4. Uncontrolled growth and cell
proliferation results in mass (tumor)
•That invades neighboring tissues and may
metastasize to more distant sites.
•Some cancers, do not form tumors (Blood, Skin
•Its most common and severe problems of clinical
• Encodes a phosphoprotein with 53,000 MW.
• It blocks the cells that have damaged DNA by triggering the
blocking of cell division until the damage is repaired.
• If the DNA damage is severe, it directs the cell to commit
suicide by triggering apoptosis.
• Most tumours absence of p53, others show mutant non-
• Suppress transformation ability of oncogenic viruses and also
activates the expression of genes that suppress cell
28. Common Tumor Markers
Name Increased in
Alpha Fetoprotein Hepatoma, Germ cell Tumours
Carcinoembryonic antigen Colorectal, Gastro and Lung Cancer
Beta HCG Choriocarcinoma
Prostate Specific Antigen Prostate cancer
Calcitnin Medullary carcinoma of Thyroid
CA -125 Ovarian cancer
Alkaline phosphatase Bone secondaries
Neuronal specific enolase Nervous system cancer
Bence Jones Protein Lymphatic Cancer
33. Anticancer Drugs
Surgery and radiotherapy – most
effective to reduce the initial tumour load.
Chemotherapy - cytotoxic drugs reduces
doubling time of cancer cells
34. Common anticancer drugs
Name Type Mode of action
Methotrexate Folic acid
Competitive inhibitor of
Inhibits the conversion of
IMP to AMP
5-fluoro uracil Pyrimidine
Inhibits thymidylate synthase
Cross linking of bases of DNA;
inhibition of strand separation