ACCORDING TO AUSUBEL
Goal of learning subject matter and
improvement of presentational methods of
teaching is important.
His theory of meaningful verbal learning deals
with three concerns-
* how knowledge(curriculum content) is
* how mind works to process new
* how teachers can apply these ideas about
curriculum and learning when they present
new material to students(instruction).
GOALS AND ASSUMPTIONS
This model helps teacher to organise and convey information
as meaningfully and effectively as possibly.
Advance organisers provide concepts and principles to
This model is designed to strengthen students cognitive
Cognitive structure deals with – what kind of knowledge of a
field is in our mind, how much of it there is, and how well it is
Before presenting new material, existing cognitive structure
should be increased by presenting concepts.
Meaningful learning can occur if material is solidly organised
and this depends on the learner.
Acc to Ausubel, any subject is a chain of concepts and in our
mind also, when we accept these facts, that is also settled as
a chain in our mind, if new concept is presented as related
with the old one.
To guide the oraganisation of content and
make students cognitive structure there are
1) Principle of Progressive Differentiation- means
most general ideas of disciplines are
presented first and followed by gradual
increase in detail and specificity.
2) Principle of Integrative
Reconciliation(satisfying opposing facts) –
means new ideas should be consciously
related to previously learned content.
ELEMENTS OF AOM
1) FOCUS- strengthening Cognitive Structure and enhancing
retention of new information.
*Advance Organizers is the introductory material having purpose to
explain, integrate and inter-relate the material with the previously
* AO are generally based on the major concepts, propositions,
generalizations, principles and laws of discipline.
* there are two types of AO-a)
EXPOSITORY- provide basic concept at highest level of
abstraction and perhaps some lesser concepts. These represents
Intellectual Scaffold ( platform for execution of criminals) on which
student will hang new information as it is encountered.
b) COMPARATIVE- used for familiar material, they are designed
to discriminate between new and old concepts in order to prevent
confusion caused by their similarity.
3) SOCIAL SYSTEM – highly structured and teacher
* active collaboration between teacher and student
* teacher retain control of intellectual structure
* third phase interactive
* acquisition depend on learner desire to integrate it
with prior knowledge.
4) PRINCIPLES OF REACTION –
* teacher solicited(friendly) or unsolicited(unfriendly)
responses will be guided by purpose of clarifying the
meaning of new material, differentiating it from
reconciling it with existing knowledge for personally
relevant to students and to promote critical approach.
* student initiate their own questions in response to
their drive for meaning.
5) SUPPORT SYSTEM –
* well organized material.
* guideline for building instructional material.
6) APPLICATION –
* to structure extended curriculum sequences or
* to instruct students systematically in key ideas
* step by step to gain perspective on entire area.
* to teach skills of effective reception learning.
* critical thinking and cognitive reorganization
* apply independently to new learning.
* increase effectiveness in reading and watching
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