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Good practice catalogue

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A collection of valuable resources for teachers

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Good practice catalogue

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  2. 2. Good Practice Catalogue 3 The project focuses on bilingual education and CLIL methodology. Implementing these two ideas into the project and school every day work we are planning to help our teachers and students improve their key competences, language skills and motivate them for further development of international relations by means of EU projects like Erasmus+ and/or eTwinning. Knowing that the idea of CLIL is quite unknown to wider publicity our actions will also aim at promoting this methodology among other educators, students and their parents in our countries and beyond them. Aims of the project Multidisciplinary approach of our actions would focus on: 1. Bilingual education and CLIL in teaching 2. ICT 3. Strengthening cooperation between organisations acting for educational areas and the exchange of good practices Partners Przedszkole Miejskie Nr 206 z Oddzialami Integracyjnymi w Lodzi, Poland– coordinator Przedszkole Miejskie nr 152 w Łodzi, Poland Szkola Podstawowa nr 41 w Lodzi Rainbow English Łódź, Poland PLATON M.E.P.E. Katerini, Greece Koundoura Language Centre Katerini, Greece Liceul Național de Informatică, Arad, Romania Grădinița Program Prelungit ,,Perluțele mării” Constanța, Romania Asociația de părinți ,,Perluțele magice” Constanța, Romania DHMOTIKO SXOLEIO NEOI PORROI, Greece Bahçeşehir Koleji Gaziantep Ortaokulu, Turkey Samsun Buyuksehir Belediyesi, Turkey Tekkekoy 19 Mayis Ortaokulu Samsun, Turkey Asociația Creative Human Development Constanța, Romania A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE PROJECT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: 2014-1-PL01-KA201-003382
  3. 3. Good Practice Catalogue 4 When Europe gets unifying and all political barriers disappear, successful and cheap communication with the world becomes possible. Therefore we call each other, text messages, surf the Internet. We go abroad to enjoy holidays, exchange ideas, do business, make friends, earn money, study, get to know ourselves and one another. We discover alternative cultural lifestyles and learn to appreciate the variety of thinking and behaviour patterns. To communicate successfully with others we need to speak foreign languages. The easier it is for us to make friends with people beyond our language cicle, the more effort we make to become fluent and reliable flow of information. Basically, to understand why EU wants to eliminate European syndrome of the Babel Tower we have to become aware of the fact that English becomes lingua franca – according to some research up to 2100 almost half of the world population will be able to communicate in English. That is why European Council issued the document, declaring that each citizen of EU should be able to speak English. Taking into consideration that English has become a language of academic research and science and at the same time the second obligatory subject in many schools, it seems more that logical to connect these two achievements into one so that the student could benefit from tchem at the same time. This is the core value of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) where we replace traditional teaching of school subjects (let’s say chemistry) in Polish and a few hours of English lessons per week with a brand new perspective and methodology. We use „2 in 1” method teaching chemistry THROUGH English language. This preposition is crucial here as it is more about teaching THROUGH a foreign language, or even instead of teaching IN it. Our ambitious aim is to describe chemical changes and processes with all correctness and satisfy needs of language learners at the same time. Cognitive and academic skills needed to understand scientific experiments, synthesis and analysis of the matter go hand in hand with basic but content communication skills1 . What CLIL can do for your classroom? Some might say that it makes no sense to implement CLIL at early school levels. Our professional experience as well as project works prove that the reality is totally different. The age groups that had the least problems with adjusting to the new style of lessons and communicate in English to describe the content were children from pre-school and early primary classes. CLIL introduces a breath of fresh air into traditional teaching – it needs more Energy, more visuals, ICT use, and is more student-oriented that they especially appreciate. In many cases, CLIL can increase your students’ motivation to learn what you’re teaching them. The fact that they have an influence on the lesson plan makes them progress more quickly and solidly than they would with deliberately separated subjects taught in a 1 CLIL and its benefits Julia Budzowska
