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Oral mucous membrane

Upload By : Ahmed Ali Abbas
Babylon University College of Dentistry
download this file from Website on google theoptimalsmile.wix.com/dentistry
Oral histology

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Oral mucous membrane

  1. 1. Oral Mucous Membrane UploadUpload By : Ahmed Ali AbbasBy : Ahmed Ali Abbas Babylon University College of DentistryBabylon University College of Dentistry downloaddownload this file from Website onthis file from Website on GoogleGoogle TheOptimalSmile.wix.comTheOptimalSmile.wix.com Then choose LecturesThen choose Lectures Then Second StageThen Second Stage Then choose the lecture you needThen choose the lecture you need
  2. 2. 1.Oral Mucosa The moist lining of the oral cavity is called Oral Mucosa or Oral Mucous Membrane The function of oral mucosa is protection, sensation and secretion It is continuous with the skin outside the oral cavity and differs from it in appearance and structure
  3. 3. Oral Mucous Membrane
  4. 4. Oral Mucous Membrane Epithelium Lamina Propria Submucosa Periosteum Bone
  5. 5. Oral Epithelium Oral epithelium forms the surface of the oral mucosa that forms a barrier between the oral environment and the deeper tissues It is derived from the embryonic ectoderm It is stratified squamous epithelium and may or may not be keratinized Beneath the epithelium lies the connective tissue
  6. 6. Oral Epithelium -Keratinized
  7. 7. CELL LAYERS OF ORTHOKERATINISED EPITHELIUM
  8. 8. KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM
  9. 9. Keratinized oral epithelium Most of theoral mucosal surfaceislined by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium except gingiva, hard palate and dorsal surface of thetonguewheretheepithelium iskeratinized The keratinized cells have no nuclei and the cytoplasm is displaced by largenumbersof keratin filaments Keratinized epithelium is associated with masticatory function and havefour layersof cells
  10. 10. Thefour layersare: 1.Stratum Basale 2.Stratum Spinosum 3.Stratum Granulosum 4.Stratum Corneum Cellular layers of oral epithelium - Keratinized
  11. 11. 1. Stratum Basale The cells of the stratum basale are cuboidal or low columnar and form asinglelayer resting on thebasal lamina The basal lamina is at the interface of the epithelium and lamina propria Epithelial cellsof theoral mucosaarein aconstant stateof renewal Thebasal cellsshow themaximum mitotic activity
  12. 12. 2. Stratum Spinosum Stratum spinosum isusually several cellsthick They shaped likepolyhedron with short cytoplasmic processes The stratum basale and the first layers of stratum spinosum are referred to as stratum germinativum because these cells give rise to new epithelial cells
  13. 13. 3. Stratum Granulosum Cells of stratum granulosum are flat and are found in layers of three to fivecellsthick This layer is prominent in keratinized epithelium (and absent in nonkeratinized epithelium) Thesecellshavekeratohyalinegranulesin their cytoplasm Keratohyaline granules help to form the matrix of the keratin fibres found in thesuperficial layer
  14. 14. 4. Stratum Corneum Cellsof stratum corneum areflat, devoid of nuclei and full of keratin filament surrounded by amatrix These cells are continuously being sloughed and are replaced by epithelial cellsthat migratefrom theunderlying layers
  15. 15. Nonkeratinized oral epithelium Nonkeratinized epithelial cells in the superfecial layers do not have keratin filamentsin thecytoplasm Thesurfacecellsalso havenuclei Thestratum corneum and stratum granulosum layersareabsent Thisepithelium isassociated with lining of theoral cavity
  16. 16. NON KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM
  17. 17. LAMINA PROPORIA
  18. 18. LAMINA PROPORIA
  19. 19. Connective tissue Connective tissue can be differentiated as Lamina Propria and Submucosa Lamina propria Lamina propria is the connective tissue layer immediately below the epithelium It can bedivided into papillary layer and thereticular layer Papillary layer forms finger like projections of connective tissue that extend deep in theepithelial layers
  20. 20. Papillary layer is prominent in masticatory mucosa and reticular layer isprominent in lining mucosa Lamina prorpria consists of blood vessels and cells like fibroblasts, cellsof blood vesselsand lymphaticsand nerves Epithelium is avascular, hence its metabolic needs come via the vesselsof thelaminapropria
  21. 21. Submucosa Submucosa lies below the lamina propria and serves as an attachment between laminapropriaand boneor skeletal muscle It isfound in thecheeks, lipsand partsof thepalate It consists of large blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics and its functionsarenutrition and defense
  22. 22. 2. Functional types of Oral Mucosa Lining mucosa and Masticatory mucosa Lining mucosa Lining mucosa covers all soft tissue of the oral cavity except the gingiva, hard palateand thedorsal surfaceof thetongue Lip Lip iscovered by lining mucosa Lip with skin on outer surface and lining mucosa on inner surface
  23. 23. Vermilion border The junction between the skin and mucous membrane is known as thevermilion border Here the epithelium is thin therefore, the red blood cells in the capillariesshow through contributing to thevermilion colour Vermelion Zone
  24. 24. VERMILLION BORDER OF LIP
  25. 25. Ventral surface of the tongue Thelining mucosa here contains both lamina propria and submucosa The submucosa merges with the muscle bundles of the ventral surfaceof thetongue Ventral surface of tongue
  26. 26. HARD PALATE
  27. 27. SOFT PALATE
