Established in 1945, the company is top 1 automobile
manufacturer in India, world’s 4th largest truck
manufacturers and world’s third largest bus manufacturer.
Tata motors has produced & sold more than 4 million cars in
India so far.
It has more than 25000 employees, 4500 engineers and
scientists and with R&D.
Tata launched “TATA INDICA” India’s largest selling car,
which is India’s first fully indigenous car.
In 2005, they created a new segment mini trucks with the
launch of “TATA ACE”.
In Jan 2008, TATA unveiled its “People car” , TATA NANO the
Dream of Sri RATAN TATA, a car cheap enough for motor
For this project, TATA adopted “COLLABARATIVE
APPROACH”, which usually believes in vertically integrated
approach and company believes it could do everything
better than others
BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING
Outsourcing was into New product development, SCM,
Design and styling of its products also.
Refined the manufacturing process by breaking down every
component of the car into its smallest pieces.
eliminating everything that was unnecessary.
outsourcing its manufacturing to a limited number of
NANO was more eco-friendly and affordable with a millage
of 23 KM/ltr.
It even attracted rich individuals.
“A Promise is a Promise” said Ratan TATA, on launch of TATA
The NANO project didn’t grab the attention of only Indians
but whole word.
Three major requirement of TATA Motor’s engineers is
Low cost (₹ 1,00,000)
Acceptable performance standards( 4 wheeler)
A scooter with two more back wheels for better stability.
An auto rickshaw with four wheels?
A four wheeled rural car?
A four wheeled open car with safety side bar?
Made with openings like auto rikshaw?
And so on…
But market wanted a CAR and not something people would say
“That’s just a scooter with four wheels or auto-rickshaw with four
Named the project X3 consisting of 5 major team members from
Girish Wagh one of the 5 members, did something no one at tata
“He interacted with customers”
He approached with a question, why? Why do you want a four
Interestingly, customers said,
“If I had a four wheeler, I would have better marriage prospects in
Drivers of 3 wheelers are looked down upon in India.
Then he understood that four wheels had an emotional, not just
what type of
The car has to be built on a different platform as compared to the
It must meet all the safety and regulatory requirements.
The car has to be designed so that it can be exported.
The car must be a beacon for the Indian automobile Industry and
prove the world India is capable enough.
The design team initially came up with a vehicle which had bars,
which wasmore of a quadricycle than a car, so a failure.
Wagh used to spend an hour or two on the floor in order to take
suggestions from designers, manufacturing team.
Then team grew into 500 members, on a daily basis 5 core
members gathered to discuss about development and
Ratan Tata insisted to change the design, he wanted it to be easy
for tall people to get in and out and the height was increased by
The initial two cylinder engine was 580cc, later the capacity raised
to 624cc to have optimumengine performance.
The trunk is only accessible from inside the car as the rear hatch
One wide wiper instead of usual pair.
No power steering, radio or music can be fitted as accessories.
No air bags In any model
624cc two engine cylinder.
No air conditioning.
To ease the assembly, body panels are glued instead of welded.
as a source of
TATA MOTORS considered COLLABORATION as the source of
innovation from different company’s idea to reduce cost.
TATA divided the components into two types – proprietary design
For proprietary design components Tata went with established
suppliers such as BOSCHGROUP.
BOSCH GROUP, which supplies the engine management systems.
Bosch group decided to take the challenge to be a part in cheapest
car though they (Bosch) developed systems only for high end
Bosch again split the development between its design centers
Bangalore and Germany
Using local design capabilities was a crucial decision and
employment took place at higher wage levels.
Bosch developed a software consists of electronic control unit,
fuel injectors, sensors, ignition oil, tank vent level and throttle
Cost effective “drum brakes” were used.
There were more than 100 suppliers.
The brief to suppliers was:
“Make things smaller and lighter, do away with superficial parts, and
change the material wherever possible”
A few did their own way and few developed with the tata motors.