  4. 4. Good Practice Catalogue 5 traditional way. There are very few instances in the real world in which black and white don’t mix, so letting two subjects paint a broader picture of reality for students is a great advantage of CLIL. The language in CLIL is a tool. You can make use of L1 for more complicated issues. The content-specific subject is the primary objective and that your linguistic goals are secondary – this provides consistency and sturdy scaffolding on which to build linguistic progress. Because CLIL is so strongly associated with both a content area and a foreign language, it’s naturally connected with cultural and societal significance. In the world where there is so much need for tolerance and acceptance of other cultures your students will develop a stronger understanding of a foreign culture as a result of CLIL instruction and will be more likely to “see the big picture” in terms of the relationship between language and society. Even in CLIL lessons, it will become apparent that some skills and knowledge are applicable to a wide range of subjects in a variety of languages. They will learn content and complimentary language where the latter is simply what they need in everyday life. Students will gain a healthy appreciation for these types of skills and may be more motivated to improve them. By challenging your students with CLIL, you’ll be able to help them build confidence in their abilities. The idea of formative assessment, restraining from traditional, summative grades helps them understand that learning is a source of fun and self-development. That not everything at school must be graded. They will become self-motivated that brings back the joy of learning. The best part of this is that their confidence won’t be inflated – the legitimate cognitive and academic skills encouraged by CLIL are widely recognized and valued2 . CLIL’s advantages Learners’ Advantages of adopting a CLIL approach include:  Increasing motivation as language is used to fulfill real purposes to learn the substantive material.- It is not the same to learn a language with no real purpose in mind as that as to know a second language, than to have the need to do it. This makes it more purposeful and therefore more motivating for the learner.  Introducing learners to the wider cultural context.- Learning a subject such as History makes the learner understand the L2 culture far too much.  Developing a positive ‘can do' attitude towards learning languages.- Learning not only grammar, but personalizing the language through teaching something meaningful might lower the affective filter.  Developing student multilingual interests and attitudes.- Knowing more about a language increases sometimes the learners’ interests in different cultures such as the one they are learning the language from. It also broadens their horizons.  Preparing students for further studies and work.- Knowing a language and subjects and culture in L2 can increase the learners’ opportunities in life. 2
  5. 5. Good Practice Catalogue 6  Access subject specific target language terminology.- Which may be difficult otherwise to acquire or even to be exposed to.  CLIL creates conditions for naturalistic language learning.- By having to communicate in the target language, to fulfill some of the tasks or even to understand the subject is how this kind of learning takes place.  CLIL provides a purpose for language use in the classroom.- Since learners need to communicate among each other in order to help cooperative learning.  It has a positive effect on language learning by putting the emphasis on meaning rather than on form.- By having non-disposable contents, it focuses on meaning, grammar is embedded. Some of my students absolutely hate grammar learnt as it, so this will help them cope with grammar in a more meaningful way and help them acquire it more than “studying” it.  It drastically increases the amount of exposure to the target language (Dalton-Puffer, 2007; Dalton-Puffer & Smit, 2007).- By teaching a curricular subject which is already going to be taught but in the target language, it might double or more the time of exposure to it.  It takes into account the learners’ interests, needs and cognitive levels.- As we have read, the level of the learners is closely related not to their level of knowledge of L2 but to their cognitive level, making it better suited for what they are supposed to know in their own language according to their age. Teachers’ advantages of adopting a CLIL approach may include:  The use of innovative methods, materials and e-learning - This is something also I will state as a disadvantage but right now, I will consider it as an advantage.  Individual and institutional networking opportunities and professional mobility - Teachers knowing something more than just a “language”, I mean, mastering a curricular subject are more likely to get more opportunities and in this case the opportunities might happen abroad because of the reasons just mentioned.  The development of good practices through cooperation with teachers in other departments, schools and countries - Very similar to the last point where the networking takes place but in this case within their community or even abroad3 . 3
