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Warm Up and Flexibility

Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
Ch 13
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Warm Up and Flexibility

  1. 1. Warm-Up and Stretching Ian Jeffreys, MS; CSCS,*D; NSCA-CPT,*D chapter 13 Warm-Up and Stretching
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives • Identify the benefits and components of a preexercise warm-up. • Assess the suitability of performing stretch- ing exercises for a warm-up. • Identify factors that affect flexibility. (continued)
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (continued) • Describe flexibility exercises that take advantage of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. • Explain the mechanisms that cause the muscular inhibition that improves the stretch. • Select and apply appropriate static and dynamic stretching methods.
  4. 4. Section Outline • Warm-Up – Stretching During Warm-Up – Components of a Warm-Up
  5. 5. Warm-Up • Warming up can have the following positive impacts on performance: – Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both agonist and antagonist muscles – Improvements in the rate of force development and reaction time – Improvements in muscle strength and power – Lowered viscous resistance in muscles (continued)
  6. 6. Warm-Up • Warming up can have the following positive impacts on performance (continued): – Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect whereby higher temperatures facilitate oxygen release from hemoglobin and myoglobin – Increased blood flow to active muscles – Enhanced metabolic reactions
  7. 7. Warm-Up • Stretching During Warm-Up – Research suggests dynamic stretching is the preferred option for stretching during warm-up. – Consider the range of motion and stretch-shortening cycle requirements of the sport when designing a warm-up.
  8. 8. Warm-Up • Components of a Warm-Up – A general warm-up period may consist of 5 to 10 minutes of slow activity such as jogging or skipping. – A specific warm-up period incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athlete’s sport. It involves 8 to 12 minutes of dynamic stretching focusing on movements that work through the range of motion required for the sport.
  9. 9. Section Outline • Flexibility – Flexibility and Performance – Factors Affecting Flexibility • Joint Structure • Age and Sex • Connective Tissue • Resistance Training With Limited Range of Motion • Muscle Bulk • Activity Level – Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching – When Should an Athlete Stretch? – Proprioceptors and Stretching
  10. 10. Flexibility • Flexibility is a measure of range of motion (ROM) and has static and dynamic compo- nents. • Static flexibility is the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement. • Dynamic flexibility refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions.
  11. 11. Flexibility • Flexibility and Performance – Optimal levels of flexibility exist for each activity. – Injury risk may increase outside this range.
  12. 12. Flexibility • Factors Affecting Flexibility – Joint Structure • Structure determines the joint’s range of motion. – Age and Sex • Older people tend to be less flexible than younger people; females tend to be more flexible than males. – Connective Tissue • Elasticity and plasticity of connective tissues affect ROM. (continued)
  13. 13. Flexibility • Factors Affecting Flexibility (continued) – Resistance Training With Limited Range of Motion • Exercise through a full ROM and develop both agonist and antagonist muscles to prevent loss of ROM. – Muscle Bulk • Large muscles may impede joint movement. – Activity Level • An active person tends to be more flexible than an inactive one, but activity alone will not improve flexibility.
  14. 14. Flexibility • Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching – Acute effects of stretching on ROM are transient. – For longer-lasting effects, a stretching program is required.
  15. 15. Flexibility • When Should an Athlete Stretch? – Following practice and competition • Postpractice stretching facilitates ROM improvements because of increased muscle temperature. • Stretching should be performed within 5 to 10 minutes after practice. • Postpractice stretching may also decrease muscle soreness although the evidence on this is ambiguous.
  16. 16. Flexibility • When Should an Athlete Stretch? – As a separate session • If increased levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed. • In this case, stretching should be preceded by a thorough warm-up to allow for the increase in muscle temperature necessary for effective stretching. • This type of session can be especially useful as a recovery session on the day after a competition.
  17. 17. Flexibility • Proprioceptors and Stretching – Stretch reflex • A stretch reflex occurs when muscle spindles are stimulated during a rapid stretching movement. • This should be avoided when stretching, as it will limit motion.
