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- 1. BY <br />JERIN C ISSAC<br />M.Ed Pondicherry University<br />METHODS AND STRATEGIES OF TEACHINGAn overview<br />
- 2. The biggest challenge before a teacher is the presentation of a lesson. <br />If this presentation is effective, students can reach the goals of life by acquisition of knowledge and if the teacher is unsuccessful in his presentation, it is impossible to reach the educational objectives.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />
- 3. Method of teaching is directly related to the presentation of the lesson. Which a teacher should use, depends on the nature of the subject, and the tact of the teacher . <br />METHOD OF TEACHING<br />
- 4. There are four methods of presenting the subject matter.<br /> 1. TELLING METHOD; Lecture method, Discussion method, Story telling method and so on.<br /> 2 .DOING METHOD; Project method, Problem solving method, Textbook method and so on.<br /> 3 .VISUAL METHOD; Demonstration method, Supervised study method and so on.<br /> 4 .MENTAL MEHOD; Inductive, Deductive, Analysis, Synthesis method etc.<br />METHOD OF TEACHING<br />
- 5. STRATEGY: - Strategy is the art and science of directing and controlling the movements and activities of the army. If strategy is good, we can get victory over our enemies. In teaching this term is meant those procedures and methods by which objectives of teaching are realized in the class.<br />STRATEGIES OF TEACHING<br />
- 6. Stone and Morris have defined teaching strategy in the following words;<br /> “Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement the strategies”. <br />Definition<br />
- 7. Strategy can be summarized as<br />Teaching is the generalized plan of the whole lesson plan.<br />It consists of structure of teaching, objectives of teaching and techniques of evaluation of teaching.<br />In strategy of teaching, realization of objectives is given more importance than presentation of lesson.<br />A strategy does not follow a single track all the time, but it changes according to the demands of the situations such as age, level, needs, interests and abilities of the students. Thus strategy is more comprehensive than method.<br />It is directional in nature. It refers to goal directed activities of the teachers. Thus, it is more close to science than arts.<br />
- 8. It is that procedure by which new knowledge fixed in the minds of students permanently. For this purpose, a teacher does extra activities in the class. <br />These activities help the teacher to take shift from one strategy to another. Thus, teaching tactics are that behavior of the teacher which he manifests in the classi.e., the developments of the teaching strategies,giving proper stimulus for timely responses, drilling the learnt resposes,increasing the responses by extra activities and so on. <br />TACTICS OF TEACHING<br />
- 9. TEACHING METHOD<br />TEACHING STRATEGY<br />When we try to achieve some objectives by any method it becomes strategies.<br />Strategy is actually a combination of different method.<br />For E.g. Lecture or textbook or question answer method can be never be used separately.<br />It is a macro approach.<br />It considers teaching as science.<br />Its purpose is to create conducive learning environment.<br />It is based on modern theories of organization.<br />(pre determined objectives, becomes strategy)<br />Behavior of students and teachers and their mutual relationship.<br />It is limited to the presentation of subject matter.<br />Methods come under strategy.<br />It is a micro approach.<br />Teaching as an art.<br />Effective presentation of subject matter.<br />Classical Theory of human organization.<br />Work is important.<br /> <br />
- 10. Selection of using strategies depends on the nature of organization of human activities. Teaching strategies are divided into two;<br />Autocratic<br />Democratic<br />TYPES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES.<br />
- 11. Teacher centered methods<br />Teacher exercise full control over student, they are given least chance to act freely.<br />They can do what they are allowed to do.<br />Banking concept.<br />AUTOCARTIC TEAHING STRATEGY<br />
- 12. STORY TELLING METHOD<br /> Tell the students real time stories, anecdotes about great men, women, rulers, prophets, saints to develop-qualities of truth, honesty, perseverance, courage, co-operation or creativity-identification of characters, empathizes.<br />AUTOCRATIC METHODS<br />
- 13. Story should be interesting<br />Natural sequence should be maintained.<br />Character should be elaborated to the demanding situations.<br />Actions-Story should be full of actions.<br />Phrases and figures of speech should be used.<br />Story should be purposeful.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 14. Increase interests of the people.<br /> Improves vocabulary.<br />Increase in Imaginative power.<br />Develop good qualities.<br />Lively environment.<br /> APPLICATIONS<br />Used languages and social sciences<br />ADVANDAGES<br />
