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==== ====For Part 2 of this article, videos and more information on latest diets and weight loss programs,please download a report @http://www.smallreports.com/index.php?k=diet,%20weight_loss==== ====The heated debate, within diet circles, that began a few years ago and continues today is over theeffectiveness of the high-protein, low-carbohydrate, type diet versus its counterpart, the high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet.To the delight of the Atkins diet enthusiasts, recent studies have suggested that a diet high inprotein and low in fat has a greater effect on diet induced thermogenesis (calorie burning) than ahigh carbohydrate low fat diet.Before we go further we need to familiarize you with a few terms we will be discussing in thisarticle. Your total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) is the total energy your body burns in a day.TDEE consists of 3 components: diet induced thermogenesis (DIT), basal metabolism, andphysical activity.DIT is the increase in the bodys temperature that is caused by the digestion and absorption of ameal. This rise in temperature results in calorie burning. Yes, we actually burn calories simply byeating and scientists have long believed that DIT may be a factor, in reducing obesity; and thatobese people may have defective DITs - although this hasnt been proven yet. Once scientistsidentify the link between DIT and obesity on a molecular level, it could essentially pave the way forthe development of drugs in the treatment of obesity. Thats still however, in the future.In a recent study at the University of Arizona, published by the American College of Nutrition, agroup of young healthy women were given 2 sets of diets. (1) One diet was high in protein and lowin fat and the other was high in carbohydrate and low in fat. Scientists were trying to compare thethermic effect (DIT) of protein versus carbohydrate during the digestion and absorption of meals.Keep in mind, as the bodys temperature increases (by DIT), so does the number of burnedcalories.Evidence from this study showed that postprandial (following a meal) thermogenesis increased100% more with the high-protein low-fat diet versus the high-carb low-fat diet. Although proteinhad a greater effect on DIT, the study did not evaluate weight loss or the long term effects of thistype of diet. The results did suggest that this type of diet may have a positive effect on weight loss.Scientists concluded that a diet high in protein, moderate in carbohydrate and low in fat contentsmay promote a higher rate of weight loss compared to the high carbohydrate, low fat diet. On theother hand, they also warn that high protein diets may affect kidney function in those that havekidney conditions, but not in healthy individuals.Furthermore, they recommend daily protein intake should not exceed 2 grams per 1 kilogram of
body weight. The American daily average is 1 gram per 1 kilogram. Further studies are required toassess the long term effects of high protein, low fat dieting.It is important to keep in mind, however, that DIT or the thermic effect of a meal only represents 3-10% of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). So we must keep things in perspective. Basal orresting metabolism accounts for up to 70% of TDEE and energy expenditure from exercise isresponsible for the rest. Logic dictates, therefore that these two take precedence over DIT.The other big influencing factor in weight loss is the reduction of daily food intake. Lets look at theinput/output equation: x (Input) - y (Output) = z. Daily output and total daily energy expenditure(TDEE) are the same thing. If you ate fewer calories (x) than your body burned (y), z would have anegative value. If you consumed more calories than your body expended, z would be positive. Anegative balance in the equation results in weight loss, a positive value causes weight gain. Itsthat simple.In the above study, the high protein low fat type diet involves 2 factors of Input: Food compositionand food quantity. In this diet, food composition (food selection) consists of a certain combinationof macronutrients (high protein, low fat). Food intake (Input) affects the DIT which causes a certainincrease (energy expenditure) on the Output part of the equation. And, as food composition variesso does the DIT. Food composition, though, can only have a limited effect on DIT. Remember DITonly represents 3-10% of the TDEE (Output). And food composition (high-protein, low-fat),accounts for a percentage of DIT, which represents even a smaller value. Food quantity, on theother hand, can have a tremendous effect on the equation - as it increases, the balance becomesmore positive. If it surpasses TDEE then you gain weight - quite independently of DIT.As a result, there can be a downside with respect to DIT involving the high-protein low-fat diet orany diet for that matter. With this diet, as protein intake increases so does the DIT. The problem is,however, that the food quantity (Input) also increases. The point here is that there is a limit to theamount of protein you can ingest before your body starts storing it as fat. Because DIT doesntaccount for expending a lot of calories (3-10% of TDEE), and food composition (high-protein, low-fat) accounts for a percentage of DIT, theres only so much protein you can ingest before you startgetting a surplus of calories. And excess dietary protein just as excess carbohydrate or fat isstored as fat in the bodys adipose tissue. The only other factor that can compensate for theexcess of protein intake is an increase in exercise participation. Although, that would defeat thepurpose for obvious reasons.Physical activity, however, can have a large effect on the Output part on TDEE (Output). Not onlydoes it account for a much larger energy expenditure than DIT, countless of studies have shownthat regular physical activity actually increases basal metabolism, which accounts for up to 70% ofTDEE. As a result, regular exercise participation essentially has a compounding effect on thecalorie burning process.As we can see then, the bulk of weight loss and weight gain comes down to the quantity ofcalories ingested (Input) and calories burned (output). Furthermore, exercise and metabolism areresponsible for approximately 90%-97% of TDEE. Energy expenditure from DIT is almostinsignificant in comparison. DIT is just not effective enough to produce a negative caloric balanceindependently of total caloric intake, energy expenditure from exercise and basal metabolism -especially for most overweight individuals. And it would be unrealistic for overweight or obese
