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Present Perfect (all in one)

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Present Perfect (all in one)

  1. 1. Present Perfect
  2. 2. form
  3. 3. I have done…
  4. 4. I have done… ‘to have’ auxiliary in present: have / has
  5. 5. I have done… main verb in past participle
  6. 6. I have done taken been arrived met studied etc. he she it has we you they have
  7. 7. have [aux] is usually abbreviated
  8. 8. I’ve done… / I haven’t done…
  9. 9. I’ve done… / I haven’t done… She’s done… / She hasn’t done…
  10. 10. I’ve done… / I haven’t done… She’s done… / She hasn’t done… has NOT is
  11. 11. I’ve done… / I haven’t done… She’s done… / She hasn’t done… We’ve done… / We haven’t done…
  12. 12. tense gymnastics !
  13. 13. convert past simple to present perfect and present perfect to past simple
  14. 14. past simple present perfect She made a phone call. They haven’t finished. We didn’t do the homework. Have you seen John? Did you wear the jacket? She has taken her exams. I sang the words. He has shown us how. You didn’t drive to work. We have met before. Did they give you a present?
  15. 15. past simple present perfect She made a phone call. She has made a phone call. They didn’t finish. They haven’t finished. We didn’t do the homework. We haven’t done the homework. Did you see John? Have you seen John? Did you wear the jacket? Have you worn the jacket? She took her exams. She has taken her exams. I sang the words. I’ve sung the words. He showed us how. He has shown us how. You didn’t drive to work. You haven’t driven to work. We met before. We have met before. Did they give you a present? Have they given you a present?
  16. 16. !be careful translating passato prossimo constructions with ‘essere’
  17. 17. Sono stato al bar. Luisa è arrivata. intransitive verbs
  18. 18. Sono stato al bar. I’ve been to the bar. Luisa è arrivata. Luisa has arrived. intransitive verbs
  19. 19. Sono stato al bar. I’ve been to the bar. Luisa è arrivata. Luisa has arrived. intransitive verbs
  20. 20. Sono stato al bar. I’ve been to the bar. Luisa è arrivata. Luisa’s arrived. intransitive verbs
  21. 21. Sono costati molto. È piovuto. impersonal verbs
  22. 22. Sono costati molto. They’ve cost a lot. È piovuto. It has rained. impersonal verbs
  23. 23. Sono costati molto. They’ve cost a lot. È piovuto. It’s rained. impersonal verbs
  24. 24. Mi sono lavato. Lui si è visto. reflexive verbs
  25. 25. Mi sono lavato. I’ve washed myself. Lui si è visto. He’s seen himself. reflexive verbs
  26. 26. exercise translate ‘passato prossimo’ to ‘present perfect’ and ‘present perfect’ to ‘passato prossimo’
  27. 27. passato prossimo present perfect Sono partiti. They’ve left. (Lei) è stata a Parigi. She’s been to Paris. È nevicato? Has something happened? Non sono andati via. I’ve come to say hello! È costato molto. They haven’t called each other. Sono nate due gemelle! They’ve got off the bus. È salito in macchina.
  28. 28. passato prossimo present perfect Sono partiti. They’ve left. (Lei) è stata a Parigi. She’s been to Paris. È nevicato? Has it snowed? È successo qualcosa? Has something happened? Non sono andati via. They haven’t gone away. Sono venuto per dire ciao! I’ve come to say hello! È costato molto. It’s cost a lot. Non si sono chiamati. They haven’t called each other. Sono nate due gemelle! Twins have been born. Sono scesi dal autobus. They’ve got off the bus. È salito in macchina. He’s got into the car.
  29. 29. BUT
  30. 30. ‘present perfect’ = ‘passato prossimo’ ?
  31. 31. only sometimes ! ‘present perfect’ = ‘passato prossimo’ ?
  32. 32. meaning & function
  33. 33. 1
  34. 34. experience
  35. 35. A: Have you ever been to Paris?