- 15. Traditional method<br />A teacher delivers a lecture on different point on any topic in a serial order and asks several questions. <br />Logical and sequential presentation of the content.<br />LECTURE METHOD<br />
- 16. Content should be systematized in a logical and systematic manner.<br />Listeners should not find any gap <br />Language should be easy, clear and understandable.<br />Question should be asked to the student in between the lecture.<br />Material aids such as chart, graph, and picture should be used.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 17. Important points should be written on board.<br />Illustration should be given.<br />There should be sufficient flow in lecture, avoid use of notes and books during lecture.<br />Lecture should not be too long, short lecture is recommended.<br />Minimize seriousness and dullness by adding humor.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 18. For introducing a new lesson<br />Cognitive and affective domains can be developed.<br />More content can be presented.<br />Lays much stress on presentation thereby developing ability of presentation in students also.<br />Concentration for a longer period of time<br /> <br />APPLICATION<br /> All school subjects can be taught.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 19. Teacher shows all the activities given in the lesson to the students as an action and explains the important points before them during demonstration.<br /> The teacher follows three steps <br />Introduce the lesson by question answer or lecture method.<br />Demonstrate each and every aspects of the lesson and develops it through activities.<br />He make the student drill of the subject matter for assimilation.<br />He ask evaluative question and the desired skill is developed through imitation of the action.<br />DEMONSTRATION<br />
- 20. 1. Teacher should prepare well what and how he has to demonstrate in the class <br />2. Students should be given enough chance to remove their doubts after the demonstration<br />3. Afterwards the activity students should be asked to repeat the demo.<br />4. Important point should be explained by short lectures during the process of demonstration.<br />5. The demo. Process should be divided into many phases and students should be evaluated after every phase<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 21. It is helpful in teaching skills in training institutions.<br />Lower and middle level of objective cognitive and psychomotor domains can be easily achieved through this method.<br />Useful in teaching science subject in schools <br />Every practical work needs demonstration<br />Observation and thinking capacity of students can be developed.<br />Senses of students can also be trained <br />APPLICATION<br />This method is applicable in teaching science crafts arts and agriculture.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 22. All class is divided in two different groups of common features.<br />The division is made on the basis of difficulty level of different subjects.<br />Every group is handed to different teachers separately.<br />Here teachers find out the individual problem of students and then he individually guides them to remove this problem.<br />If difficulty of whole group is similar, group teaching and group guidance can be given.<br />TUTORIAL METHOD<br />
- 23. Students of same capacity or same weakness should be kept in same group.<br />The behavior of teacher should be unbiased at the time of guidance to ensure equal chance of progress.<br />It should be done by experienced and expert teachers.<br />Every student should be motivated to tell his problems frankly so as to get the benefits.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 24. TYPES OF TUTORIAL TEACHINGS<br />SUPERVISED TUTORIAL TEACHING :- In this methods, the bright students discusses their problem with their teacher and weak students are asked to do drill work after removing their difficulties<br />This system is close to democratic.<br />GROUP TUTORIAL:- In this method, the teacher to remove the difficulties of average students, this is needed when level of class room teaching is low from the point of view of the students<br />PRACTICAL TUTORIAL: - In this system, the students work with teacher in lab. Psychomotor domain is especially developed through this approach. <br />
- 25. It is a type of remedial teaching.<br />Teacher can teach in the class keeping the individual differences due to the small size of the class.<br />Absence of previous knowledge can be compensated.<br />Every student gets the chance to express his problem openly and individually.<br /> APPLICATION <br />Teaching natural science and mathematics.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 26. These strategies are child centered.<br />Interest, capacities, attitudes, needs of learners are taken to account.<br />It develop affective and cognitive domain.<br />Maximum interaction between teachers and students are seeing.<br />Both students and teachers are equally active.<br />Purpose-all round development of learners.<br />Teachers works as helpers and guide<br /> DEMOCRATIC TEACHING STRATEGIES<br />
