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Justice in Time: applying TOC to the law courts system in Israel - Shimeon Pass @ PSE 2013 Vilnius

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Shimeon Pass, expert in Value Enhancement and implementation of advanced management concepts (Israel) @ @ TOCICO International Public Sector Effectiveness Conference 2013 Vilnius

- Eliminating judges' wasted time and the complete kit concept.

- Continuous hearing of evidence sessions.

- Can a case be approached as a project?

- Is 'fair' distribution of dossiers among judges really effective?

- Written or oral summations?

- How 'long' should the verdict document be?

- The role of legal aides.

- Controlled release of dossiers to the judges by the double Drum-Buffer-Rope (dDBR) mechanism.

More information - http://pse.lt

Publicado en: Empresariales
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Justice in Time: applying TOC to the law courts system in Israel - Shimeon Pass @ PSE 2013 Vilnius

  1. 1. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 1 JUSTICE IN TIME: APPLYING TOC TO THE LAW COURTS SYSTEM IN ISRAEL Presented By: Shimeon Pass, Focused Management Ltd., Israel Date: October 2013 Work done in collaboration with: Boaz Ronen, Tel-Aviv University and Focused Management Ltd., Israel and Shany Azaria, Focused Management Ltd., Israel
  2. 2. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 2 How would you schedule and manage a typical district court? • • • • • • • • • 13,000 incoming cases per year Work In Process (WIP) of 15,000 cases 3 pre-trial meetings per case (on the average) 7 evidence meetings per case (on the average) 87 different types of cases, each one with a unique procedure 20 “Mega” cases per year 4 parties per case (on the average) 52 judges with a broad spectrum of skills and specialization Uncertainty regarding: • Number of meetings • Number of witnesses • Probability to close the case by a settlement Can current managerial approaches and tools (e.g. Theory of Constraints – TOC) cope with such systems?
  3. 3. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 3 The Judiciary system compared to other complex systems • Lower flexibility: processes cannot be changed without legislation or regulation • Judges’ autonomy • A culture of Judicial professionalism, not a managerial one • 50% of the participants act against the system… • A level of complexity that demands a different approach
  4. 4. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Same problems everywhere… Worldwide survey findings: • Increasing demand • Increasing costs • Long lead time • Diminishing throughput • Dissatisfaction of the public 4
  5. 5. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 The social aspect Justice delayed is justice denied… 5
  6. 6. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 6 Maybe we need a good comprehensive model to resolve the problem…
  7. 7. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Results of using new managerial concepts for 2 years In pilot implementations: • Lead Time reduced by 47% • Throughput increased by 43% • Judicial quality improved 7
  8. 8. 8 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 The judiciary process in Israel Incoming cases Pre-trial sessions Pre-trial phase Settlement Final pre-trial session Settlement Evidences sessions Evidences phase Settlement Summation Settlement Ruling
  9. 9. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 9 The challenges • Increasing the Throughput (T) of Law Courts and reducing their Lead Times (LT) • Reducing the complexity of law courts management • Tackling the improper functioning of the Law Courts that leads to poor public trust and high cost of doing business
  10. 10. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 10 Step 1: Determine the system’s goal • Provide “ruling” • Provide justice in the global sense, rather than locally- optimize the specific case: “… taking into account the need to allot resources to other cases” (Lord Woolf)
  11. 11. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 11 Step 2: Determine the system’s performance measures • Throughput – number of closed cases • Operating Expenses – cost of resources (including • • • • judges) Inventory – number of open cases Lead Time – case cycle time from the parties’ standpoint Quality – % of accepted appeals Due Date Performance – % cases finished within the Service Level Agreement (SLA)
  12. 12. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 3: Identify the system’s constraints • Judges are the Bottleneck 12
  13. 13. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 13 Step 4: Exploit the system’s constraint Strategic Gating (SG) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR), false claims, strive for settlements Reduction of Ineffective Time Over 50% ineffective time
  14. 14. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 5: Subordinate the rest of the system to the constraint Tactical subordination: Lawyers and Prosecutors Police and Correction Auth. Witnesses Judges Experts Administration Legal aides 14
  15. 15. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 15 A mandatory comprehensive pre-trial session: a “kick-off “ meeting • Preparing the complete kit for the evidence phase • Strategic gating on adversaries • “25/25” on witnesses and content • Planning and scheduling witnesses • Scheduling oral summations meeting
  16. 16. 16 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 5: Subordinate (cont.) The “before” situation: • Un-planned hearing • Work In Process (WIP) = 60 cases Pre-trial phase Evidence phase Percent of cases 100% 40% Effort per case 1 hour 4 days A need for a distinct solution for each phase