  6. 6. Good Practice Catalogue 7 In Poland as in other countries we can find numerous examples of public institutions realising bilingual teaching programmes but it is hard to measure their impact, describe their features using the same scientific tools. Bilingual teaching (and CLIL introduction) can be realised so differently – more or less intensively – from teachers and students’ perspectives. CLIL methodology has so many faces that searching for its optimal version will never end. One thing is sure - there is no CLIL without bilingual education4 . When talking strictly about CLIL in Polish educational system it is hard to describe it precisely as there are no regulations concerning this methodology. Therefore we will look closely at data presenting bilingual education statistics. Not all them though will reflect CLIL implementation. Bilingual teaching in Poland is regulated by a few documents. One of them is the Act of 7th September 1991 about educational system (Dz.U. z 1991 r. nr 95, poz. 425, with further changes), which establishes secondary schools with bilingual teaching (art. 2) and provides a definition of a bilingual class5 . In 2006 within Eurydice project the first serious research titled Content and Language Integrated Learning at School in Europe took place. It examined the use of CLIL in European Union. The report about Poland can be found at In the description of the results we can find four models of Polish-English bilingual education in secondary schools taking part in the research. Model A – lessons mostly in English; Model B – lessons partly in English, partly in Polish (mixing Polish and English, so called code-switching); Model C – lessons with limited use of English (mixing Polish and English, so called code- switching); Model D – lessons where English is used only on special occasions. Implementations of each model results with different educational outcomes and achievements of both the content understanding and language acquisition. Each of the models requires other attitude towards English. Aims are different and each model may have more than one, putting pressure on various areas while programme realisation. These aims and an added value for language students. Below we present the ones that are seen as most significant: 1. Linguistic area • Improving global competence of using English language; 4 5 CLIL & bilingual education in Poland Julia Budzowska
  7. 7. Good Practice Catalogue 8 • Developing presentation and oral communication skills in English; • Increasing language awareness, both Polish and English. 2. Content area • Learning the content from various perspectives; • Access to specialistic content vocabulary in English; • Preparation for future studies and/or professional work 3. Cultural area • Building intercultural awareness and understanding; • Developing intercultural skills of communication. 4. Social area • Developing European and international orientation; • Acquiring international certificates; • Enhancing school profile (thus providing students with more sophisticated educational environment). 5. Metacognitive area • Differentiating forms and methods of school practice; • Strengthening students’ motivation6 . To illustrate the present situation in Polish bilingual educational system we make use of the Report prepared by Ministry of Education that divides the outcomes according to the school level: primary, lower-secondary and upper-secondary ones. Primary schools Bilingual teaching at primary level is realised quite rarely that might be a consequence of the lack of law system regulations. Precisely speaking, there are only 14 schools of that kind placed: 3 in mazowieckie voivodeship, 2 in each: dolnośląskie, kujawsko-pomorskie and lubelskie voivodeships, 1 in each: małopolskie, opolskie, podkarpackie, pomorskie and wielkopolskie voivodeships. Education of this kind is realised mainly in major cities such as: Warszawa, Poznań, Wrocław, Gdańsk or Toruń. In 2013 in bilingual preschool and primary schools there were 1452 students in total – 750 girls (51,7%) i 702 boys (48,3%). Unfortunately we do not have any data 6 Raport ewaluacyjny. Edukacja dwujęzyczna w Polsce (język angielski), CODN, British Council Polska, Uniwersytet Jyväskylä, 2008
  8. 8. Good Practice Catalogue 9 illustrating what languages were taught and what percetage of students participated in the lessons (we do not know how many bilingual classes existed in each school). It is worth mentioning that 200 out of 1 452 students were preschoolers. These experiences at such an early level of education may result – like in case of Canadian immersion teaching – in popularising this type of teaching. Junior-secondary schools In Poland there are 180 junior-secondary schools with bilingual classes. In most cases they are situated in bigger cities: e.g. in mazowieckie voivodeship 34 out of 45 bilingual schools operate in Warsaw itself, in wielkopolskie voivodeship 8 out of 16 is in Poznań, in łódzkie voivodeship – 12 out of 13 is in Łódź, and in zachodniopomorskie voivodeship all of the schools are from Szczecin. A kind of exception are opolskie and kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeships where bilingual schools are located in various cities and towns. Percentage of students learning different European languages in bilingual classes:  English – 65,90%  French – 13,60%  German – 11,79%  Spanish– 7,28%  Italian – 0,96%  Other – 0,33%  Russian – 0,14% Upper-secondary schools As we may read in the Report at this level of education bilingual teaching decreases by half in comparison with junior-secondary schools. There are only 94 such schools with about 348 bilingual classes with 9 403 students attending the lessons. Percentage of students learning different European languages in bilingual classes:  English – 54,71%  Spanish – 16,07%  German – 13,90%  French – 13,59%  Italian – 1,22%  Russian – 0,51% The most frequent subjects taught in or through a foreign language are (in order of frequency): 1. Biology 2. Geography 3. Mathematics 4. Physics 5. Chemistry 6. History. There are cases of bilingual lessons of Citizenship, Arts & Crafts, and ICT Traditional English lessons are also included into curriculum together with all other content-subject lessons.