- 27. It is an oral method like question and answer method.<br />Maximum interaction between teachers and students can be seen.<br />Discussion can be formal and informal. Formal discussions are arranged for the purpose of achieving predetermined objectives hence rules are also predetermined.<br />Informal discussions are neither objective oriented nor rules are predetermined.<br />DISCUSSSION METHOD<br />
- 28. Teacher and students discuss in the class whenever it becomes necessary.<br />In formal discussion, teacher divides the class in to different groups and gives the topic of the discussion to each group.<br />Every group has a leader to anchor and conduct the discussion.<br />Leader raises new topics of discussion.<br />In the end, teacher draws the conclusion of the discussion with the help of leaders.<br />DISCUSSSION METHOD (Cont.)<br />
- 29. Ensure maximum participation.<br />Students have the opportunity to criticize and evaluate.<br />Logical and meaningful criticism should be accepted.<br />Students should anchor the discussion themselves.<br />Keeping teachers as guide.<br />Teacher selects the topic only with the help of students.<br />Students who have leadership quality should be selected for anchoring.<br />Relevant topic should only be considered.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 30. ADVANTAGES<br />Thinking and communicating powers can be developed.<br />Leadership quality can be developed.<br />Expression ability can be developed.<br />Problem solving ability can be developed.<br />Develop creative potentials of the students.<br />Attitudes and interest of students can be drown out towards learning.<br />Higher level cognitive and affective objectives can be realized through classs room discussion.<br />APPLICATION<br />All subject except mathematics, art, music, dance can be taught.<br />
- 31. Literary means high discover<br />Students learns themselves<br />Teacher raises problematic situations before the students.<br />He guides them from there will get materials to the solutions of the problems.<br />Individual discovery of the solutions to the problem by trial and error method.<br />HEURISTIC METHOD<br />
- 32. Five steps involved in the methods are:-<br />(a) Presentation of the problem.<br />(b) Giving information about material and techniques helpful in solving the problem.<br />(c) Hypothesis formulation by the students themselves.<br />(d) Data collection for testing of the hypothesis.<br />(e) Testing the hypothesis-accepting the true hypothesis and rejecting the falls hypothesis. <br />PROCEDURES<br />
- 33. Teachers should help in formulating hypothesis.<br />They should help in gathering the resources.<br />Doubts should be removed.<br />Students should be given chance to go further on the basis of trial and error, theory of learning.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 34. Knowledge through self study and self learning.<br />Learning through investigation an research.<br />There by developing scientific attitudes.<br />Increase self confidence of the students.<br />Motivates students to accept newer and newer challenges.<br />Highest level of cognitive objectives can be achieved.<br /> <br />APPLICATION<br /> Useful in teaching mathematics and science.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 35. Used in social science to clarify facts and concepts unlike heuristic method used in science to formulate or testify laws and principles.<br />Facts and concepts are explained in an objective manner unlike heuristic method where subject matter is comprehended subjectively.<br />Discovery is related to past events while heurism is concerned with phenomena at present.<br />E.g. “Courses of Aurangzeb’s failure in south India” is a discovery and “Causes of law productivity of agriculture lands in India is a heuristic method.<br />DISCOVERY METHOD<br />
- 36. This method was propounded by W.H Kilpatrick.<br />Pupil is assigned a project which has direct utility for the students.<br />Students work on the project under the guidance of the teacher.<br />Find out the solution of the problem based on their experience.<br />PROJECT METHOD<br />
- 37. Student follows a collective approach in project method unlike individual problem solving as in Heuristic method.<br />The problem given in the form of project is real while the problem of heurism may be real as well as imaginary.<br />The approach of the project is productive, here something useful is created. Unlike heurism which is analytical.<br />
