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LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation CA – from design to implementation and test challenges

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LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation CA – from design to implementation and test challenges

  1. 1. LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation (CA) – from design to implementation and test challenges Andjela Ilic-Savoia Keysight Technologies November 2014
  2. 2. Page Agenda LTE-A Carrier Aggregation technology, and relevance in the 4G and beyond era •Key Features of LTE-Advanced •What is CA and why do we need it? •Bands and CA Deployment Scenarios •Definitions and UE Categories •How does CA work: Where is the impact and Protocol implications •What’s coming in Rel-11, 12 •Summary 2
  3. 3. Page Keysight Technologies Began Operations, Aug 1, ‘14 •Agilent announced Sept. 19, 2013, it would separate into: •an Electronic Measurement company (now Keysight) •a Life Sciences, Diagnostics and Applied Markets company (to retain the Agilent name) 3
  4. 4. Page FY13 $2.9 billion revenue | 18.9% operating margin | 31% ROIC | best in class financial profile Communications Industrial, computer, semiconductor Aerospace/defense Keysight in Electronic Measurement The industry leader (1)Presented on a non-GAAP basis; reconciliations to closet GAAP equivalent provided. See reconciliations for definition of ROIC. 4
  5. 5. Page Key LTE-Advanced Features Carrier Aggregation Enhanced MIMO Het Nets Higher data rates (bps) Higher spectral effiency (bps/Hz) Higher spectral effiency per coverage area (bps/Hz/Km2) 5
  6. 6. Page What is Carrier Aggregation? •Combining (using) multiple LTE carriers together in order to increase data throughput •Extends the maximum transmission bandwidth, up to 100 MHz, by aggregating up to five LTE carriers – a.k.a component carriers (CCs) •Initially defined in the 3GPP Release 10 standard •To preserve compatibility with existing devices, all aggregated carriers look exactly “like R8/R9” carriers. •Can be supported in Downlink only or both in Downlink and Uplink •Supported for FDD and TDD modes 6
  7. 7. Page Why Carrier Aggregation? •Lack of sufficient contiguous spectrum forces use of carrier aggregation to meet peak data rate targets •Motivation: •Achieve wider bandwidths (for throughput, throughput and also throughput) •Facilitate efficient use of fragmented spectrum •Efficient interference management for control channels in heterogeneous networks(cross scheduling optional) ≈ f 7
  8. 8. Page 8 Why Carrier Aggregation - Industry Inflection Point Data Traffic Growth Driven By Smartphones LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation Benefits: • Faster IP Data • Wider bandwidths • Reduced latency • Improved spectrum efficiency LTE Technology & Smartphones, 2014 Continued growth and opportunity • 263 LTE networks in 97 countries* • 1371 LTE devices* • 918.6M Smartphone shipments** • Global shift (US 15%, China 33%; India growing 460% in 2013-’17)* Industry Trends *Source GSMA, Jan 2014 150 Mbps IP data 150 Mbps IP data LTE Carrier # 1 20 MHz Bandwidth LTE Carrier # 2 20 MHz Bandwidth LTE-A Carrier Aggregation Solution: 10 or 20 MHz fragments aggregated to get 30 - 40MHz channel bandwidth
  9. 9. Page Band A Band B Carrier Aggregation Modes Intra -band contiguous allocation f ≈ f Intra-band non-contiguous allocation Inter-band non-contiguous allocation Component Carrier (CC)– up to 20 MHz BW f Band A Band A 9
  10. 10. Page 3GPP Release 10 RF & Performance Requirements f Component Carrier (CC)– up to 20 MHz BW Band A Band A f Band A Band B ≈ f Not supported in Rel 10 Maximum 2 CCs supported for both uplink & downlink, FDD & TDD Maximum 2 CC supported ONLY for FDD-downlink Intra -band contiguous Intra-band non-contiguous Inter-band allocation 10
