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Threat Modeling for IoT Systems

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is an exciting and emerging area of technology allowing individuals and businesses to make radical changes to how they live their lives and conduct commerce. The challenge with this trend is that IoT devices are just computers with sensors running applications. Because IoT devices interact with our personal lives, the proliferation of these devices exposes an unprecedented amount of personal sensitive data to significant risk. In addition, IoT security is not only about the code running on the device, these devices are connected to systems that include supporting web services as well as other client applications that allow for management and reporting.

A critical step to understanding the security of any system is building a threat model. This helps to enumerate the components of the system as well as the paths that data takes as it flows through the system. Combining this information with an understanding of trust boundaries helps provide system designers with critical information to mitigate systemic risks to the technology and architecture.

This webinar looks at how Threat Modeling can be applied to IoT systems to help build more security systems during the design process, as well as how to use Threat Modeling when testing the security of IoT systems.

Publicado en: Tecnología
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Threat Modeling for IoT Systems

  1. 1. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Building  a  world  where  technology  is trusted. Threat  Modeling  for  IoT  Systems Dan  Cornell,  CTO Denim  Group @danielcornell
  2. 2. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Dan  Cornell • Founder  and  CTO  of  Denim  Group • Software  developer  by  background • OWASP  San  Antonio  co-­leader • 20  years  experience  in  software   architecture,  development,  and  security
  3. 3. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved 3 Advisory   Services Assessment   Services Remediation   Services Vulnerability  Resolution   Platform Building  a  world  where  technology  is  trusted How  we  can  help: Denim  Group  is  solely  focused  on  helping  build  resilient   software  that  will  withstand  attacks. • Since  2001,  helping  secure  software • Development  background • Tools  +  services  model
  4. 4. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved This  Wasn’t  In  My  IoT Threat  Model
  5. 5. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Agenda IoT  Overview Goals  of  Threat  Modeling Why  Threat  Model  IoT? Threat  Modeling  Overview IoT  Threat  Modeling  Particulars Conclusion/Questions
  6. 6. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved IoT  Overview
  7. 7. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved IoT  is  Cool
  8. 8. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved But  IoT  Isn’t  Just  Consumer  IoT • http://zinnov.com/how-­startups-­are-­driving-­an-­iot-­revolution/ • https://www.amazon.in/Enterprise-­IoT-­Dirk-­Slama/dp/9352132513
  9. 9. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Definitions  (That  I  Made  Up) • Consumer  IoT • IoT  systems  sold  to  the  general  populace.  Front-­door  cameras,   exercise  trackers,  personal  assistants,  etc • Enterprise  IoT • Enterprise  organizations  deploying  IoT  systems  – largely  consumer-­ focused  – into  enterprise  environments • Industrial  IoT • More  specialized  IoT  systems  sold  to  industrial  environments.  Smart   lighting,  hyper-­connected  control  systems,  industrial  equipment   enhancements,  etc
  10. 10. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved So  Why  Are  YOU  Concerned   About  IoT  Security? Consumer:  I’m  using  IoT  devices.  Is  that  safe? Enterprise  and  Industry:  I’m  deploying  IoT devices  in   my  environment.  What  are  my  risks? Developer:  I’m  building  IoT  systems.  What  should  I   worry  about?
  11. 11. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved So  Let’s  Talk  About  (My)  Bias My  view  of  this  topic  is  skewed  by  my  experience  – which  is  acting  as  a  consulting  firm   helping  organizations  deal  with  the  risks  associated  with  IoT Consumers  don’t  pay  us  because  they’re  too  poor BUT  people  that  sell  things  to  consumers  do  occasionally  pay  us  in  order  to  protect   their  brands Enterprises  pay  us  to  help  them  be  safer  when  deploying  IoT into  their  enterprise  IT   infrastructures Industrial  organizations  pay  us  to  help  them  be  safer  when  deploying  IoT into  their   industrial  environments IoT system  builders  pay  us  to  help  them  build  safer  IoT systems  – when  there  are   appropriate  economic  incentives  to  do  so
