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Transforming Korea into a Creative 
Economy: The Role of Clusters 
1 
Dr. Christian H. M. Ketels 
Institute for Strategy a...
Korea 2014 
2 
• One of the most impressive 
success stories of the last 
50 years 
– Economy 
– Innovative capacity 
– Gl...
Korea’s Answer: The Creative Economy Action Plan 
Measures to Establish a Creative Economy Ecosystem 
3 Goals 
3 
6 Strate...
Becoming A Creative Economy: The Role of Clusters 
• Clusters, Creativity, and Economic Performance – what do we know? 
• ...
Clusters are the Building Blocks of Modern Economies 
Related Industries + Geographic Proximity + Linkages 
5
Regional Economies have Distinct Cluster Portfolios 
Leading Clusters by US Regions 
6 
Boston, MA-NH 
Analytical Instrume...
Linkages Across Clusters 
7 
Plastics 
Oil and 
Gas 
Chemical 
Products 
Pharma-ceuticals 
Aerospace 
Vehicles & 
Defense ...
Quantifying the Importance of Clusters 
• Close to 50% of U.S. private payroll, 96% of patents, and (by 
definition) 100% ...
Cluster Presence and Economic Outcomes 
Prosperity Entrepreneurship Structural Change 
9 
Positive correlation between 
sh...
Clusters and Business Environment Quality 
10 
WEAK 
Business Environment 
STRONG 
Business Environment 
Specialization me...
The Case for Cluster-Based Economic Development 
11 
• Clusters emerge naturally in the 
market process 
BUT 
• Collaborat...
How Important are Cluster Initiatives? 
• The European Cluster Observatory lists more than 2000 cluster 
initiatives and r...
Clusters, Cluster Initiatives, and Performance 
+ = 
13 Copyright 2013 © Christian Ketels 
CLUSTER 
PRESENCE 
CLUSTER 
EFF...
What Drives the Success of Cluster Efforts? 
External 
Internal 
14 Copyright 2014 © Christian Ketels 
Setting 
• Cluster ...
Types of Cluster Organizations 
Different Models of Public-Private Engagement 
15 
MassMEDIC 
Boston 
Aerospace 
Hamburg 
...
Cluster Efforts and the Creative Economy 
Action Domains 
16 
Channel to support 
effective upgrading of 
the Business 
En...
Translating the Cluster Approach to the Korean Context 
• History of successful government-led development 
– Government p...
Cluster Policy in Three Different Contexts 
• Cluster initiatives are 
often public sector 
initiated 
18 
• Clusters have...
Cluster Policy to Foster Innovation and Creativity 
From Hard Infrastructure to Soft Linkages 
Changing roles of the suppo...
New Tasks for Korean Cluster Organizations 
• Move beyond the geographical boundaries of industrial parks and 
20 
the com...
Korea Entering a New Era: 
Is More Creativity Enough? 
21
Korea’s Competitiveness Profile 2013 
Macro (42) 
Political Institutions 
(97) 
Rule of Law 
(57) 
Human Development 
(38)...
Observations on Korea 
• Innovation performance is strong in specific industries 
• Performance is strong on technology-dr...
Korea’s Current Challenge – Is More Creativity Enough? 
Putting Cluster Efforts into Context 
• Korea is facing a broader ...
Korea’s Current Challenge – Is More Creativity Enough? 
Putting Cluster Efforts into Context 
• The government’s ‘Creative...
Back-Up 
26
New Tasks for South Korea’s Cluster Policy 
• Existing Korean cluster efforts in science-driven special economic zones 
ha...
Creative Economy Action Plan 
Six Strategies 
▲ Creating an economic ecosystem where creativity is fairly rewarded 
where ...
Towards a New Mix of Corporate Models in Korea 
• The Korean model is based on large business groups with scale and 
globa...
