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Pharaohs of Egypt

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An overview of some of the most famous Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. I showed an episode after Ramses II from famous Ancient Battles on Kadesh.

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Pharaohs of Egypt

  1. 1. Pharaohs of Egypt A Brief Overview of the Most Famous Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt
  2. 2. Menes • Founding King of the 1st Dynasty • Ruled between 3100-2850 B.C.E • First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt into one Kingdom • Ancient Egypt’s form of a civilization began with King Menes. • He created the city of Memphis because of its location. It would be easy to defend against any attacks. • During his reign he expanded his kingdom and developed commercial trade links.
  3. 3. Menes • His chief wife was Queen Berenib, although she wasn’t the mother of his heir: Djer. • The mother of Djer was Neithotepe, Menes’ other wife. • He died at the age of 63. • According to legend he was attacked by wild dogs or Nile crocodiles at Faiyum. • He died leaving behind the legacy of a powerful civilization. • His tomb lays at Saqqara, the famed area of Memphis.
  4. 4. Djoser • Djoser reigned for about 19 years. • His right hand man, Imhotep, was famous for his genius. • Imhotep came up with the idea of the step pyramid. • The pyramids design consisted of six giant steps and contained many chambers and secret tunnels. • It is believed that during Djoser’s reign, he extended the Egyptian Southern Border all the way to the Nile’s First Cataract. • He left behind the legacy of the step pyramid, which was the basis of all other pyramids to come.
  5. 5. Non-Pharaoh Imhotep • First individual (non-ruler) whose life has been recorded • Founded the Egyptian system of medicine – Regarded as the best in the ancient world • Created the first pyramid (step pyramid) • Inside, he wrote every part of life within the royal palace in stone (2650 BCE) – Meant to capture the life of the Pharah, not just hold his final remains
  6. 6. Imhotep’s Title • His statue in the royal funeral complex reads: “The Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, the first after the King of Upper Egypt, administrator of the great palace, hereditary lord, the High Priest of Helopolis, Imhotep the builder, the sculptor, and the maker of stone vases.”
  7. 7. Pyramids of Giza • 3 built by Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure • Khufu’s is known as the ‘Great Pyramid’ • Khufu’s father Snefuru built the ‘Bent Pyramid’ • Khafre is Khufu’s son, some say he also built the ‘Great Sphinx’ • Mekaure built a smaller pyramid with three smaller pyramids for his queens.
  8. 8. Tuthmosis III & Hatshepsut • The son of Tuthmosis II and Isris • When is father died his stepmother, Hatshepsut, took charge. • She was Tuthmosis III’s co-regent and for 22 years he was pushed into the background as she ruled Egypt. • When she died, or when she was deposed, Tuthmosis III came to the throne. • As an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed as many of Hatshepsut's statues, monuments and buildings.
  9. 9. Hatshepsut • One of 4 women to rule Egypt • Declared herself female king of Egypt and refused to hand the throne over to her son • Statues and pictures have her wexearing a beard to symbolize power • Her reign has been described as: a period of peace, stability, and stability • She expanded trade, expanded building projects •
  10. 10. Tuthmosis III • He was remembered for is successful military campaigns, largest empire Egypt had seen • He had numerous victories against Syria, Libya and Nubia. Led to much spleandor from the tributes they paid. • In his lifetime he married several foreign princesses, apparently for diplomatic reasons. • His chief queen was Hatshepsut-Merytre. • He established Egypt as a powerful military strength. • He died in his 55th year of reigning and was buried in the Valley of the Kings. • Has been referred to as the ‘Napoleon of Egypt’
  11. 11. Akenaton • Original name was Amonhotep IV. • Reigned 1350-1334 B.C.E • He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god from Amon-Re to Aton. • Therefore he changed his name to Akhenaton which means “he who serves Aton” • He also built a new city called Akhetaton. • This was the first attempt at radically changing the Egyptian religion. • He closed all temples of other gods and confiscated their possessions
  12. 12. Akenaton • His wife was Nefertiti who was known for her beauty. • Today, Akhenaton is remembered for trying to introduce monotheism to Egypt. • It is not sure how Akhenaton died but the text two kings, Smenkhkara and Tutankhamen, were apparently son’s-in-law to Akhenaton. • After his reign Egypt returned back to their old Gods.
  13. 13. Akhenaton • His new religion was defined through hymns like the following: Splendid you rise in heaven’s lightland, O living Aton, creator of life! When you have dawned in eastern lightland, You fill every land with your beauty.
  14. 14. Tutankhamen • King Tutankhamen came to the throne at a very young age. • When his father died, believed to be Akhenaton, he became King at age 10. • King Tutankhamen helped restore Egypt's old beliefs from when his father tried to make Egypt a monotheism society. • He died suddenly at the young age of 18 • Possibly by a blow to the back of his head, an infection of his leg, or due to poor genes because of many generations of incest
  15. 15. Tutankhamen • Since his tomb had not yet been made, he was laid in a tomb of a member of the nobility. • He is famous today because of his tomb found by archaeologists. • Some say it was the most important archaeological find in history • • King Tut curse????
  16. 16. Ramses II • Went to the throne at the age of 20 and reigned for 66 years. • Seen as the most powerful Pharaoh • Ramses is remembered for constructing many architectural marvels. • Constructed more colossal statues than any other Egyptian King. • Two of his greatest monuments are the two huge temples at Abu Simbel for him and his wife, Nefertari
  17. 17. Ramses II • Ramses also had many military victories. • Not long after the reign of Ramses II, Egypt was invaded and eventually fell to the rule of foreigners. • Ramses not only excelled in architecture but he also had a great number of wives. • By the end of his life Ramses had over 100 children! • After his death Ramses son, Menataph, became the heir to the throne.
  18. 18. Ramses II • Take notes on the Battle of Kadesh • Description of Battle • Importance
  19. 19. Cleopatra • Last Pharaoh of Egypt (51-30 BCE) • Portrayed herself as the reincarnation of Isis • Allied herself with Julius Caesar, disputably had a child together, Caesarean. • After Caesar died, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar Agustus • Had 3 children with Antony, lost Battle of Actium, committed suicide by Asp
  20. 20. Bibliography • Brier, Bob. PhD. History of ancient Egypt. The First Nation in History. The Learning Company. 2001. • Dowling, Mike. The Pharaoh. West Palm Beach Florida, 23 Oct. 2004. 18 Oct. 2006 • Dunn, Jimmy. Egypt Feature Story The Kings (Pharaohs) of Ancient Egypt. 1996. 18 Oct. 2006 • Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past. Whitby, Ontario: McGraw - Hill Ryerson Limited, 2001. • “Pharaoh." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 18 t. 2006 . < 9059581>. • THE ASTRA CORPORATION LIMITED . Egyptology Online: Discovering Ancient Egypt. 2001. 18 Oct. 2006