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  1. 1. 4/26/2012 PESTICIDE LAWS AND REGULATIONS1) Licenses- A pesticide license is required by lawfor all applicators to apply restricted pesticides.-For turf an ornamental: a) Custom grounds-Can buy and apply off property b) Arborist- only license to spray above 5 meters c) Golf Course -Supervisory- buy and use or supervise onlyon golf course property -Operators- holder can apply under direction ofsupervisor- cannot buy.2) Records- Must be kept for 5 years(samples) - Include applicator (name and license #) - pesticide applied - location applied - amount applied - date -Target pest -Comments3) EPA # -all pesticides sold in state musthave an EPA registration #4) Labels- all pesticides must be labeled5) MSDS- all pesticides must have a MSDSsheet must be available to all employees6) Pesticide use forms must be submitted toDEP at conclusion of each year. 1
  2. 2. 4/26/2012 7) Posting • Posting laws-golf course and homeowner -model for other states • Registry 8) Pesticide Storage Facility 9) Phone # of Poison Control Center PESTICIDE SAFETY EQUIPMENT1) Gloves2) Disposable suit3) Boots4) Safety glasses5) Respirator6) An eye wash station near mixing area7) A shower close to mixing area8) Spill kits close at hand9) MSDS and Label station PEST RELATED TURF PROBLEMS Disease weed vertebrate Insects 2
  3. 3. 4/26/2012 Key to Controlling: Disease/Weeds/Insects •ID •Life cycles •Conditions favoring •Preferred host •Cultural methods of control •Chemical methods of control •Chemicals used •Methods how to maximize control •Timing of application •Safety measures takenManaging for turf pests: • Use IPM - know the "hot spots“ • Watch the weather • Choose method of control once pest is identified TURFGRASS DISEASE Disease Control •Host •Favoring conditions •MOISTURE •Field Symptoms •Threshold levels •Control Warranted? 3
  4. 4. 4/26/2012 Host TIME Pathogen Environment Host No Disease Pathogen Environ- ment Disease Diseases and Disease ControlMajor cause of disease: Pathogenic fungi that invade: • leaves • roots • stems. Very few bacteria and virus diseases in turf.“It is inevitable that intensely managed turfwill, at some point, become infected withdisease”The key to effective disease managementbegins with good cultural practices: a) improved plant varieties** b) proper mowing c) proper fertilization programs d) irrigation practices e) cultural practices (aerating, verti-cutting, clipping removal, dew removal. f) IPM- know hot spots g) knowledge the conditions that favor the different diseases. 4
  5. 5. 4/26/2012Pathogen-disease causing agent •Pathogens often produce visible structures that aid in ID- mushrooms, sclerotia, lesions, red or black pustules etc.symptoms- any of various response from plantdisease. ie. leaf spots, yellowing, bronzing, death toleavesSigns - fungal structuresMycelia growthRed or black pustules on leavesFruiting structuresSclerotiaMushroomsSpores, fruiting structures id (microscopeoften needed) 5
  6. 6. 4/26/2012hypha•single filament•may have crosswalls mycelium- (mass of hyphae)- vegetative body of fungusMycelium Powdery mildew Rusts Mushrooms Sclerotia 6
  7. 7. 4/26/2012In order to diagnose in the field the turf managermust know: • field signs and symptoms i.e.. Mycelium, patch • time of year • turfgrass species • temperature • humidity • soil moisture levels • fertilization levels • environmental conditions i.e.. shade or sun Annual Grasses Crabgrass Goosegrass 7
  8. 8. 4/26/2012Pre-emergence control of Crabgrass and Goosegrass•Prior to weed germination•Apply herbicide before soil temperatures reach 55˚•Applications two weeks after Forsythia in full bloom•Water in herbicide•Creates a “chemical barrier”•Barrier lasts from 6 – 12 weeks depending on chemicalused•Disturbance of soil by man, (cultivation) or animal,(earthworm, skunk) can provide a breakdown of thebarrier and weeds can encroach.Post emergent options as well Broadleaf Weed Control General Comments • Read the label • For large areas, spraying herbicides provide for better control than granular. • Spraying is cheaper than granular. However, you need specialized equipment • Use caution on new plantings (at least 5 mowings) • Store properly i.e. away from seed • Label different sprayers for different uses • Clean equipment after use • Use Pesticides as last resort! 8
  9. 9. 4/26/2012 Post-emergent Comments• Spray when weeds actively growing• Don’t spray temperatures above 85 F• Avoid spraying in wind (injury to ornamentals,Volatility)• Apply when soils moist• Avoid mowing 24 hrs before and after• Avoid Water for 24 hours• Be aware of product characteristics i.e. Dicamba TURFGRASS INSECTS Three ZonesFoliar and stem visual observationStem/thatch often avoid detectionThatch/soil until damage evident Hyp. Weevil Bluegrass Bill Bug 9
  10. 10. 4/26/2012 Insect Control Scout and monitor Identify SymptomsKnow when toexpect problems(life cycles)**** Select Control MethodCultural •Sanitation •Thatch reduction •Resistant varieties (endophytes) •Healthy turf = higher thresholdsBiological •Predator •Parasites •PathogensChemical •Preventative •Curative 10