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Industry 4.0

  1. 1. INDUSTRY 4.0 NGDT-II
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Evolution of Industry 4.0 • Industry 4.0 – Enabling Technologies • Design Principles & Building Blocks • Industry 4.0- Examples
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Industry 4.0 represents the current trend of automation technologies in the manufacturing industry • Includes enabling technologies such as the cyber physical systems (CPS), Internet of Things (IoT) & cloud computing • Represents the technological evolution from embedded systems to cyber- physical systems • Need of industry 4.0 is to convert the regular machines to self-aware & self- learning machines to improve their overall performance & maintenance management with the surrounding interaction
  5. 5. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “IoT” • When IoT emerged, it was referred to uniquely identifiable interoperable connected objects using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology • Connecting RFID reader to the Internet, the readers can automatically & uniquely identify & track the objects attached with tags in real-time • Later on, the IoT technology was used with other technologies, such as sensors, actuators, the Global Positioning System (GPS) & mobile devices that are operated via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular networks or near field communication (NFC)
  6. 6. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “IoT” • IoT is: • a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘Things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.
  7. 7. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “IoT” IoT related technologies made a significant impact on new ICT and paved the way for the realization of Industry 4.0
  8. 8. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “CLOUD COMPUTING” • Computing technology which offers high performance at low cost • Virtualization technology provides cloud computing with resource sharing, dynamic allocation, flexible extension & numerous other advantages • Large volume of data can be uploaded to a cloud computing center for storage & computation, which facilitates manufacturing & production • Cloud-based manufacturing is a rising technology which can contribute significantly to the realization of Industry 4.0 that enables modularization & service-orientation in the context of manufacturing
  9. 9. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “CLOUD COMPUTING” • Manufacturing enterprises require multiple computing resources such as servers for databases & decision-making units • Cloud computing provides an effective solution to such problems • All data can be stored in private or public cloud servers. • In this way, complex decision-making tasks can be supported by cloud computing
  10. 10. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “CYBER PHYSICAL SYSTEMS (CPS)” • CPS is the core foundation of Industry 4.0 • With the increased connectivity & use of standard communications protocols that come with Industry 4.0, the need to protect critical industrial systems & manufacturing lines from cyber security threats increases dramatically • The term CPS has been defined as the systems in which natural & human made systems (physical space) are tightly integrated with computation, communication and control systems (cyber space)
  11. 11. INDUSTRY 4.0: ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES – “CYBER PHYSICAL SYSTEMS (CPS)” • CPSs comprise smart machines, storage systems and production facilities capable of autonomously exchanging information, triggering actions and controlling each other independently • CPS facilitates fundamental improvements to the industrial processes involved in manufacturing, engineering, material usage and supply chain and life cycle management • Advances in CPS will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security & usability that will far exceed the simple embedded systems of today
  12. 12. EXAMPLE: AUTOMOTIVE TELEMATICS • In 2005, 30 – 90 processors per car Engine control, Break system, Airbag deployment system Windshield wiper, Door locks, Entertainment system • Cars are sensors and actuators in V2V networks Active networked safety alerts Autonomous navigation • Future Transportation Systems Incorporate both single person and mass transportation vehicles, air and ground transportations. Achieve efficiency, safety, stability using real-time control and optimization.
  13. 13. EXAMPLE: HEALTH CARE AND MEDICINE • National Health Information Network, Electronic Patient Record • Home care: monitoring and control Pulse oximeters, blood glucose monitors, infusion pumps, accelerometers, … • Operating Room of the Future Closed loop monitoring and control; multiple treatment stations, plug and play devices; robotic microsurgery System coordination challenge • Progress in bioinformatics: gene, protein expression, systems biology, disease dynamics, control mechanisms
  14. 14. EXAMPLE: ELECTRIC POWER GRID • Current picture: Equipment protection devices trip locally, reactively Cascading failure • Better future? Real-time cooperative control of protection devices Self-healing, aggregate islands of stable bulk power Coordinate distributed and dynamically interacting partcipants Issue: standard operational control concerns exhibit wide-area characteristics (bulk power stability and quality, flow control, fault isolation)
  16. 16. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRY 4.0 • INTEROPERABILITY • The ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of Things (IoT) or the Internet of People (IoP) • INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY • The transparency afforded by Industry 4.0 technology provides operators with vast amounts of useful information needed to make appropriate decisions
