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Integrated Principles of Zoology, 14/e Cleveland P. Hickman, Jr. Larry S. Roberts Allan Larson Helen IAnson David Eisenhour1-1
CHAPTER 1 Life: Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology1-2
The Uses of Principles Zoology: The scientific study of animal life Knowledge of the animal world is gained by actively applying important guiding principles to our investigations Exploration of the animal world depends critically on our questions, methods, and principles1-3
The Uses of Principles Principles of modern zoology are derived from: Laws of physics and chemistry Scientific method Because life shares a common evolutionary origin, principles learned from the study of one group often pertain to other groups as well1-4
General Properties of Living Systems Complexity and Hierarchical Organization: Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex hierarchical organization In living systems there exists a hierarchy of levels that includes: Macromolecules Cells Organisms Populations1-5 Species
General Properties of Living Systems Metabolism: Living organisms maintain themselves by acquiring nutrients from their environments Metabolic processes include: Digestion Energy production (Respiration) Synthesis of required molecules and structures by organisms1-7
General Properties of Living Systems Development: All organisms pass through a characteristic life cycle Development describes the characteristic changes that an organism undergoes from its origin to its final adult form1-8
General Properties of Living Systems Environmental Interaction: All animals interact with their environments Ecology: The study of organismal interaction with an environment All organisms respond to environmental stimuli, a property called irritability1-10
General Properties of Living Systems Movements even at the cellular level are required for: Reproduction Growth Responses to stimuli Development in multicellular organisms On a larger scale: Entire populations or species may disperse from one geographic location to another over time Movement of nonliving matter “moves” the living: Not precisely controlled by the moving objects Often involves external forces1-12
Zoology As Part of Biology Animals originated in the Precambrian seas over 600 million years ago Characteristics of Animals: Eukaryotes: cells contain membrane-enclosed nuclei Heterotrophs: Not capable of directly manufacturing their own food and must rely on external food sources Cells lack cell walls1-13
Principles of Science Nature of science: Science is guided by natural law Science has to be explained by reference to natural law Science is testable against the observable world The conclusions of science are tentative and therefore not necessarily the final word Science is falsifiable SCIENCE DOES NOT PROVE 1-14
Principles of Science The scientific method may be summarized as a series of steps: 1. Observation 2. Question Your project 3. Hypothesis Formation could follow this format ! 4. Empirical Test Controlled Experiment Includes at least 2 groups Test Group Control Group 5. Conclusions Accept or reject your hypothesis 5. Publications1-15
CHAPTER 2 The Origin and Chemistry of Life2-16
Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems Living things are composed of the following organic macromolecules: Carbohydrates 6 CH2OH Lipids 5C O H H H C C 4 1 OH H Proteins HO 3 C H 2 C OH OH C6H12O6 Nucleic Acids Recall your prior knowledge base What biomolecule of life is the this ? How do you know that you know ?
What atom identifies this as newly synthesizing protein ?In the text box, what information is there that gives clues ?What type of chemical reaction is occurring ?Reactions are reversible, what is the name of the reverse reaction ?
GUANINE (C) base with a double-ringWhat is this ? structureBetter answers ???
