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… the life-blood from those veins, the best and sweetest of the land, drips slowly down, and death’s ooze already begins its little bubbles on the lips.…
Vice-President Andrew Johnson is now President -from the South -a Democrat (most members of Congress are Republicans)
sharecropping -freedmen farmed white landowners’ land using supplies provided by the landowner in exchange for a share of the harvest
black codes -laws passed by southern states designed to keep African Americans in a condition similar to slavery.
Political Conditions Congress, northern Republicans want to punish white southerners and protect rights of former slaves -former Confederate leaders getting elected to state governments and
Military Reconstruction southern states had to ratify the 14 th Amendment, African Americans had - divided the South into five military districts commanded by army generals, to be allowed to vote in all southern states
Civil War Amendments 14 th -granted citizenship to all people born in the U.S., 13 th -banned slavery throughout the nation, 15 th -no citizen may be denied the right to vote because of race
<ul><li>provided food, clothing, jobs, medical care to freedmen and poor whites </li></ul><ul><li>-set up schools for freedmen (300,000 attended) </li></ul><ul><li>-teachers were volunteers, often women, from the North </li></ul>Freedmen’s Bureau
Carpetbaggers : Southerners who had been loyal to the US during the Civil War, or who were helping Republicans. Northerners who moved South to hold office or take advantage of economic opportunities in the South. Scalawags :
The White League and the KKK : - racist groups created to make conditions for freedmen unbearable. They used violence and fear to control freedmen.
Lynching : -murder committed by a mob The following photographs are graphic. You may look away.
Reconstruction’s End -by 1877 northerners grew tired of trying to change the South and wanted to forget the war -white southerners began voting again and denied African Americans the right to vote
Disenfranchisement: -denying someone the right to vote literacy tests: poll taxes: grandfather clauses: -voters had to pay a tax before they could vote -voters had to prove they could read -allowed poor/illiterate white southerners to vote
Jim Crow Laws -laws that created separate facilities for African Americans and whites (schools, restaurants, trains, hospitals, theaters, etc.)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) -the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for African Americans and whites were equal, which they rarely were -“Separate but Equal” -made Jim Crow legal
racism -the belief that one race is superior to another
prejudice -irrational suspicion or hatred of a particular group based on race, or religion
oppression -the act of controlling or denying a group rights due to prejudice
stereotype -an oversimplified generalization about a person or group
discrimination -unfair treatment of a person or group because of their race
segregation -separating people of different races in schools, housing, and public or private facilities
dehumanization <ul><li>process by which members of one group remove human traits from members of another group, making them seem less than human </li></ul>-can lead to violence, human rights violations, and genocide
genocide <ul><li>mass murder or abuse of a group (race, religion, ethnicity, nationality, etc.) </li></ul>