  11. 11. Page Rel-10 Defined CA Bands Release 10 defines three CA bands: •Intra-band contiguous CA: •Band 1 (FDD) is defined as CA band CA_1 (IMT-2000 band) •Band 40 (TDD) are defined as CA_40 (2300 MHz TDD band) •For inter-band non-contiguous CA: •R8 operating bands 1 and 5 are defined as one CA band named CA_1-5. (IMT-2000 and US Cellular 800 MHz bands) Relaxing the constraint on Rel-10 CA •An important aspect of frequency bands when it comes to the 3GPP releases is that they are “release independent”. •This means that a band defined in a later release can be applied to an earlier release. 11
  12. 12. Page Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations Band Lead company Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Mode CA-B3_B7 TeliaSonera 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD CA-B4_B17 AT&T 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 704 – 716 734 - 746 FDD CA-B4_B13 Ericsson (Verizon) 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 777 - 787 746 - 756 FDD CA-B4_B12 Cox Communications 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 698 – 716 728 - 746 FDD CA-B20_B7 Huawei (Orange) 832 – 862 791 - 821 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD CA-B2_B17 AT&T 1850 – 1910 1930 - 1990 704 – 716 734 - 746 FDD CA-B4_B5 AT&T 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 824 – 849 869 - 894 FDD CA-B5_B12 US Cellular 824 – 849 869 - 894 698 – 716 728 - 746 FDD CA-B5_B17 AT&T 824 – 849 869 - 894 704 – 716 734 - 746 FDD CA-B20_B3 Vodafone 832 – 862 791 - 821 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 FDD CA-B20_B8 Vodafone 832 – 862 791 - 821 880 – 915 925 - 960 FDD CA-B3_B5 SK Telecom 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 824 – 849 869 - 894 FDD CA-B7 China Unicom 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD CA-B1_B7 China Telecomm 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD CA-B4_B7 Rogers Wireless 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 2500 - 2570 2620 - 2690 FDD CA-B25_25 Sprint 1850 - 1915 1930 - 1995 1850 - 1915 1930 - 1995 FDD CA-B38 Huawei (CMCC) 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 2570 - 2620 TDD CA-B41 Clearwire 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 2496 - 2690 TDD © 2012 Agilent Technologies
  13. 13. Page Band Lead company Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink Mode CA-B1_B18 KDDI 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 815 - 830 860 - 894 FDD CA-B1_B21 NTT DoCoMo 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 1447.9-1462.9 1495.9-1510.9 FDD CA-B11_B18 KDDI 1427.9–1427.9 1475.9- 1495.9 815 - 830 860 - 894 FDD CA-B3_B8 KT 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 880 – 915 925 - 960 FDD CA-B2_B4 TMO-US 1850 – 1910 1930 - 1990 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 FDD CA-B1 KDDI 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 1920 - 1980 2110 - 2170 FDD CA-B3_B3 SK Telecom 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 1710 - 1785 1805 - 1880 FDD CA-B4_B4 TMO-US 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 1710 – 1755 2110 - 2155 FDD … … … © 2012 Agilent Technologies Rel-11 Carrier Aggregation Combinations Continued… 13
  14. 14. Page PCC (Primary Component Carrier) •Random access procedure •Handles the RRC/NAS connection procedures •Measurement and mobility (handovers) procedures based on PCC SCC (Secondary Component Carrier) •Activated only when in CONNECTED mode (can you guess why this req?) •Can be dynamically activated/deactivated (through MAC PDU) •PUSCH is optional (asymmetric CA, only on DL) CA – How is it used? Uplink Downlink 14