Cell Concept Cell Theory All living organisms are composed of cells All cells come from pre-existing cells - remember this is a theory3-23
Mitosis and Cell Division All cells arise from the division of preexisting cells Cell division - KARYOKINESIS & CYTOKINESIS Division of the nucleus (karyokinesis) Mitosis (somatic cells) Fig 3.65 Meiosis (sex cells) Division of the cytoplasm (cytokinesis) In most multicellular organisms, all cells originate from the zygote Single cell resulting from union of an egg and a sperm (gametes)3-24
Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed Energy can change from one form to another Total amount of energy remains the same4-26
Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics Concerned with the transformation of energy A closed system moves toward increasing disorder (entropy) as energy is dissipated from the system Living systems are open systems Maintain organization and increase it during development What is “entropy” ?4-27
Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics Cellular Metabolism The chemical processes that occur within living cells Concept of energy fundamental to all life processes Energy cannot be seen Can be identified only by how it affects matter4-28
Chemical Energy Transfer by ATP Endergonic reactions are coupled with exergonic reactions by the energy rich molecule, ATP. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Drives energetically unfavorable reactions Formed primarily in mitochondria Most free energy in ATP resides in two phosphoanhydride (high-energy) bonds between the three phosphate groups There are four biomolecule types of life. What type of biomolecule of life is ATP ?4-29
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Meiosis: Reduction Division of Gametes Sex cells (gametes) transmit genetic information from parents to offspring in sexually reproducing organisms Chromosomes occur in pairs: homologs One member or the pair is donated by the mother, the other by the father Homologs Contain similar genes encoding the same set of characteristics Usually have the same size and shape5-31
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Meiosis Fig 5.12 Special type of nuclear division Associated with gamete production Genetic material replicates once followed by 2 successive nuclear divisions Produces 4 daughter cells Each with only 1 member of each homologous chromosome pair or 1 set of chromosomes (haploid)5-32
Sources of Phenotypic Variation Sources of Phenotypic Variation The creative force of evolution is natural selection acting on biological variation Without variation No continued adaptation to a changing environment No evolution5-33
Darwinian Evolutionary Theory: The Evidence Evolutionary Trends Trends are directional changes in features and diversity of organisms Fossil record allows observation of evolutionary change over broad periods of time. Animals species arise and become repeatedly extinct. Animal species typically survive 1–10 million years6-35
What are some take home messages ?6-36 What would the insect graph look like ?
Nature of the Reproductive Process Reproduction is one of the ubiquitous properties of life Evolution is inextricably linked to reproduction Two modes of reproduction are recognized Asexual Sexual7-38
Nature of the Reproductive Process Asexual Reproduction Involves only one parent No special reproductive organs or cells Genetically identical offspring are produced Production of offspring is simple, direct, and rapid Widespread in bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes and many invertebrate phyla Ensures rapid increase in numbers7-39
Nature of the Reproductive Process Asexual Reproductive Methods Binary Fission Common among bacteria and protozoa The parent divides by mitosis into two parts Each grows into an individual similar to the parent Binary fission can be lengthwise or transverse Multiple Fission Nucleus divides repeatedly Cytoplasmic division produces many daughter cells7-40
Nature of the Reproductive Process Sporogony (Spore Formation) Form of multiple fission in parasitic protozoa (like Plasmodium / malaria) Budding Unequal division of an organism Bud is an outgrowth of the parent Develops organs and then detaches Occurs in cnidarians and several other animal phyla7-41
Nature of the Reproductive Process Fragmentation Multicellular animal breaking into many fragments that become a new animal Many anemones and hydroids Starfish examples are known7-42
Nature of the Reproductive Process Sexual Reproduction Generally involves two parents Special germ cells unite to form a zygote Sexual reproduction recombines parental characters A richer, more diversified population results In haploid asexual organisms Mutations are expressed and selected quickly In sexual reproduction Normal gene on the homologous chromosome may mask a gene mutation7-43
Nature of the Reproductive Process Hermaphroditism Both male and female organs in the same individual (monoeicious, hermaphrodites) Many sessile, burrowing and/or endoparasitic invertebrates and some fish Most avoid self-fertilization Exchange gametes with member of same species Each individual produces eggs Hermaphroditic species could potentially produce twice as many offspring as dioecious species Sequential Hermaphroditism A genetically programmed sex change occurs with an individual organism - clownfish example !7-44
Nature of the Reproductive Process Parthenogenesis Development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg Male and female nuclei fail to unite after fertilization Avoids the energy and dangers of bringing two sexes together Narrows the diversity available for adaptation to new conditions Ameiotic Parthenogenesis No meiosis occurs Egg forms by mitosis7-45
Nature of the Reproductive Process Meiotic Parthenogenesis Haploid ovum formed by meiosis Develops without fusion with male nucleus Sperm may be absent or May only serve to activate development In some species, the haploid egg returns to a diploid condition by chromosomal duplication or autogamy (rejoining of haploid nuclei)7-46
Nature of the Reproductive Process Haplodiploidy - can determine sex Occurs in bees, wasps and ants Queen controls whether the eggs are fertilized or unfertilized Fertilized eggs Become female workers or queens Unfertilized eggs become drones7-47