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Kicox 2014 clusters creative economy 09 13-14 ck

  1. 1. Transforming Korea into a Creative Economy: The Role of Clusters 1 Dr. Christian H. M. Ketels Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness Harvard Business School President, TCI Network KICOX 50th Anniversary 15 September 2014 Seoul, South Korea
  2. 2. Korea 2014 2 • One of the most impressive success stories of the last 50 years – Economy – Innovative capacity – Global recognition • But can the current model deliver progress for the next generation? – Two-tier economy – Middle class blues – Demographics
  3. 3. Korea’s Answer: The Creative Economy Action Plan Measures to Establish a Creative Economy Ecosystem 3 Goals 3 6 Strategies 24 Tasks Changing the business environment Fostering collaboration
  4. 4. Becoming A Creative Economy: The Role of Clusters • Clusters, Creativity, and Economic Performance – what do we know? • Cluster-based Economic Policy – what works? 4 • Implications for Korea and KICOX
  5. 5. Clusters are the Building Blocks of Modern Economies Related Industries + Geographic Proximity + Linkages 5
  6. 6. Regional Economies have Distinct Cluster Portfolios Leading Clusters by US Regions 6 Boston, MA-NH Analytical Instruments Education and Knowledge Creation Biopharmaceuticals Medical Devices San Jose-San Francisco, CA Business Services Information Technology Agricultural Products Communications Equipment Biopharmaceuticals Los Angeles, CA Entertainment Apparel Distribution Services Hospitality and Tourism New York, NY-NJ-CT-PA Financial Services Biopharmaceuticals Jewelry and Precious Metals Publishing and Printing Seattle, WA Aerospace Vehicles and Defense Information Technology Entertainment Fishing and Fishing Products Chicago, IL-IN-WI Metal Manufacturing Lighting and Electrical Equipment Production Technology Plastics Denver, CO Business Services Medical Devices Entertainment Oil and Gas Products and Services Raleigh-Durham, NC Education and Knowledge Creation Biopharmaceuticals Communications Equipment Textiles Pittsburgh, PA Education and Knowledge Creation Metal Manufacturing Chemical Products Power Generation and Transmission San Diego, CA Medical Devices Analytical Instruments Hospitality and Tourism Education and Knowledge Creation Atlanta, GA Transportation and Logistics Textiles Motor Driven Products Construction Materials Dallas Aerospace Vehicles and Defense Oil and Gas Products and Services Information Technology Transportation and Logistics Houston, TX Oil and Gas Products and Services Chemical Products Heavy Construction Services Transportation and Logistics Source: Prof. Michael E. Porter, Cluster Mapping Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School; Richard Bryden, Project Director.
  7. 7. Linkages Across Clusters 7 Plastics Oil and Gas Chemical Products Pharma-ceuticals Aerospace Vehicles & Defense Lightning & Electrical Equipment Power Generation Financial Services Publishing and Printing Hospitality and Tourism Leather and Sporting Goods Entertainment Education and Knowledge Creation Information Technology Transportation and Logistics Communi-cations Equipment Medical Devices Analytical Instruments Apparel Agricultural Products Processe d Food Furniture Building Fixtures, Equipme nt and Services Sporting, Recreation and Children’s Goods Business Services Distribution Services Fishing & Fishing Products Footwear Forest Products Heavy Construction Services Jewelry & Precious Metals Construction Materials Prefabricated Enclosures Textiles Tobacco Heavy Machinery Aerospace Engines Automotive Production Technology Motor Driven Products Metal Manufacturing
  8. 8. Quantifying the Importance of Clusters • Close to 50% of U.S. private payroll, 96% of patents, and (by definition) 100% of exports are generated in economic sectors that ‘cluster’ in specific locations • In the US and Europe, roughly 15% of employment (45% of all cluster employment) is in strong clusters; i.e. regional clusters with 8 significant critical mass
  9. 9. Cluster Presence and Economic Outcomes Prosperity Entrepreneurship Structural Change 9 Positive correlation between share of regional employment in strong clusters (breadth of clusters; related cluster strength) and: •Wages • Productivity • Job growth/resilience • Patenting Positive correlation between share of regional employment in strong clusters (strength of related cluster) and: • New business formation in new/existing industries • Survival of new firms • Job growth in new firms Path of structural change (emergence of new clusters) in regional economies is driven by legacy of composition (portfolio of existing clusters) e.g. Porter (2003), Greenstone (2008). Delgado/Porter/Stern (2012), Ketels/Protsiv (2013), Aharonson et al (2013) e.g., Delgado/Porter/Stern (2011), Lindqvist/ Wennerberg (2008) e.g., Neffke et al (2009); Boschma et al. (2013)