  15. 15. Page CA Deployment Scenarios (1 of 2) Scenario #2: • F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, but F2 has smaller coverage • Only F1 provides sufficient coverage and F2 is used to improve throughput. • Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands F1 F2 Scenario #3: • F1 and F2 cells are co-located but F2 antennas are directed to the cell boundaries of F1 so that cell edge throughput is increased. • F1 provides sufficient coverage and F2 potentially “fills the holes” • Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands Scenario #1: • F1 and F2 cells are co-located and overlaid, providing same coverage. • Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of the same band. 15
  16. 16. Page CA Deployment Scenarios (2 of 2) Scenario #4: • F1 provides macro coverage and on F2 Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) are used to improve throughput at hot spots. • Likely scenario when F1 and F2 are of different bands. Scenario #5: • Similar to scenario #2, but frequency selective repeaters are deployed to extend coverage for one of the frequencies. 16
  17. 17. Page To specify different CA combinations some new definitions are used: •Aggregated Transmission Bandwidth Configuration (ATBC): total number of aggregated physical resource blocks (PRB). •CA bandwidth class: indicates a combination of maximum ATBC and maximum number of CCs in each band. In R10 and R11 three classes are defined: •Class A: ATBC ≤ 100, maximum number of CC = 1 example: CA_1A_5A: BC1 and BC5, Inter-band, can do 2x up to 10MHz •Class B: ATBC ≤ 100, maximum number of CC = 2 •Class C: 100 < ATBC ≤ 200, maximum number of CC = 2 example: CA_1C: BC1, Intra-band cont., can do 2x up to 20MHz •Class D, E, F: ATBC up to 500  For Future Study 18
  18. 18. Page UE Categories UE Category Data Rate DL/UL (Mbps) Downlink Uplink Max number of layers Max number of layers Support for 64QAM 1 10 / 5 1 1 No 2 50 / 25 2 1 No 3 100 / 50 2 1 No 4 150 / 50 2 1 No 5 300 / 75 4 1 Yes 6 300 / 50 2 or 4 1 or 2 No 7 300 / 100 2 or 4 1 or 2 No 8 3000 / 1500 8 4 Yes LTE LTE-A 19
  19. 19. Page New UE Categories Combinations of Carrier Aggregation and Layers •There are multiple combinations of CA and layers that can meet the data rates for the new and existing UE categories •The following tables define the most cases for which performance requirements may be developed UE category capability [#CCs/BW(MHz)] DL layers [max #layers] Category 6 1 / 20MHz 4 2 / 10+10MHz 4 2 / 20+20MHz 2 2 / 10+20MHz 4 (10MHz) 2(20MHz) Category 7 1 / 20MHz 4 2 / 10+10MHz 4 2 / 20+20MHz 2 2 / 10+20MHz 4 (10MHz) 2(20MHz) Category 8 [2 / 20+20MHz] 8? UE category capability [#CCs/BW(MHz)] UL layers [max #layers] Category 6 1 / 20MHz 1 2 / 10+10MHz 1 1 / 10MHz 2 Category 7 2 / 20+20MHz 1 1 / 20MHz 2 2 / 10+20MHz 2 (10MHz) 1 ( 20MHz) Category 8 [2 / 20+20MHz] 4? Downlink Uplink 20
  20. 20. Page CA – where is the impact? •MAC, PHY and RF are the most impacted layers •Aggregated carriers behave separately, including error correction, until demodulation is complete. •Data aggregation happens in MAC layer •Single instance of PDCP/RLC for aggregated carriers – as if only one carrier 21
  21. 21. Page SCC communicated to UE in RRC Reconfiguration 22
  22. 22. Page Protocol implications – how to agree to establish CA During initial attach procedure, UE informs eNB of it’s capabilities in UE- EUTRA-Capability information element: 23
  23. 23. Page Further on rf-parameters v1020 UE reports in UE-EUTRA-Capability information element: 24
  24. 24. Page Protocol implications – how to agree to establish CA –SCC is enabled at MAC layer, and signaled to UE via RRC Reconfig: 25
  25. 25. Page MAC implications how to Activate/deactivate SCC C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 R Oct 1 Figure 6.1.3.8-1: Activation/Deactivation MAC control element 26
  26. 26. Page Carrier Aggregation Design Challenges: one example Need to design front-end components that help reduce harmonics and other intermodulation products. 710 MHz 740 MHz 2130 MHz Band 17 Band 4 Example: Band 17-4 combination Third harmonic 27