  12. 12. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Consumers • Sophisticated  consumers  might  informally  threat  model   IoT  systems  they  let  into  their  lives • But  really  they  just  kinda  get  what  they’re  going  to  get… • Rely  on  brand  to  make  trust  decisions
  13. 13. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Enterprise  and  Industry • This  is  largely  a  supply-­chain  concern • Threat  modeling  can  be  used  to  identify  potential  risks   during  the  acquisition  process • Assessments  can  be  used  to  identify  vulnerabilities  during   the  acquisition  process • Note  that  I  said  “acquisition”  not  “deployment”  or  “even   later” • Because  once  you  have  purchased  then  it  is  your  problem
  14. 14. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Developers • Threat  model  during  development  to  avoid  huge  issues   that  are  expensive  to  fix  and  embarrassing  to  have   publicly  revealed • Threat  model  after  development  to  target  internal  red   team  activities • Use  security  as  a  differentiator  for  discerning  customers
  15. 15. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Goals  of  Threat  Modeling
  16. 16. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Why  Threat  Model? • Avoid  introducing  vulnerabilities • Identify  vulnerabilities  in  an  existing  system • Understand  the  system
  17. 17. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Avoid  Introducing  Vulnerabilities • It  is  cheaper  to  identify  vulnerabilities  on  the  whiteboard   than  to  fix  them  at  the  keyboard • Threat  modeling  is  a  great  way  to  proactively  identify   potential  issues  and  address  them  during  the  design   process
  18. 18. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Find  Existing  Vulnerabilities • Threat  modeling  provides  a  structured  way  to  look  at   systems • This  structure  can  provide  consistency  to  assessments
  19. 19. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Understand  the  System • What  are  the  parts? • How  do  they  fit  together? • ”If  I  change  this,  what  happens  to  that?” • Encourages  critical  thinking  – especially  with  developers
  20. 20. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Why  Threat  Model  IoT?
  21. 21. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved The  Good   Old  Days
  22. 22. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Oh  Crap,   Mobile!
  23. 23. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Argh!  IoT!
  24. 24. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved How  I  Realized  the  World  Had   Changed • Mobile  application  assessments: • Sensible  template  threat  model,  easy   statistics  collection • Where  in  the  system  are  vulnerabilities  found? • What  technique  (static/dynamic,   automated/manual)  was  used  to  find  them? • Fun  and  valuable  research  presented  at: • RSA:   https://www.rsaconference.com/writable/present ations/file_upload/mbs-­f02-­mobile-­application-­ assessments-­by-­the-­numbers-­v2.pdf • OWASP  AppSecEU:   https://www.slideshare.net/denimgroup/applicati on-­security-­assessments-­by-­the-­numbers-­ owaspappseceu20151
  25. 25. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved How  I  Realized  the  World  Had   Changed  (Cont’d) • IoT  application  assessments • Created  initial  sensible  threat  model  based  on  a  consumer  example • Start  looking  at  statistics  collection • “Oh,  crap.  That  doesn’t  work  for  this  enterprise  case.  Let’s  revise.” • “Oh,  crap.  That  works  even  worse  for  this  industrial  case.  Let’s   revise  again.” • “Sensible”  threat  model  template  no  longer  looks  sensible • Here  is  a  starting  point: • https://denimgroup.com/resources/blog/2017/11/getting-­started-­with-­ iot-­security-­with-­threat-­modeling/
  26. 26. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved So  Where  Does  That  Leave  Us? • IoT  environments  are  complicated • Potentially  significantly  more  so  that  what  most  are  used   to • Threat  modeling  is  more  valuable  – and  more  necessary   – than  ever
  27. 27. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Threat  Modeling  Overview
  28. 28. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved High  Level  Threat  Modeling  Concepts Decide  on   scope 1 Build  your   dataflow   diagrams 2 Enumerate   threats 3 Decide  on   mitigations 4
  29. 29. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Creating  Data   Flow  Diagrams   (DFDs) • Decompose   the  system  into   a  series  of   processes  and   data  flows • Explicitly   identify  trust   boundaries