Arvind Kapur, CEO of Rico, supplier of blocks to the engine,
decided to use aluminum for engine instead of traditional cast iron
as it was smaller, lighter and cost was less.
Rico also found a way not to connect the engine with the rear
Price negotiations from Tata motors side apparently started from
50%of what suppliers offered.
EOS was very crucial factor to reach low cost of the product.
Tata wanted to build one million Nano’s per year.
NANO is constructed of components that can be built and shipped
separately to be assembled in a variety of location.
So. Tata nano is being sold in KITS.
Any local entrepreneur can establish assembly unit and can sell in
Though It succeeded in creating huge market hype before the
launch, it took whole 2 years to sell its 1,00,000th car.
Couldn’t meet the annual sales expectations of 2,50,000 cars.
First reason is the forced movement of production plant from west
Bengal to sanand, Gujarat because of strike.
“Hence company was unable to deliver cars to first buyer’s in time”
Few fire incidents and resulted media sensitivity.
Negative word of mouth from non targeted customers who
bought the car.
Positioning as “worlds cheapest car” was actually a disaster in
How do you view Tata Nano as an innovation ?
A differentiated product or a low cost product
Tata Nano is a both a differentiated product with the lowest
Tata Nano is a low cost car by the positioning itself as the “Worlds
cheapest Car” with a price tag of ₹ 1,00,000.
Started with the theme “A car for everyone”
Targeted to 2 wheeler motor cycle buyer who cant afford 4
Low cost product with complete entry level features.
Tata Nano is differentiated in a very different manner,
Stating itself as worlds cheapest affordable car
Nano born with the emotional touch and that created a huge
Collaborative approach with more than 100 suppliers for this
project is truly uniqueness
Also targeting is differential factor.
Tata Nano could not have seen the light of the day had it not
embarked upon a policy of collaborations and alliances.
Do you agree? Justify?
Bosch being a major player in supplier took a challenge and
succeeded in providing with the least cost technology.
Giving free decision making to the suppliers made them innovators.
Without the suppliers the Nano would have been costlier in several
The innovation was faster as each supplier produced simultaneously.
Innovation from different suppliers.
The plants and employment might have increased the price of end
Breaking down of components and outsourcing them gave an option
to concentrate more on that particular product.
Tata Motors bargained up to 50%with the suppliers.
Despite the huge market hype and the first mover advantage,
it appears that company has not able to cash upon in? do you
agree with this? What are the reasons for this?
unable to cash
The annual sales expectations of 1 lakh per year was not reached.
It took 2 long years to reach its 1,00,000th car.
Strikes in west Bengal resulted in movement of production plant
to sananda, Gujarat which not only resulted in 18 months delay to
first buyer and also huge cost.
It also resulted in heavy inventory costs.
Few fire cases made customers to back out on the verge of
buying, safety does matter.
The sound of 2 cylinder engine was a major negative factor which
made it sound like a auto.
Negative word of mouth by non targeted customer group.
Lack of basic features made it just plane product but not a
The price gap between Nano and Suzuki alto was only around
50,000 after equipping Nano with necessary accessories.
The positioning was a unable to attract customers as they still
looked car as a status of symbol.
No one wants to own a car, that showcases as cheapest car.
Craze over 2 wheelers and convenience of travelling in rural areas
with two wheeler in lands.
Well, the launch of 2012 model, is a success.
What is the role of leadership and strategy execution in
bringing out such zero- base products? Justify your answer.
suppliers in R&D
A team of 500 members lead by 5 core members made Nano into
Mr. wagh used to take suggestions from every person in the plant
to make it better and better with least cost.
The suppliers are allowed to research for their particular part so
that they can come up with innovative ideas.
Cost reduction (Low
cost provider strategy
For this project RatanTata believed “Together more can be
More than 100 suppliers, everyone trying to reduce the cost.
Anyone with an assembly plant can become a distributer for that
Cost reduction of each and every part resulted in low price.
Economies of scale is a strategy that they have planned but failed.
Tata Nano targeted to motor cycle buyers instead of car buyers.