  27. 27. Page Evolution of carrier aggregation Rel-12 Dual connectivity for LTE By allowing CA between sites it is possible to provide continuous CA coverage using a low frequency macro (umbrella) cell and local capacity using a higher frequency small cell Macro umbrella cell Small cell Small cell Small cell The separation of the sites means that enhancements are required at the physical layer including multiple timing advances 28
  28. 28. Page Evolution of carrier aggregation Rel-13 Multi-RAT dual connectivity The ultimate flexibility is achieved if CA is performed across radio access technologies (RATs) and in particular with today’s dominant small cell technology: WLAN. Macro umbrella cell Small cell WLAN WLAN This level of integration will force solutions to the issues of authentication and billing which continue to limit the potential of WLAN today. 29
  29. 29. Page LTE-Advanced Release 11, 12 &13 RAN stats 3GPP Releases 11, 12 and early 13 represent a huge growth in features and complexity •58 Study items for feasibility of new work •75 new features (excl. carrier aggregation), 51 with new performance requirements •129 new carrier aggregation combinations with corresponding performance requirements •4 performance only requirements for features from earlier releases •29 new conformance tests (expect ~180 at completion) 30
  30. 30. Page Release 9: Summary of Key Radio Features •Home base station (femtocell) •MBMS – completion of MBSFN •Positioning Support (AGNSS) •Local Area Base Station (picocell) •Self Organizing Networks (SON) •Multicarrier / Multi-RAT Base Station (Multi Standard Radio) •Dual layer beamforming (TM8) © 2012 Agilent Technologies 31
  31. 31. Page Rel-10: Stage 3 Frozen March 2011 Summary of Key Radio Features •Simultaneous PUCCH and PUSCH •Clustered SC-FDMA •Relaying – continued in Release 11 •Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) •Minimization of Drive Test (MDT) •Machine Type Communications (MTC) •SON enhancements for self healing •Transmit diversity, two- and four-layer spatial multiplexing •Eight-layer spatial multiplexing including UE-specific RS (TM9) © 2012 Agilent Technologies 32
  32. 32. Page Rel-11: Stage 3 Frozen Sept 2012 Summary of Key Radio Features •New carrier aggregation combinations (18) •Verification of radiated multi-antenna reception performance of UEs in LTE (MIMO OTA) •Signaling and procedure for interference avoidance for in-device coexistence •Coordinated multi-point operation for LTE (CoMP) •Further Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (FeICIC) © 2012 Agilent Technologies 33
  33. 33. Page Rel-12: New Frequency Bands Three new FDD frequency bands will be defined: •Downlink 1670 MHz–1675 MHz, uplink 1646.7 MHz–1651.7 MHz •for ITU Region 2 (US) •Downlink 461MHz–468 MHz, uplink 451–458 MHz •for Brasil •Downlink 2350–2360 MHz, uplink 2305–2315 MHz •US Wireless Communications Service (WCS) band There is also a study item for: •Uplink 1980–2010 MHz and downlink 2170 MHz– 2200 MHz. •This is currently widely allocated for satellite communications but terrestrial use now being considered, particularly for ITU Region 3. •The potential for 110 MHz pairing with band 1 is also being considered. © 2012 Agilent Technologies 35
  34. 34. Page The following proposals from the workshop were identified as most likely to be developed: •Dynamic TDD •Frequency separation between macro and small cells, using higher frequency bands in small cells (e.g., 3.5 GHz) •Inter-site carrier aggregation and macrocell-assisted small cells •Interworking with Wi-Fi •Continuous enhancements for machine-type communications, SON, MDT •Proximity services and device-to-device communications(LTE-Direct) © 2012 Agilent Technologies 36 3GPP Rel-12 Workshop June 2012