  17. 17. 17 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Schedule schematic presentation The effect of hearing frequency on Buffer size: Buffer size is proportional to sessions’ frequency a b c d e f g h j k l m n o p q r a b c … c d d d e e e f f f g g g … d e a b c d e f g h i j f i Un-planned hearing: WIP = 18 a a a b b b c c Day-To-Day hearing: WIP = 1 a b c d e a b Weekly hearing: WIP = 5 c …
  18. 18. 18 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Day-to-day vs. weekly hearing Shorter LT Day-to-day hearing Less cancelled meetings Weekly hearing Conflict resolution by a win-win solution: • Day-to-day hearing for “Mega” cases • Weekly hearing for all other cases
  19. 19. 19 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 5: Subordinate (cont.) Differential solutions for each phase: Pre-trial phase Evidence phase Percent of cases 100% 40% Effort per case 1 hour 4 days 8-10 AM 10 AM – 17 PM Nearest available slot Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR)? Daily Time frame Scheduling
  20. 20. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 20 Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) • The controlled release of tasks in the system • A effective mechanism for Work In Process (WIP) reduction • Suitable for systems with one bottleneck at one point of the process and an homogeneous flow
  21. 21. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 21 Double-DBR (dDBR) notion • The judicial system comprises of one bottleneck performing two functions at two different phases of the process • Two non-homogeneous and non-laminar flows • We need a distinct DBR mechanism for each of the two phases Pre-requisite for dDBR: closing rate > opening rate • This is achieved by reducing the ineffective time and offloading the judges
  22. 22. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Double-DBR guidelines Before dDBR introduction: • Un-planned hearing • Work In Process (WIP) = 60 cases After dDBR: • Weekly hearing • Work In Process (WIP) = 5 cases 22
  23. 23. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 23 Double DBR implementation • The vice-president / president of the court serves as the gater at the entry point to the whole process • Total buffer size: according to the color-zone mechanism
  24. 24. 24 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 DBR color zones Color zones for releasing new cases (per judge) into the system: Next available slot for evidence hearing Color zone Indication <8 months Green Acceptable 8-12 months Yellow Late > 12 Months Red Unacceptable Red zone corrective actions: • Court-flour clean-up, overtime, mobilization • Court’s vice-president / president stops the release of new cases to the judge
  25. 25. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 25 Double DBR implementation [2] • The judge is the gater for the evidences phase • The judge introduces an new case to the evidences phase only when he has the capacity for a weekly hearings sequence for this case
  26. 26. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 6: Elevate the constraint Judges Legal aides Almost every judge has a legal aide for offloading 26
  27. 27. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Step 7: Go back to step 3 The notion of Permanent Bottlenecks 27
  28. 28. 28 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Pilot implementations – results A District Court in Israel – applying the 7 focusing steps and dDBR for civil cases: Average Lead Time for prepilot cases (months) Average Lead Time % for pilot Improvement cases (months) Final pre-trial to Ruling 22 12 -47% Total case life-cycle * 56 41 -27% * Pre-trial phase to be further improved by implementing Due-Dates Performance (DDP) control
  29. 29. 29 All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Pilot implementations – results [2] A Magistrate Court in Israel – Complete Kit pilot in Road Accident Victim Compensation (RAVC) cases: RAVC Torts Throughput Throughput (no. of cases) (no. of cases) Number of Full Time Equivalent judges 2008 3548 4470 7.2 2011 4476 5733 6.0 % change +26% +28% -17% Total T increase 43%
  30. 30. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 30 Pilot implementations – results [3] A Family Court in Israel – dDBR, offload, measurement, final pre-trial, mediation: Time to first pre-trail session (months) Time to first evidences session (months) July 2011 12 14 Target 4 6 October 2012 7 8 Lead-time reduction – 45%
  31. 31. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 31 The implementation process • Steering committee headed by the Chief Justice and the manager of the courts system • Seminars to 96 presidents and vice-presidents of courts on TOC and Focused Management principles
  32. 32. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 32 The implementation process • Pilot implementation in 4 courts • Steering committee headed by the president of the court • Focusing on few improvement topics • Seminars for judges, legal aides and administration • Meetings and collaboration with the Bar Association of Lawyers, the District Attorneys, and the Public Defenders • Value-enhancement teams • Flexibility in the implementation: adaption of the solution to the special needs, culture and characteristics of each court • Measurements and control • Planning tool for judges allocation
  33. 33. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 33 POOGI 1 Introducing Due-Dates planning and Due-Date Performance (DDP) measurements for the pre-trial phase should result in Lead Time reduction, and • Reduction of continuations • Taking advantage of “the student effect” and “Parkinson effect”
  34. 34. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 34 POOGI 2 Project Management (PM) and Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) implementation in “Mega” cases
  35. 35. All rights reserved to Focused Management Ltd. ©2013 Thank you! 35

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