  10. 10. Clusters and Business Environment Quality 10 WEAK Business Environment STRONG Business Environment Specialization measured by employment LQ Impact of higher employment LQ on wages 1 Source: Ketels/Protsiv, 2013 3 2
  11. 11. The Case for Cluster-Based Economic Development 11 • Clusters emerge naturally in the market process BUT • Collaboration within a cluster is beneficial yet not automatic; government can help to alleviate collective action problems • Government policies are motivated by market failures, not the presence of clusters alone BUT • The effectiveness of these policies can be enhanced by focusing them on clusters, aligning them with the common needs of groups of firms Encouraging collective action in clusters Organizing government policies around clusters
  12. 12. How Important are Cluster Initiatives? • The European Cluster Observatory lists more than 2000 cluster initiatives and related organizations; a similar list in the US has a growing number as well • The highest number of cluster initiatives (absolute, per employee) is in information technology and biotech • Most OECD countries and many regions have cluster-related policy programs • Spending on cluster-related programs is meaningful but only a modest percentage of total spending per policy area 12 Copyright 2013 © Christian Ketels
  13. 13. Clusters, Cluster Initiatives, and Performance + = 13 Copyright 2013 © Christian Ketels CLUSTER PRESENCE CLUSTER EFFORT ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE + = + =
  14. 14. What Drives the Success of Cluster Efforts? External Internal 14 Copyright 2014 © Christian Ketels Setting • Cluster with critical mass of existing economic activities • Broader policy environment focused on competitiveness upgrading Organization Activities • Capabilities of the Cluster Initiative Manager • Private sector logic needs to drive the organization, public sector critical to create the right environment • Strategic action agenda grounded in understanding of the relevant market • Operational effectiveness in individual activities
  15. 15. Types of Cluster Organizations Different Models of Public-Private Engagement 15 MassMEDIC Boston Aerospace Hamburg Clusterland Upper Austria • Founded by private sector-leaders on their own initiative • Led by companies • Core financing through membership fees • Founded by companies in response to public program • Led by companies • Core financing through public programs • Founded by public sector • Run as quasi-public entity serving firms • Core financing through public budget Initiative Operation Funding
  16. 16. Cluster Efforts and the Creative Economy Action Domains 16 Channel to support effective upgrading of the Business Environment Platform for collective action to mobilize creativity across all sectors of the economy Mechanism to strengthen specific new groups of related creative industries
  17. 17. Translating the Cluster Approach to the Korean Context • History of successful government-led development – Government provided sharp, market-based incentives – Development of industries in line with evolving competitive advantages – Alignment of industry support with competitiveness upgrading • National specialization in specific industries • Collaboration in chaebols instead of clusters of independent firms • Strong regional concentration of economic activity around Seoul • The learnings from cluster research in other parts of the world are highly relevant to South Korea • But the policy conclusions drawn will need to reflect the country’s specific circumstances 17
  18. 18. Cluster Policy in Three Different Contexts • Cluster initiatives are often public sector initiated 18 • Clusters have emerged in a market-driven process • Cluster initiatives are bottom-up, often private sector driven • Clusters have emerged in a market-driven processer • Industry specialization has been driven by government policies • Cluster initiatives are often public sector initiated Government-driven Market-driven
  19. 19. Cluster Policy to Foster Innovation and Creativity From Hard Infrastructure to Soft Linkages Changing roles of the support organization Changing demands on its skills and capabilities 19 Dedicated infrastructure and incentives Technology transfer and linkages • From service provider to facilitator • Developing a strategic positioning for the cluster • Packaging of available policy instruments Cluster engagement and support
  20. 20. New Tasks for Korean Cluster Organizations • Move beyond the geographical boundaries of industrial parks and 20 the companies they host • Strengthen two-way interaction between the cluster and government – What does government have to offer that the cluster can use? – What should government do to enhance the cluster’s competitiveness? • Facilitate collaboration among companies in the cluster • Develop linkages to related clusters, at home and abroad • Connect clusters to regional competitiveness efforts • Move from providing cluster services to encouraging cluster efforts