  36. 36. A: Have you ever been to Paris? What does ‘A’ want to know?
  37. 37. A: Have you ever been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. A: When did you go? Where did you stay? What did you eat?
  38. 38. A: Have you ever been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. A: When did you go? Where did you stay? What did you eat? Present Perfect Past Simple
  39. 39. A: Have you ever been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. A: When did you go? Where did you stay? What did you eat? indefinite time definite time
  40. 40. When did you see John? We saw him on Monday. at 3 o’clock. in March. 4 days ago. yesterday. while we were walking. before he left. prepositions of time adverbs of time conjunctions of time when and what time
  41. 41. many time expressions ‘require’ the Past Simple
  42. 42. A: Have you ever been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. A: When did you go? Where did you stay? What did you eat?
  43. 43. A: Have you ever been to Paris? B: Yes, I have. A: When did you go? Where did you stay? What did you eat? definite time with no time expression
  44. 44. SO you can also use the Past Simple for definite time without a time expression if it’s clear that you’re talking about a finished period or activity. In this case the finished period is a trip to Paris.
  45. 45. Contrast this with ‘indefinite time’. The time of the action isn’t defined because it doesn’t matter! Instead, ‘indefinite time’ makes a connection to the present.
  46. 46. 1st RULE Use the Present Perfect for ‘indefinite time’. Use the Past Simple for ‘definite time’.
  47. 47. 1st RULE – in translation Italian uses the Passato Prossimo both for ‘indefinite time’ and for ‘definite time’.
  48. 48. 2
  49. 49. recent past
  50. 50. A: I’ve lost my keys.
  51. 51. A: I’ve lost my keys. ‘A’ has some problems. What are they?
  52. 52. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost my keys then.
  53. 53. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost my keys then.
  54. 54. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost my keys then. Present Perfect Past Simple
  55. 55. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost them then. recent past narrative time
  56. 56. Itrippedgoing downstairs Idroppedmybag Ipickeditup somethingsfell outofmypocket Ilostmykeysthen
  57. 57. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost my keys then.
  58. 58. A: I’ve lost my keys. B: Oh! How did you lose them? A: This morning, I tripped going downstairs. I dropped my bag and when I picked it up some things fell out of my pocket. I think I lost my keys then. same action different tense: why?
  59. 59. A: I lost my keys. Do we know what happened next?
  60. 60. A: I lost my keys. I looked everywhere. In the end I had to call the locksmith.
  61. 61. or
  62. 62. A: I lost my keys. But I found them again after 5 minutes—they were in my pocket!
  63. 63. A: I lost my keys. Do we know what happened next? No! In a narrative we must wait for the next verb.
  64. 64. compare
  65. 65. A: I’ve lost my keys. I don’t have my keys. I can’t get into my flat. I have a big problem. HELP!
  66. 66. A: I’ve lost my keys. I don’t have my keys. I can’t get into my flat. I have a big problem. HELP!
  67. 67. A: I’ve lost my keys. I don’t have my keys. I can’t get into my flat. I have a big problem. HELP! There’s a ‘present consequence’ to the Present Perfect for the recent past
  68. 68. 2nd RULE Use the Present Perfect to announce news. Use the Past Simple to tell the story of the news.
  69. 69. 2nd RULE – in translation Italian uses the Passato Prossimo both for announcing news and for (recent) ‘narrative time’.
  70. 70. past simple or present perfect She made / has made a phone call at 3pm. She already made / has already made a phone call. We didn’t do / haven’t done the homework for this lesson. I never went / I’ve never been to New York. Did you wear / have you worn the jacket yesterday? He already did / has already done the exercise. I went there / have been there in 2009. He just went to the bar / has just gone to the bar. You didn’t see / haven’t seen the match last night. We didn’t do / haven’t done it yet. Did you book / Have you booked your holiday yet?