  30. 30. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Example  Data  Flow  Diagram
  31. 31. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Identifying  Threats  from  the  Data  Flow STRIDE  is  expansion   of  the  common  CIA   threat  types • Confidentiality • Integrity • Availability   STRIDE • Spoofing  Identity • Tampering  with  Data • Repudiation • Information   Disclosure • Denial  of  Service • Elevation  of  Privilege
  32. 32. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Mapping  Threats  to  Asset  Types Threat  Type External Interactor Process Data  Flow Data  Store S  – Spoofing Yes Yes T  – Tampering Yes Yes Yes R  – Repudiation Yes Yes Yes I  – Information  Disclosure Yes Yes Yes D  – Denial  of  Service Yes Yes Yes E  – Elevation  of  Privilege Yes
  33. 33. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved So  What  Does  That  Leave  Us? Take  all  the  assets Associate  threat  types  with  each  asset Voila!  List  of  things  we  need  to  worry  about
  34. 34. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Countermeasures • Do  nothing • Remove  the  feature • Turn  off  the  feature • Warn  the  user • Counter  the  threat  with  Operations • Accountability • Separation  of  Duties • Counter  the  threat  with  Technology • Change  in  Design • Change  in  Implementation • There  is  no  “catch  all” countermeasure
  35. 35. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved IoT  Threat  Modeling  Particulars
  36. 36. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Example   Consumer   IoT Threat   Model
  37. 37. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Use  Cases  to  Watch • Initial  provisioning  and  deployment • Configuration  updates • Integration  into  enterprise  AuthX  infrastructure • Software  updates
  38. 38. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Using  Threat  Models  to  Scope   Assessments • IoT  systems  have  many  different  parts  and  kinds  of  parts • Web  applications,  web  services,  custom  hardware,  esoteric   protocols • Creating  a  test  plan  can  be  challenging  -­ you  will  never   have  the  resources  to  be  exhaustive • Threat  modeling  can  help  drive  decisions  about  trade-­offs • “Should  I  fuzz-­test  the  device  Zigby  stack  or  run  SAST  on   the  web  services“
  39. 39. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Safety  Concerns • Confidentiality,  Integrity,  and  Availability • Everywhere  else:  Confidentiality  breaches  of  regulated   information • IoT  (especially  industrial):  Integrity  or  availability  breaches   impacting  the  kinetic  environment
  40. 40. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved What  Could   Possibly  Go   Wrong?
  41. 41. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Medical  Device   Risks • https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2013/10 /22/doctors-­disabled-­wireless-­in-­dick-­ cheneys-­pacemaker-­to-­thwart-­hacking/ • https://media.blackhat.com/bh-­us-­ 11/Radcliffe/BH_US_11_Radcliffe_Hackin g_Medical_Devices_WP.pdf • https://www.cso.com.au/slideshow/39774 7/10-­scariest-­hacks-­from-­black-­hat-­ defcon/
  42. 42. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Safety  Concerns  with  IoT • Materials  from  Joshua  Corman  and  We  Are  the  Cavalry • https://www.iamthecavalry.org/5star/ • https://www.iamthecavalry.org/oath/ • https://www.iamthecavalry.org/iotdifferences • https://www.dhs.gov/news/2016/11/15/dhs-­releases-­strategic-­ principles-­securing-­internet-­things
  43. 43. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved An  Encouraging  Trend arm  – Platform  Security  Architecture  (PSA) https://pages.arm.com/psa-­resources.html
  44. 44. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved More  Threat  Modeling  Materials https://www.slideshare.net/denimgroup/threat-­modeling-­for-­system-­builders-­and-­system-­breakers-­contentv21
  45. 45. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Closing  Thoughts • IoT  systems  are  varied  and  complicated • And  will  increasingly  have  safety  implications • Threat  modeling  is  a  valuable  technique  for • Avoiding  introducing  vulnerabilities • Structuring  assessments  to  find  vulnerabilities • If  you  are  building  or  considering  deploying  significant  IoT   systems  – save  yourself  a  lot  of  headaches  and  use   threat  modeling
  46. 46. ©  2018  Denim  Group  – All  Rights  Reserved Questions? Dan  Cornell dan@denimgroup.com @danielcornell denimgroup.com threadfix.it

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