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Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation: Indian Efforts

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Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation: Indian Efforts. Highly useful for competetive exams like UPSC.

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Biodiversity Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation: Indian Efforts

  1. 1. Biodiversity/Environment Protection and Climate change mitigation: Indian Efforts Compiled by Dr. Anoob Razak [Check http://www.clearias.com for more!]
  2. 2. What’s inside? Wildlife Protection Act Environment Protection Act Forest Policy Biodiversity Act National Green Tribunal and much more
  3. 3. forest & wildlife in the Concurrent list The Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. ◦DPSP - Article 48 A “The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country” ◦Fundamental Duty- Article 51 A (g) “it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures”
  4. 4. Chandragupta Maurya & Arthashastra Ashoka Sacred Spaces/Groves 1879- Elephants Preservation Act 1887- Wild Birds Protection Act 1912- Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act 1936- Hailey National Park 1972- Wild Life (Protection) Act
  5. 5. The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 Not applicable to J & K Shall not affect the hunting rights of Scheduled Tribes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands in UT of A & N Islands amended in 1982, 1986, 1991, 1993, 2002, 2006 The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2013
  6. 6. 6 Schedule Lists ◦Schedule 1 ◦Schedule II ◦Schedule III ◦Schedule IV ◦Schedule V - may be hunted ◦Schedule VI – plants (amendment of 1991) Maximum protection with highest penalty also protected but penalties are lower
  7. 7. National Parks & Wild Life Sanctuaries Conservation Reserves & Community Reserves Central Zoo Authority National Board for Wild Life National Tiger Conservation Authority Tiger & Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau (Wildlife Crime Control Bureau)
  8. 8. The Environment (Protection) Act 1986 UN Conference on Human Environment, Stockholm, 1972 "environment" includes water, air and land and the inter- relationship which exists among and between water, air and land, and human beings, other living creatures, plants, micro-organism and property
  9. 9. the Central Government, shall have the power to take all such measures as it deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing controlling and abating environmental pollution. power to issue directions to any industry
  10. 10. National Forest Policy 1988 The national goal- minimum of one-third of the total land area of the country under forest or tree cover Indian Forest Act, 1927 ◦Reserve Forest vs Protected Forest Indian Forest (Amendment) Bill, 2012
  11. 11. Indian State of the Forest Report 2011 ◦Forest Survey of India (FSI) ◦biennial assessment report since 1987 ◦2011 Forest +Tree Cover- 23.81% Very Dense, Moderately Dense, Open Forest Mangrove added for the first time
  12. 12. Forest Area vs Forest Cover Forest Area – all geographical area recorded as forests in govt records Forest Cover – all lands more than 1 hectare area with tree canopy more than 10% Forest Cover – 3 density classes based on canopy cover Very Dense – 70-100% canopy cover Moderately dense forests – 40-70% (maximum area is this type) Open forests – 10-40% Rest is called Tree Cover/Scrub i.e. Degraded forest lands with canopy density less than 10%
  13. 13. India State of the Forest Report 2013 ◦Forest + Tree Cover - 24.01 percent of the geographical area of the country ◦majority of the increase in the forest cover has been observed in open forest category mainly outside forest areas ◦maximum increase in forest cover has been observed in West Bengal, followed by Odisha and Kerala ◦Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in terms of area in the country followed by Arunachal Pradesh ◦In terms of percentage of forest cover with respect to total geographical area, Mizoram with 90.38 percent had the highest forest cover in terms of percentage of forest cover to Geographical area followed by Lakshadweep with 84.56 percent
  14. 14. New features of IFSR 2013 ◦Important Characteristics of India’s Forest (describes important features of forest areas like regeneration status, susceptibility to various injuries, crop composition, its origin, forest soil characteristic etc.) ◦Trees in Agroforestry System (giving information on area, growing stock and carbon stock etc. under Agroforestry);and ◦Urban Tree Resources (giving information on green cover and growing stock of wood in urban areas)
  15. 15. Biological Diversity Act 2002 An act to provide for conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of biological resources To meet the obligations under Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) National Biodiversity Authority
  16. 16. Highlights of the Act all foreign national require approval from NBA for obtaining Biological Resources Indian individuals/entities to seek approval before transferring knowledge / research and material to foreigners. Prior approval of NBA before applying for any kind of IPR based on research conducted on biological material and or associated knowledge obtained from India Indians required to provide prior intimation to State Biodiversity Boards for obtaining biological material for commercial purposes. SBB can regulate such access Growers and cultivators of Biological Diversity and vaids and hakims who are practicing Indian system of medicines and local people exempted
  17. 17. Civil Service Preliminary 2012  Q) How does the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) help in protecting Indian agriculture? 1.NBA checks Biopiracy & protects the indigenous & traditional genetic resources. 2.NBA directly monitors & supervises the scientific research on genetic modification of crop plants. 3.Application of Intellectual Property Rights related to genetic/biological resources cannot be made without the approval of NBA Which of the above statements are correct? a) 1 only b) 2 & 3 only c) 1 & 3 only d) 1, 2 & 3
  18. 18. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 Forest Rights Act, 2006 potential tool for empowerment of Forest Dwellers
  19. 19. Significance Community Rights in addition to their individual rights Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resource which the communities have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use. Right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity Rights of displaced communities Rights over developmental activities
  20. 20. The Gram Sabha shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forest rights or both that may be given to the forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers within the local limits of its jurisdiction