  17. 17. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRY 4.0 • TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE • Concerns the ability of the systems to support humans through comprehensive aggregation & visualization of information for better decision-making and quick solutions to problems • Focuses on the ability of cyber-enabled systems to physically support human resources by handling various tasks, which are considered time-consuming, harmful & exhausting to people
  18. 18. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRY 4.0 • DECENTRALIZED DECISIONS • Refers to the ability of cyber-enabled systems to independently come up with decisions and carry out their dedicated functions • Only in the case of exceptions, interferences or conflicting goals, the tasks are delegated to a higher level • REAL-TIME CAPABILITY • Industry 4.0 efforts are centered towards making everything real-time: the gathering or collecting of data in each step of the process & even the feedback and monitoring stage
  19. 19. DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF INDUSTRY 4.0 • MODULARITY • Flexibility is also another design principle of Industry 4.0, so that Smart Factories can easily adapt to changing circumstances & requirements • The individual models must be designed in such a way that they can be replaced, expanded, or improved on
  21. 21. BUILDING BLOCKS • Autonomous Robots • Robots will eventually interact with one another and work safely side by side with humans and learn from them • These robots will cost less and have a greater range of capabilities than those used in manufacturing today • Simulation • Simulations will be used more extensively in plant operations to leverage real- time data and mirror the physical world in a virtual model • will allow operators to test and optimize the machine settings for the next product in line in the virtual world before the physical changeover, thereby driving down machine setup times and increasing quality
  22. 22. BUILDING BLOCKS • Horizontal & Vertical Integration • With Industry 4.0, companies, departments, functions, and capabilities will become much more cohesive, as cross-company, universal data-integration networks evolve and enable truly automated value chains • Industrial Internet of Things • Industry 4.0 means that more devices—sometimes including unfinished products—will be enriched with embedded computing • This will allow field devices to communicate and interact both with one another and with more centralized controllers, as necessary • It will also decentralize analytics and decision making, enabling real-time responses.
  23. 23. BUILDING BLOCKS • Cyber Security • With the increased connectivity and use of standard communications protocols that come with Industry 4.0, the need to protect critical industrial systems and manufacturing lines from cyber security threats increases dramatically • As a result, secure, reliable communications as well as sophisticated identity and access management of machines and users are essential • The Cloud • More production-related undertakings will require increased data sharing across sites and company boundaries • At the same time, the performance of cloud technologies will improve, achieving reaction times of just several milliseconds • As a result, machine data and functionality will increasingly be deployed to the cloud, enabling more data-driven services for production systems
  24. 24. BUILDING BLOCKS • Additive Manufacturing • Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing, such as 3-D printing, which they use mostly to prototype and produce individual components • With Industry 4.0, these additive-manufacturing methods will be widely used to produce small batches of customized products that offer construction advantages, such as complex, lightweight designs • Augmented Reality • Augmented-reality-based systems support a variety of services, such as selecting parts in a warehouse and sending repair instructions over mobile devices • In future, companies will make much broader use of augmented reality to provide workers with real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures
  25. 25. BUILDING BLOCKS • Big Data & Analytics • In an Industry 4.0 context, the collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources—production equipment and systems as well as enterprise- and customer-management systems—will become standard to support real-time decision making
  26. 26. INDUSTRY 4.0- EXAMPLES • SIEMENS • German manufacturing giant Siemens, an industrial user, is implementing an Industry 4.0 solution in medical engineering • For years, artificial knee and hip joints were standardized products, with engineers needing several days to customize them for patients • Now, new software and steering solutions enable Siemens to produce an implant within 3 to 4 hours.
  27. 27. INDUSTRY 4.0- EXAMPLES • TRUMPF • German toolmaker Trumpf, an Industry 4.0 supplier and worldwide market leader of laser systems, has put the first "social machines" to work • Each component is "smart" and knows what work has already been carried out on it • Because the production facility already knows its capacity utilization and communicates with other facilities, production options are automatically optimized
  28. 28. INDUSTRY 4.0- EXAMPLES • General Electric (GE) • Predix, the operating system for the Industrial Internet, is powering digital industrial businesses that drive the global economy • By connecting industrial equipment, analysing data, and delivering real-time insights, Predix-based apps are unleashing new levels of performance of both GE and non-GE assets
  30. 30. RESOURCES 1. Saurabh Vaidya, Prashant Ambad, Santosh Bhosle, Industry 4.0 – A Glimpse, Procedia Manufacturing, Volume 20, 2018, Pages 233-238, ISSN 2351-9789, 2. Li Da Xu, Eric L. Xu & Ling Li (2018) Industry 4.0: state of the art and future trends, International Journal of Production Research, 56:8, 2941- 2962, DOI: 3. 4. 5. rediscovering-growth.aspx
  31. 31. physical-systems-video.html
  32. 32. THANK YOU

Notas del editor

  • OT is operational technology