- 38. Constructive project<br />Pupils work physically in or outside the class like writing letters, essays on given topics, preparing fields for games , playing drama etc.<br />Aesthetic project<br />Appreciation powers of students are developed.<br />Presentation of music programmes, decorating a hall, beautification of lawn etc.<br />TYPES OF PROJECT<br />
- 39. Problematic project.<br />Students learn solutions of life- related problems such as studying the effect of balance diet on health, advantages of physical exercise on body fitness, Causes of family disputes and their solution etc.<br />Drill project.<br /> <br /> Working capabilities and automation of students are increased. <br />Filling in the map, coloring the arts and pictures, solving mathematical sums etc.<br />
- 40. Principles of purpose<br />Principles of utility<br />Principles of freedom<br />Principles of activity<br />Principles of reality<br />Principles of prior planning<br /> <br />PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT METOD<br />
- 41. 1. Creating situation:- Teacher creating situation in the class that student propose themselves to work on the project .<br />High level of motivation is found in students. Teacher tells them the method and procedure of the project.<br />2. Selection of the project:- Six principles as mentioned above are taken into consideration.<br />Teacher helps the student to select the project on the basis of their interests.<br />STEPS INVOLVED<br />
- 42. 3. Planning:- Teacher discusses various points of the project with the students. Students take part on discussion.<br />After discussion, teacher writes down the whole programmmes of action step wise on the black board. Grouping is also done.<br />
- 43. 4. Execution:- Students first upon select relevant facts, information and material and each groups works on the project separately and complete it within time limit.<br />5. Evaluation:- When project gets completed ,it is first criticized and evaluated by the students themselves within the group and when fully satisfied report to the teacher.<br />6. Rporting:- Students write each and every steps of the project that is how they did. The report may submit to the teacher.<br />
- 44. Based on principles of learning.<br />Law of readiness<br />Law of exercise<br />Law of effect<br />Related to real life situation- Students learn how to solve real life problems in life.<br />Work experience-Students get real experience of working by their projects and the learning which is associated with doing is more stable and meaningful.<br />Inculcation of democratic values-They learn coopration, tolerance, mutual acceptance.<br />A boon for weak students-It is a boon since students work in group collectively.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 45. ROLE PLAYING METHOD<br />Students are given a chance to play the role of teacher.<br />It is a dramatic method.<br />Teacher teaches the topic and the students one by one teaches the same topic to the class.<br />When he teaches all his classmates answer his questions.<br />They not down the shortcoming of the student teacher.<br />This teaching is later criticized and suggestions for improvement are given.<br />Drama in literature is also thought to this method.<br />This method is usually adopted in training colleges.<br />
- 46. Subject teacher, he is advice to be present in the class at the time of role play.<br />He should be there in the class at the time of criticism.<br />The topic of teaching for the purpose of role playing should same for all for comparison.<br />All the observers should note down the short comings of all teachers selected for the purpose.<br />Discussion based on memory and recall is recommended.<br />SUGGESTIONS<br />
- 47. Repeated teaching of the same topic increases learning.<br />Practice makes a man perfect and a critical observation make man alert.<br />It increases social skills of students<br />Students learn the methods of analysis, synthesis and evaluation.<br />Develop critical power of the students.<br />Remove their own mistakes through imitation.<br />ADVANTAGES<br />
- 48. The basic assumption of this method of teaching is that a group of pupils can give more ideas than a single person.<br />Problem can be analyses and evaluating more comprehensively.<br />A problem is given to students and there asked to put forward their views on this problem one by one.<br />Thus many views regarding the nature of the problem, its causes and its possible solutions come to light.<br />Conclusion is drawn after evaluating these jumbled ideas.<br />BRAIN STORMING<br />
- 49. This method being problem centered, it should be meaningful and related to real life situation.<br />All views of students are welcome and relevant views should be isolated from them later on.<br />The views of students will be either written or typed.<br />SUGGESITONS<br />
- 50. Cognitive and affective objectives can be achieved.<br />Good ideas can be inculcated.<br />Imaginative power of students can be developed.<br />MERITS<br />
- 51. THANK YOU<br />

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