  21. 21. right to hold and live in the forest land under the individual or common occupation for habitation or for self cultivation for livelihood by a member or members of a forest dwelling Scheduled Tribe or other traditional forest dwellers
  22. 22. right of ownership, access to collect, use, and dispose of minor forest produce which has been traditionally collected within or outside village boundaries “minor forest produce” includes all non-timber forest produce of plant origin including bamboo, brush wood, stumps, cane, cocoons, honey, wax, lac, tendu or kendu leaves, medicinal plants and herbs, roots, tubers, and the like
  23. 23. Civil Service Preliminary 2013  Q) Under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, who shall be the authority to initiate the process for determining the nature and extent of individual or community forests rights or both? a)State Forest Department b)District Collector/Deputy Commissioner c)Tahsildar/Block Development Officer/ Mandal Revenue Officer d)Gram Sabha
  24. 24. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 An Act to provide for the establishment of a National Green Tribunal for the effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property
  25. 25. the right to healthy environment has been construed as a part of the right to life under article 21 of the Constitution
  26. 26. National Green Tribunal Statutory body established under the act composition of NGT ◦A full time chairman (who should have been a judge of SC or CJ of a HC) ◦at least 10 (and maximum 20) full time judicial members ◦at least 10 full time expert members 5 places of sittings New Delhi, Chennai, Pune, Bhopal, Kolkata disposal of applications & appeals within 6 months i.e. fast track resolution of environment related cases
  27. 27. Civil Service Preliminary 2012  Q) The National Green Tribunal Act,2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India 1.Right to healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to life under article 21 2.Provisions of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Areas for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1). 3.Powers & functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned in Article 243 (A) Which of the above statements are correct? a) 1 only b) 2 & 3 only c) 1 & 3 only d) 1, 2 & 3
  28. 28. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) launched in 2008 prepared under guidance & direction of Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change objective ◦to establish an effective, cooperative and equitable approach based on principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, enshrined in the UNFCCC
  29. 29. 1)National Solar Mission 2)National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency 3)National Mission on Sustainable Habitat 4)National water Mission 5)National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem 6)National Mission for a Green India 7)National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture 8)National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
  30. 30. National Wildlife Action Plan First in 1983 2002-2016 ◦Ecological security & in-situ conservation ◦People’s support for wildlife ◦Effective management of protected areas ◦Control of poaching, taxidermy & illegal trade in wild animal & plant species ◦Development of wildlife tourism ◦Human resource development & personnel training ◦Integration with other sectoral programs ◦Conservation awareness & education
  31. 31. National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems New scheme by central govt, created by merger of 2 plans ◦National Wetland Conservation Program & National Lake Conservation Plan under MoEF Objectives ◦Holistic conservation of lakes & wetlands ◦Improvement in Biodiversity & ecosystem ◦Reduction of pollution & improvement of services provided by these water bodies
  32. 32. National Environment Policy 2006 Article 48 A – ◦Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life Article 51 A(g)- ◦to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures Judicial interpretation of Article 21
  33. 33. “Polluter Pays” principle the perpetrator of the “externality” bear the cost (or benefit) of the impact Legal liabilities in the policy the policy adopts Civil liability for environmental damage that would deter environmentally harmful actions, and compensate the victims of environmental damage  Public Trust Doctrine  The State is not an absolute owner, but a trustee of all natural resources, which are by nature meant for public use and enjoyment, subject to reasonable conditions
  34. 34. Monitorable Targets in the 12th Plan 13 monitorable targets in the realm of Environment, Forestry & Wildlife during the 12th FYP, under four distinct areas of ◦Environment and Climate Change ◦Forests and Livelihood ◦Wildlife, Ecotourism and Animal Welfare ◦Ecosystem and Biodiversity
  35. 35. Environment & Climate Change 1.Assess and remediate 12 identified contaminated sites (hazardous chemicals and wastes) with potential for ground water contamination by 2017. 2.Clean 80 per cent of critically polluted stretches in rivers by 2017 and 100 per cent by 2020. 3.States to meet NAAQS* in urban areas by 2017. (NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards) 4.To reduce emission intensity of our GDP in line with the target of 20 to 25 percent reduction over 2005 levels by 2020.
  36. 36. Forest & Livelihood 5.Greening 5 million ha under Green India Mission including degraded lands, afforestation and ecorestoration of ecologically sensitive areas. 6.Technology-based monitoring of forest cover, biodiversity and growing stock and establishment of open web-based National Forestry and Environmental Information system for research and public accessibility by 2015. 7.Engagement of Village Green Guards/Community Foresters for every Joint Forest Management (JFM) 8.Establish forestry seed bank in forest circles and Model Nursery in every district
  37. 37. Wildlife, Ecotourism & Animal Welfare 9.20% of veterinary professionals in the country will be trained in treating wildlife. 10.Integrated Ecotourism District Plans covering 10 per cent of all potential Protected Areas (PAs) by 2017. 11.Promoting participation of private sector, civil societies, NGOs and philanthropists in animal welfare.
  38. 38. Ecosystem & Biodiversity 12.Restore 0.1 million ha of wetlands/inland lakes/water bodies by 2017. 13.Mapping and preparation of biodiversity management plans for deserts (both cold and arid), coastal areas, important coral zones, wetlands, mangroves and so on to be completed by 2017.
  39. 39. Thank You! Check http://www.clearias.com for more! 39

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