  21. 21. Korea Entering a New Era: Is More Creativity Enough? 21
  22. 22. Korea’s Competitiveness Profile 2013 Macro (42) Political Institutions (97) Rule of Law (57) Human Development (38) Context for Strategy and Rivalry (80) Related and Supporting Industries (27) Demand Conditions (23) Factor Input Conditions (26) Micro (30) Comm. (9) Innov (23) CLUSTER Logistic. (12) Skills (27) Capital (80) GDP pc (26) GCI (33) Social Infra-structure and Pol. Institutions (51) Macroeconomic Policy (1) National Business Environment (32) Company Operations and Strategy (26) Source: Unpublished data from the Global Competitiveness Report (2013), author’s analysis. Significant advantage Moderate advantage Neutral Moderate disadvantage Significant disadvantage Admin (33)
  23. 23. Observations on Korea • Innovation performance is strong in specific industries • Performance is strong on technology-driven innovation • Performance is strong in innovation-driven economic outcomes • The ‘Korean wave’ is one indication that the country’s culture combines discipline and repetition with significant creative capacity Key challenges • Dominance of large companies • Regional imbalances within the country • Level of academic excellence • External linkages have grown, but remain limited relative to peers • Increasing concerns about inequality 23 Copyright 2013 © Christian Ketels
  24. 24. Korea’s Current Challenge – Is More Creativity Enough? Putting Cluster Efforts into Context • Korea is facing a broader transformation as an economy and society • Korea does NOT lack the ideas or creativity for this transformation – Korea has made impressive strides in building its innovative capacity – Korean companies are competing globally on innovation and brand – The Korean Wave is one sign of the country’s creative power • But Korea needs to overcome structural barriers that limit the potential 24 for these assets to be fully utilized The export-oriented industries remained overly dominated by a few Korean MNCs The domestic economy lacks dynamism and competitive pressure for structural change
  25. 25. Korea’s Current Challenge – Is More Creativity Enough? Putting Cluster Efforts into Context • The government’s ‘Creative Economy Action Plan’ is already outlining an agenda that is much broader than ‘more creativity’ • But more clarity in communicating how Korea needs to change would 25 be helpful to ensure impact… • …and some additional efforts on opening up local industries and dominant companies might be needed • Cluster efforts and support organizations like KICOX can then play a critical role in supporting Korea’s new growth path
  26. 26. Back-Up 26
  27. 27. New Tasks for South Korea’s Cluster Policy • Existing Korean cluster efforts in science-driven special economic zones have achieved measurable success • But achieving full impact in the future will require more than increasing the number and size of the existing efforts • Encourage innovation in non-science driven areas • Encourage the bottom-up emergence of cluster organizations • Organize government activities in other policy areas (workforce skill upgrading, investment attraction, …) around clusters 27
  28. 28. Creative Economy Action Plan Six Strategies ▲ Creating an economic ecosystem where creativity is fairly rewarded where business startups are easier (strategy 1) ▲ Promoting venture capital firms and small-to-medium businesses playing a leading role in the creative economy and make inroads into global markets (strategy 2) ▲ Creating the growth engine for pioneering new industry and markets (strategy 3) ▲ Fostering the global creative human capital talent who have the vision and wherewithal to become a vital part of the creative economy (strategy 4) ▲ Expanding the nation’s science technology and ICT innovation capabilities, which lay the foundation for the creative economy (strategy 5) ▲ Initiating the creative economic culture that promotes the involvement of both government and people (strategy 6) http://english.mosf.go.kr/eco/view.do?bcd=E0005&vbcd=N0001&seq=3289 &bPage=1 28
  29. 29. Towards a New Mix of Corporate Models in Korea • The Korean model is based on large business groups with scale and global reach – This model was well placed to serve an economy in catch-up mode, where large scale, capital-intensive operations had to be build up – Used suppliers essentially to keep costs low, drawing on their lower wage costs, etc. • But the role of large MNCs is changing… – Increasingly the ‘orchestrators’ of global value chains – Best in leveraging and scaling innovations, not necessarily in creating them • …and with it the demands on their SME suppliers and partners – Need to reach high quality to meet the operational demands of MNCs – Need to deliver create many of the innovations that the MNCs can market • Is Korea changing in line with this model? 29 Copyright 2013 © Christian Ketels
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