people to rely exclusively on DIT to lose weight. These people are either overeating, arent activeenough or have low basal metabolic rates - or a combination of all three factors.So, it still looks like theres no easy way out - you actually have to work, if you youre going to loseweight. The easiest way to achieve that is with the efficient use of all Input and Outputcomponents. That also means you must know your priorities. Most of your efforts should be spentin finding an adequate balance between a reduction of total daily caloric intake and a sufficientlevel of physical activity. And emphasis on DIT should take on a secondary role.But wait, before you put on your running shoes and begin another diet plan, you might want tohear some very interesting news. There are certain cultures around the world whose diets containjust as much fat and carbohydrate (if not more) as in the American diet. Yet they are slimmer, andhave much fewer occurrences of heart disease and cancer than their American counterparts.Recent studies have shown that people in certain Mediterranean regions and in France manage tostay healthier and are less obese than those in other western countries. Lets look at the Frenchfirst.In a study by Adam Drewnowski of the University of Michigan, scientists examined the eatinghabits of 1,637 men and 1,576 women in America and compared them to those of 5,000 Frenchadults. They studied their overall diets based on diversity (foods from 5 major food groups), variety(total number of foods consumed daily) and moderation (according to USDA dietary guidelines).(2)The results were quite surprising. They found that the French ate more foods that were higher infat, saturated fat and cholesterol than their American counterparts. The study also showed that theFrench diet complied with very few of the USDA dietary recommendations for eating healthy. Inaddition, the findings showed that 99% of French womens diets had saturated fat contents inexcess of 10% of total daily calories. Whats shocking is that, on average, the French are thinnerand have fewer occurrences of heart disease than Americans.The possible harmful effects of the high fat content in the French diet, however, were offset by dietdiversity and variety. Drewnowski pointed out that "the low fat approach is very good but not if itcomes at the expense of dietary variety."The USDA recommends that diets should consist of a variety of foods. According to the Americanpart of the study, just one in ten men and one in sixteen women consumed food from all five foodgroups (Meat, dairy products, fruits, vegetables and grains). The other thing is that the Frenchhave more active lifestyles than Americans do. Americans typically drive more, walk less andparticipate in more sedentary type of leisure activities.Similarly, a Mediterranean diet study also showed that the diet was high in fat, more diverse andhad greater variety than the American diet. According to research, certain Mediterranean people,particularly from the Greek island of Crete, had fewer cases of heart disease and were thinnerthan Americans.The difference in this study, however, was a crucial finding that suggested food variety anddiversity created a certain dietary ratio. This was a ratio between 2 types of fatty acids present in
the Mediterranean diet. These fatty acids are found in plant sources and fall into 2 groups: Theomega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. You have probably heard of the multiple health benefits ofthese essential fatty acids many times before. They are called essential fatty acids (EFAs)because the body cannot produce them - they can only be obtained from food sources.Although omega-6 fatty acids are essential to the diet, the omega-3 group has more significanttherapeutic properties. Omega-3s contain powerful antioxidants that are known to fight againstheart disease, lower blood pressure, strengthen the immune system, improve mood disorders toname a few.The other benefit of omega-3s according to research is that they also have an amazing ability tocontrol body fat. Omega-3s control the quantity of adipose (fat) tissue by regulating the amount offat that goes into fat cells and the amount that is burned up for energy. (3, 4) Omega-3s have alsobeen shown to increase fat oxidation in the body - the process by which fat is broken down andused as fuel for energy. (4) This further promotes a reduction in body weight that consists of fatmass.According to scientists the key factor in diet composition is that the French diet and more so theMediterranean diet consist of higher intakes of foods containing omega-3s than the American diet.In other words their diets contain a better (lower) omega-6 to omega-3 ratio than the Americandiet. And thats the key. One of the main reasons Americans have lower intakes of omega-3s isbecause of their high intake of processed food. Food processing is largely responsible forremoving a lot of the omega-3 content from food.On the other hand the French and Mediterranean diets are more abundant in whole foods, freshfruits and vegetables. And so their intake of omega-3s is considerably higher. In addition, thepeople of Crete eat 10 times more fish (rich source of omega-3s) than Americans do. Otherimportant sources of omega-3s in the Mediterranean diet were: fish, purslane (wild plant high inomega-3 content), walnuts, figs and various other unrefined carbohydrates. By the way, the mostabundant source of omega-3s is found right here in North America, and thats flax seed oil.As we can see, two different cultures manage to stay healthier and slimmer than North Americanswhile eating foods that contain high fat, carbohydrate and protein contents. The key differencesare that their diets contain more unrefined foods; they consist of foods from all food groups andhave more variety. As a result they have higher intakes of omega-3s (lower omega-6: omega-3ratio) than other Western cultures. In addition, both these groups of people are more physicallyactive than Americans.Now, you can put on those sneakers and walk (or jog) to the supermarket for a new supply offresh wholesome food.Refernces:1. http://www.jacn.org, "Postprandial Thermogenesis Is Increased 100% on a High-Protein, Low-Fat Diet versus a High-Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Diet in Healthy, Young Women, retrieved 10 June2005 from http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/21/1/552. http://www.sciencedaily.com, "Healthy diets need fat, according to new study", retrieved 22
June 2005 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/04/980424031929.htm3. Parrish et al. "Dietary fish oils limit adipose tissue hypertrophy in rats." Metabolism, Mar 1990,39(3):217-94. Parrish et al. "Dietary fish oils modify adipocyte structure and function." J Cell Physiology, Sep1991, 148(3)5. Baillie RA, et al. "Coordinate induction of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and UCP-3 by dietaryfish oil: a mechanism for decreased body fat deposition." Prostaglandins Leukot Essential FattyAcids, May 1999, 60(5-6)John Tiniakos helps make weight loss easier through proven weight loss methods usinginformation and analysis from the worlds leading scientists.For more information and to subscribe to his free monthly newsletter that includes valuable, up todate tips on diet, weight loss and health visit [http://www.nulife-weightloss.com/natural.htm]Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=John_Tiniakos==== ====For Part 2 of this article, videos and more information on latest diets and weight loss programs,please download a report @http://www.smallreports.com/index.php?k=diet,%20weight_loss==== ====