  28. 28. Cheek In the cheek the underlying submucosa contains fat cells and small mixed salivary glands Cheek
  29. 29. Floor of the mouth The mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth is thin and loosely attached to theunderlying structures Floor of the mouth
  30. 30. Masticatory mucosa Masticatory mucosacoversthegingivaand hard palate In edentulous mouth, masticatory mucosa covers the chewing surfaceof thedental arches Gingiva Gingiva has keratinized or parakeratinzed epithelium with no submucosal layer It develops from the union of oral epithelium and reduced enamel epithelium of thedeveloping tooth Gingiva can be classified as free gingiva, attached gingiva and interdental papilla
  31. 31. Normal Gingiva
  32. 32. Development of gingiva from oral epithelium and reduced enamel epithelium
  33. 33. Anatomy of gingiva
  34. 34. Free gingiva (or marginal gingiva) It is that part of the oral mucosathat surrounds the necksof theteeth and formsthefreemargin of thegingival tissue It is differentiated apically from the attached gingival by the free gingival groove Theinner sideof it formsthegingival sulcus The free gingival mucosa is composed of stratified squamous epithelium that may be keratinized, parakeratinzed or sometimes nonkeratinized
  35. 35. Free gingiva
  36. 36. A- gingiva B- sulcular epithelium C- junctional epithelium D- lamina propria (connective tissue) E- alveolar process F- PDL
  37. 37. Alveolar Mucosa (Arrows - Interdental Papillae)
  38. 38. Attached gingiva The attached gingiva lies between the free gingival groove and the alveolar mucosa The junction of the attached gingiva and the alveolar mucosa is called mucogingival junction In healthy mouth attached gingiva shows stippling (orange-peel appearance) which isacharacteristic of thistypeof mucosa
  39. 39. Histology of gingiva
  40. 40. Mucogingival junction (arrows)
  41. 41. Alveolar Mucosa
  42. 42. Interdental papilla Interdental papillae are those parts of gingival tissue that appear in- between teeth apical to thecontact points Interdental grooves extend vertically between the interdental papilla corresponding to thedepressionsbetween theroots Confirming to the shape of the interproximal contact area is a valley likedepression in theinterdental papillacalled Col. Thisdepression liesin thefacial and lingual plane
  43. 43. Interdental Papilla (arrow)
  44. 44. Diagram of positional relation of col in health and disease for canine, premolar and molar Col accentuated during inflammation (arrows)
  45. 45. Junctional epithelium Junctional epithelium forms the seal of the gingival epithelium and thetooth It forms the floor of the gingival sulcus and extends apically to the enamel of thetooth Disturbances of epithelial attachment results in deepening of the sulcuswhich isasign of gingival/periodontal disease
  46. 46. Histology of gingiva
  47. 47. GINGIVA
  48. 48. TYPES OF EPIFHELIUM: Oral or outer epithelium sulcular epithelium Junctional epithelium Sulcular epithelium Junction epithelium Oral epithelium
  49. 49. HISTOLOGY OF GINGIVA
  50. 50. GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM
  51. 51. Hard palate The surface of the hard palate that is visible in the mouth is covered by masticatory mucosa Thelateral regionsof theposterior part contains palatineglands Theseglandsarepurely mucousglands The midline of the hard palate is called median raphe where there is no submucosa A seriesof foldsappear in theanterior part of thepalatecalled rugae
  52. 52. Dr.SyedSadatullah KingKhalidUniversity Hard Palate and Soft Palate
  53. 53. 3 Mucosa of the Tongue Specialized mucosa covers the dorsal surface of the body of the tongue The connective tissue binds the epithelium to the underlying skeletal muscle The epithelium is modified, keratinized, stratified covered with papillae, which can beseen by naked eye
  54. 54. Thedifferent papillaefound on thedorsal surfaceof thetongueare: 1.Filliform papillae 2.Funginform papillae 3.Circumvallate papillae 4.Foliate papillae Dorsum of Tongue
  55. 55. Cross section of tongue
  56. 56. 1. Filliform papillae Filliform papillae are pointed extensions of the keratinized epithelial cells They arethemost numerouspapillaeof thetongue They arenot associated with tastebuds Scanning electron micrograph of Filliform papillae(arrow)
  57. 57. Filliform Papillae
  58. 58. 2. Fungiform papillae Fungiform papillae are fewer than the filliform papillae and are scattered over thedorsal surfaceof thetongue They arerounded elevationsabovethesurfaceof thetongue They havetastebudson their superior surfaces Thesurfaceof fungiform papillaeisnot keratinized
  59. 59. Scanning electron micrograph of Fungiform papillae (arrow) surrounded by Filliform papillae
  60. 60. Fungiform Papillae
  61. 61. 3. Circumvallate papillae The circumvallate papillae are located at the junction of the anterior two thirds(body) and posterior onethirds(base) of thetongue There are eight to twelve in number and are bigger than fungiform papillae Circumvallatepapillaearelined with tastebudsand also openingsof serousglands The secretion from the serous glands washes away food for renewal of taste
  62. 62. Circumvallate Papilla and Taste buds (arrows)
  63. 63. 4. Foliate papillae Foliate papillae are located in the furrows along the posterior sides of thetongue They may belined with tastebuds They arenot prominent in human beings
  64. 64. TONGUE
  65. 65. PAPILLAE OF TONGUE
  66. 66. FILIFORM PAPILLAE
  67. 67. FUNGIFORM & CIRCUMVALLATE
  68. 68. TASTE BUDS
  69. 69. TASTE BUDS
  70. 70. TASTE PORES
  71. 71. Thank You

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