  18. 18. Flexibility • Proprioceptors and Stretching – Autogenic inhibition and reciprocal inhibition • Autogenic inhibition is accomplished via active contraction before a passive stretch of the same muscle. • Reciprocal inhibition is accomplished by contracting the muscle opposing the muscle that is being passively stretched. • Both result from stimulation of Golgi tendon organs, which cause reflexive muscle relaxation.
  19. 19. Section Outline • Types of Stretching – Static Stretch – Ballistic Stretch – Dynamic Stretch – Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch • Hold-Relax • Contract-Relax • Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • Common PNF Stretches With a Partner
  20. 20. Types of Stretching • Static Stretch – A static stretch is slow and constant, with the end position held for 30 seconds. • Ballistic Stretch – A ballistic stretch typically involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing-type movement in which the end position is not held. • Dynamic Stretch – A dynamic stretch is a type of functionally based stretching exercise that uses sport-specific move- ments to prepare the body for activity.
  21. 21. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretch – Hold-Relax • Passive prestretch (10 seconds), isometric hold (6 seconds), passive stretch (30 seconds)
  22. 22. Positions for PNF Hamstring Stretch • Figures 13.1 and 13.2 (next slide) – Starting position of PNF hamstring stretch – Partner and subject leg and hand positions for PNF hamstring stretch
  23. 23. Figures 13.1 and 13.2
  24. 24. Hold-Relax • Figures 13.3, 13.4, and 13.5 (next slide) – Passive prestretch of hamstrings during hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch – Isometric action during hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch – Increased ROM during passive stretch of hold-relax PNF hamstring stretch
  25. 25. Figures 13.3, 13.4, and 13.5
  26. 26. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Contract-Relax • Passive prestretch (10 seconds), concentric muscle action through full ROM, passive stretch (30 seconds)
  27. 27. Contract-Relax • Figures 13.6, 13.7, and 13.8 (next slide) – Passive prestretch of hamstrings during contract- relax PNF stretch – Concentric action of hip extensors during contract- relax PNF stretch – Increased ROM during passive stretch of contract- relax PNF stretch
  28. 28. Figures 13.6, 13.7, and 13.8
  29. 29. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • During third phase (passive stretch), concentric action of the agonist used to increase the stretch force
  30. 30. Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction • Figures 13.9, 13.10, and 13.11 (next slide) – Passive prestretch during hold-relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch – Isometric action of hamstrings during hold-relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch – Concentric contraction of quadriceps during hold- relax with agonist contraction PNF hamstring stretch, creating increased ROM during passive stretch
  31. 31. Figures 13.9, 13.10, and 13.11
  32. 32. Key Point • The hold-relax with agonist contraction is the most effective PNF stretching technique due to facilitation via both reciprocal and autogenic inhibition.
  33. 33. Types of Stretching • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretch – Common PNF Stretches With a Partner • Calf and ankle • Chest • Groin • Hamstrings and hip extensors • Quadriceps and hip flexors • Shoulder
  34. 34. Partner PNF Stretching • Figures 13.12-13.16 (next two slides) – Partner PNF stretching for the: • Calves • Chest • Groin • Quadriceps and hip flexors • Shoulders
  35. 35. Figures 13.12 and 13.13
  36. 36. Figures 13.14, 13.15, and 13.16
  37. 37. Types of Stretching • Guidelines for Static Stretching – Get into a position that facilitates relaxation. – Move to the point in the ROM where you experience a sensation of mild discomfort. If performing partner- assisted PNF stretching, communicate clearly with your partner. – Hold stretches for 30 seconds. – Repeat unilateral stretches on both sides.
  38. 38. Types of Stretching • Precautions for Static Stretching – Decrease stretch intensity if you experience pain, radiating symptoms, or loss of sensation. – Use caution when stretching a hypermobile joint. – Avoid combination movements that involve the spine (e.g., extension and lateral flexion). – Stabilizing muscles should be active to protect other joints and prevent unwanted movements.
  39. 39. Types of Stretching • Guidelines for Dynamic Stretching – Carry out 5 to 10 repetitions for each movement, either in place or over a given distance. – Progressively increase the ROM on each repetition. – Increase the speed of motion on subsequent sets where appropriate. – Contract the muscles as you move through the ROM.
  40. 40. Types of Stretching • Precautions for Dynamic Stretching – Move progressively through the ROM. – Move deliberately but without bouncing (movement must be controlled at all times). – Do not forsake good technique for additional ROM.

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