  35. 35. Page Rel-12: Stage 1 March 2013, Stage 3 2014? Current Work Items –The Release 12 work items that have been defined so far are: •New frequency bands •13 new carrier aggregation scenarios •Bringing the total to 31 for Rel-11 & 12 to date •Carrier-based Het-Net ICIC for LTE •Extends existing co-channel ICIC to include network-based carrier selection •New Carrier Type for LTE •The so-called “lean” carrier – not backwards compatible with Rel-8. Less control channel overhead, can be switched on and off based on load •Further Downlink MIMO Enhancement for LTE-Advanced •Further enhancements for H(e)NB mobility •Inter H(eNB) and H(e)NB to macro © 2012 Agilent Technologies 37
  36. 36. Page Thank You! Name: Andjela Ilic-Savoia E-mail:andjela_ilic-savoia@keysight.com 38
  37. 37. Page Extras… 39
  38. 38. Page End-to-end IP data throughput test 3GPP 37.901 Application Layer Data Throughput Testing Application Server System Simulator Channel emulator Test UE App Layer Protocol System Simulator Channel emulator profiles FTP over TCP/IP LTE - settable parameters and power levels, closed loop CQI LTE - static, EPA5, EVA5, EVA70, EVA200, ETU70 UDP over IP sf0 sf1 sf2 sf3 sf4 sf5 sf6 sf7 sf8 sf9 -3GPP 37.901 is defined with no PDSCH data in sub-frames 0 and 5 -For LTE CAT4 this reduces the headline rate from 150Mbps to 120Mbps (20MHz channel) -3GPP 37.901 Application layer Throughput also excludes TCP/UDP protocol overhead and re-transmissions which reduce the measurement result further PDSCH data DL UL DL 40
  39. 39. Page E2E IP Throughput CAT6 E2E IP Measurements on UXM –300Mbps achieved with 2x CCs and 20MHz bandwidth 41
  40. 40. Page LTE-A CA CC#1 LTE-A CA CC#2 W-CDMA HSPA+ LTE Interference & AWGN Multipath fading CA & MIMO Adaptive modulation & coding Doppler Real world conditions Affecting UE Performance Need network and channel emulation to verify LTE/LTE-A device performance •Fading conditions •Doppler speed •Degree of spatial diversity •Noise and interference conditions •Transmission mode used •Influence of adaptive modulation & coding 42
  41. 41. Page 1.End-to-end IP data throughput test for LTE/LTE-A chipsets/ UE’s 2.Receiver test complexities and challenges with 2CC CA, 4x2 MIMO and fading 3.Quickly setup multiple test sequences that require different parameters for each sequence Overcome LTE-A UE Design Test Challenges with Agilent’s New UXM Assess design readiness with greater confidence 3.Test Parameter changes 1.E2E IP Throughput 2.Rx characterization 43
  42. 42. Page •Unique receiver test Flexible channel allocation and closed-loop testing •Trusted transmitter test X-Series measurement science •Sustained bidirectional 300 Mbps/50 Mbps E2E IP data •Most highly integrated solution: multiple cells, carrier aggregation, 4x2 DL MIMO, integrated fading and built-in application server Ensure realistic category 6 performance Achieve design confidence LTE-Advanced carrier aggregation Cat 6 device DL: 300 Mbps UL: 50 Mbps Gain new insights for LTE-Advanced Wring out designs with a broad range of integrated capabilities 44
  43. 43. Page Be ready for 4G and beyond Expand capabilities with most advanced platform architecture •Designed for next advancements in antenna techniques, component carriers & data rates •Two independent 100 MHz RF transceivers •Two receiver paths per cell •Enables multiple cells, carrier aggregation, higher order MIMO, and integrated fading •Multi-format capable •Supports LTE FDD and TDD now Future-ready platform Extensible architecture •High-speed interconnects, upgradeable processors and expansion slots Versatile touchscreen •Next-generation ease of use, flexibility for the future 45
  44. 44. Page Keysight’s Next Generation Wireless Test Sets Is your device ready? Ramp up rapidly & optimize full-volume manufacturing •Ultimate scalability & port density •Broadest multi-format coverage •Highest throughput & yield E7515A UXM Wireless Test Set Make a clear call E6640A EXM Wireless Test Set Solve today, evolve tomorrow Assess design readiness with greater confidence •Gain new insights for LTE-A •Be ready for 4G and beyond •Make a seamless transition Agilent Technologies webcast 46

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