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History of languages'

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History of languages'

  1. 1. Introduction to languages
  2. 2. Computer languages• Source of communication• To communicate with the computer userneeds to have a language that should beunderstood by the computer
  3. 3. Two categories• Low level language• High level language
  4. 4. Low level language• Machine language• Lowest and most elementary level language• Only language which computer can understoodstring of binary digits(0’s &1’s)• 0’s-absences of electrical pulse• 1’s-presences of electrical pulse
  5. 5. Merits & demeritsMERITS• Fast and Efficient• No translator neededDEMETRITS• All operation codes &memory addresses haveto be remembered• It is hard to find error• Machine dependent –particular machinelanguage cane be used on only one type ofcomputer
  6. 6. Assembly languages• Operation codes and operands are given inthe form of alphanumeric symbols instead of0’s & 1’s• Mnemonics codes and can have maximum upto 5 letters(SUB,START,LABEL etc..,)• Symbolic programming language
  7. 7. Merits & DemeritsMERITS• Easier to understand and use• Easy to locate and correct errors• Easy to modifyDEMERITS• Machine dependent• Programmer should have the knowledge ofthe hardware also
  8. 8. High level language• Close to English language• Enable to write programs easily• Symbolic language that use English words andmathematical symbols• Many language have been developed forachieving different variety of tasks
  9. 9. languages• BASIC : Beginners All Purpose SymbolicInstruction Code• FORTRAN : Formula Translation• PL/1 : Programming Language version 1• ALGOL : Algorithm Language• APL : A Programming Language• COBOL : Common Business OrientedLanguage• RPG : Report Program Generator• LISP : List Processing• PROLOG : Program In Language
  10. 10. Merits• User friendly and easier to learn enquire less timeto write• Easier to maintain• Problem oriented rather than machine based• Program written in high level language can betranslated into many machine language andtherefore can run on any computer for whichthere exists an appropriate translator compilerand interpreter
  11. 11. Interpreter• Converts one level of language to anotherlanguage
  12. 12. Compiler and interpretercompiler• Converts the high levelinstructions into machine• Entire program is executed• List of errors is created bythe compiler after thecompilation process• An independent executablefile is createdinterpreter• Convert high levelinstruction into intermittentform• After translating the firstline an interpreter thenexecutes it• Stop translating after thefirst error• Required an interpreterprogram each time
  13. 13. C Features• MODULARITY• PORTABILITY• EXTENDABILITY• SPEED• FLEXIBILITY
  14. 14. HISTORY OF C• Fortran compiler• Ken Thompson• New high level language B for developing acompiler• Based on BCPL (Basic Combined ProgrammingLanguage) developed by Martin Richard
  15. 15. C• AT’s & T’s Bell Lab (USA) in 1972• Dennis Ritchie• Purpose : to design the Unix -os• PL/1,ALGOL,etc• The ANSI formed a committee in 1983• This committee approved a version of c in1989 which is known as ANSIC• ANSI C was then approved by theinternational standard organization (ISO) in1990

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