  71. 71. past simple or present perfect She made / has made a phone call at 3pm. She already made / has already made a phone call. We didn’t do / haven’t done the homework for this lesson. I never went / have never been to New York. Did you wear / have you worn the jacket yesterday? He already did / has already done the exercise. I went there / have been there in 2009. He just went / has just gone to the bar. You didn’t see / haven’t seen the match last night. We didn’t do / haven’t done it yet. Did you book / Have you booked your holiday yet?
  72. 72. 3
  73. 73. period to the present
  74. 74. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years.
  75. 75. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Where does ‘A’ live now?
  76. 76. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London.
  77. 77. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London.
  78. 78. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London. Present Perfect Past Simple
  79. 79. A: I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Before coming to Rome, I lived in London. open period closed period
  80. 80. this grammar is only about defining the duration of periods
  81. 81. 1983 1993 now 10 years 22 years
  82. 82. I lived in London for 10 years. between 1983 and 1993. from 1983 to 1993. until / till / ’til 1993. until I came to Rome.
  83. 83. 1983 1993 now 10 years 22 years
  84. 84. I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. since 1993. since I left London.
  85. 85. 1983 1993 now 10 years 22 years London Rome I came to London I came to Rome I left London
  86. 86. 3rd RULE Use the Present Perfect to define the length of an open period. Use the Past Simple to define the length of a closed period.
  87. 87. ?ive: How long have you lived in Rome? ?ive: How long did you live in London?
  88. 88. -ive: I haven’t seen Gianni since Thursday. BUT: I last saw Gianni on Thursday.
  89. 89. 3rd RULE – in translation Italian uses the Presente for open periods. And it uses the Passato Prossimo for closed periods. BE CAREFUL: this can cause some confusion!
  90. 90. I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. Presente for open periods. I lived in London for 10 years. Passato Prossimo for closed periods.
  91. 91. I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. = Vivo a Roma da 22 anni. I lived in London for 10 years. = Ho vissuto a Londra per 10 anni.
  92. 92. I’ve lived in Rome for 22 years. = Vivo a Roma da 22 anni. I lived in London for 10 years. = Ho vissuto a Londra per 10 anni.
  93. 93. present simple or present perfect or past simple She works / has worked as a doctor since 2001. She is / has been a doctor since she graduated / has graduated. We know / have known the answer for a long time. How long do you have / have you had that computer? We live / have lived in Garbatella now. We live / have lived in Garbatella for 7 months. How long are you / have you been in your job? How long were you / have you been in your last job? They studied / have studied from 9:00pm. They studied / have studied since 9:00pm. They studied / have studied for 3 hours.
  94. 94. present simple or present perfect or past simple She works / has worked as a doctor since 2001. She is / has been a doctor since she graduated / has graduated. We know / have known the answer for a long time. How long do you have / have you had that computer? We live / have lived in Garbatella now. We live / have lived in Garbatella for 7 months. How long are you / have you been in your job? How long were you / have you been in your last job? They studied / have studied from 9:00pm. They studied / have studied since 9:00pm. They studied / have studied for 3 hours. both correct with different meanings
  95. 95. summary
  96. 96. experience recent past period to the present present perfect indefinite time I’ve been to Paris. news I’ve lost my keys! open period I’ve lived in Rome for… past simple definite time I went to Paris. narrative I lost my keys. closed period I lived in London for… adverbs and prepositions ever never just already yet for since
  97. 97. English function Italian Present Simple permanent truth Presente Present Simple present fact Presente Present Simple present habit Presente Present Perfect period to the present Presente Present Perfect recent past Passato Prossimo Present Perfect experience Passato Prossimo Past Simple definite time Passato Prossimo / Remoto Past Simple narrative time Passato Prossimo / Remoto Past Simple historical time Passato Remoto
  98. 98. homework
  99. 99. module 7, parts 1, 2, 4, 5
  100. 100. www.davidnicholson.it

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