of crossing block
  8. 8. The Andes is the home of the potato & a microcosm for studying climate change… § Center of potato diversity § More than 4,000 varieties and landraces can be found § Local farmers conserving through cultivating around 3,000 landraces § Warming trend since 1950, 3 times the global rate § Studying changes along the altitude gradient § Higher temperatures in areas located in higher latitudes will lead to longer growing seasons and higher yields, but also increased pest and pathogen pressure § Potato production moving higher to avoid disease problems § Quality also affected: Lower dry matter content with increasing heat.. § Breeding for heat tolerance
  9. 9. Globally breeding for early maturing potato.. -- Cereal-potato intercrops -- Many 90 day, pushing for 70 day LD-33.100 LD-80.78 0 10 20 30 40 50 tn/ha Clones UNICA REICHE REVOLUCION LD-33.58LD- 22.58 LD- 92.42 LD-88.104LD- 16.72 LD-19.90 Evaluation of yield (San Ramon, harvest at 70 dap) Clones Yield (t/Ha)
  10. 10. Late Blight is a difficult disease challenge… that is expected to worsen in parts of SSA • LB severity - current • LB severity - 2090 Legend Ethiopia: increase in frequency of fungicide application from once a month to once a week Breeding Approach: Stack three different resistant R genes in Victoria variety Promising results in confined field trials in Uganda
  11. 11. Modern toolbox is expanding… New gene editing techniques move away from needing foreign organisms to introduce traits Called CRISPR/Cas System § Precise searching.. & editing § Can remove “junk” § Shut specific genes off § Introduce genetic changes § Can target many genes at once § Much, much cheaper § More public sector research § Faster outcomes § Hopefully, more pro-poor outcomes CRISPR (clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnYppmstxIs)
  12. 12. Many thanks for your attention To learn more: www.sweetpotatoknowledge.org Cipotato.org

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