  9. 9. Good Practice Catalogue 10 Conclusions The above analysis of bilingual education in Poland allows to conclude that there are important differences between the numer of bilingual schools depending on the educational level. We can observe 1 452 primary students involved in this kind of learning system, while at the same time this numer increases up to 19 383 in lower-secondary institutions, to drop again in case of upper-secondary schools reaching the numer of 9 403 students. As we can understand the limited access to primary bilingual education because of the lack of any law regulations, the situation in upper-secondary schools seems alarming. As we may see the graduates of bilingual junior-secondary schools cannot continue their education at the next level. Finally, the dominance of English is highly visible. In lower-secondary schools it is used in 496 (67,02%) classes with 12 773 (65,90%) students, while in upper-secondary schools the number of English bilingual classes reaches over 190,44 (54,72%) with 5 144 (54,71%) students that is over a half of all the people able to benefit from this kind of educational approach7 . By the end of twentieth century English was already well on its way of becoming a language widely used for communication between people who don't share the same first language. David Crystal suggests that there are currently around 1.5 billion speakers of English worldwide, of whom only around 300 million are native speakers. ”Moreover”, he writes, ”the population growth in areas where English is a second language is about 2.5 times that in areas where it is a first language”. The triumph of English over other foreign languages is due to colonisation, economy (it is the language of international businesses), travel and information exchange. It is now a worldwide phenomenon. A great deal of academic discourse around the world takes place in English. It is often a lingua franca of conferences and many publications use it as a default language. English has become the language for research and study in many countries around the world. It is used in primary, secondary and tertiary education. Children study this language in school starting with the Preparatory grade. The topics taught are taken from the very close universe of the child (such as Introducing oneself, My toys, My animals, My Family, My body, I can, Seasons, My birthday). At this level English is taught to pupils by using the communicative approach, emphasising classroom interaction, dialogue and negociating meaning, the way people do in ordinary exchanges. In Romania there are many private language centres where students learn English from early ages. A growing trend has been for Content and Language Integrated Learning – 7 "Edukacja dwujęzyczna w polskiej szkole" Raport ewaluacyjny, Warszawa 2015) An overview on CLIL methodology in the Romanian primary educational system Florina Cordoș
  10. 10. Good Practice Catalogue 11 CLIL – where pupils are taught a subject through the medium of English. The children learn the language for maths at the same time they learn the maths talking about in English. Thus the language and the subject is taught side-by-side. This method has attracted many parents who want their children to have an early start in learning English. Thus many children become proficient in English by the time they attend secondary school. This goes hand in hand with the perception that English is an international language for career development. Each activity focuses on particular subject matter like maths, science, geography, history, art, PE and shows how that subject can be taught in detail. In universities students are asked to write essays, or to write their scientific papers in English. Professors write their lectures and articles in English. The contribution of the Internet as a major channel for information exchange saw an important predominance of English. Travel and tourism is carried on in English. This is not always the case, because many employees are multilingual, but many airline announcements are translated into English, whatever the language of the country is. As for the English teaching perspective one has to be aware of the rules and structures that governate the language. The teacher must always have in mind and project the activities according what s/he wants to teach (form and meaning), purpose, appropriacy and register. The other things which are important when teaching English and not only the settings, the participants, their gender, the channel by which we transfer information, the topic we teach and the tone. Some other essential aspects are how the teacher manages to organize discourse, how well s/he chooses the words and the appropriate grammatical forms to convey the correct meaning. The teacher must know what the students are and try to teach them the language functionally, strategically as well as appropriately and accurately. Sometimes there interfere certain gaps in teaching English as a second language, because not all have the same speed in assimilating new vocabulary, not all learn a language in the same way. Some can manifest an auditive intelligence while others a visual one or both or other types. Children understand situations more quickly than they understand the language used and use language skills long before they are aware of them. CLIL lessons
  11. 11. Good Practice Catalogue 12 LANGUAGE USE AND LEARNING IN CLIL
  12. 12. Good Practice Catalogue 13 Introduction Successful Content and Language Integrated Learning requires teachers to engage in alternative ways of planning their teaching for effective learning. CLIL is not language teaching enhanced by a wider range of content. Neither is it content teaching translated in a different language (code) from the mother tongue. However, in adopting a CLIL approach, there will be elements of both language and subject teaching and learning which are specific to the CLIL classroom as well as emerging CLIL methodologies. 1. CLIL Models CLIL is flexible and there are many different models depending on a range of contextual factors. These differences are best seen on a continuum where the learning focus and outcomes differ according to the model adopted. Some examples are as follows:  Subject topic/syllabus adapted for teaching in the target language to explore the subject from a different perspective whilst improving foreign language skills ie teaching in the target language to explore the subject from different perspectives whilst developing specific foreign language skills. Example: Human Geography through the medium of French (study of Senegal);  Cross curricular project which involves both language teachers and subject teachers planning together. An example might be a study on different aspects of eco-citizenship or the global village, fair trade or war & peace;  Language teachers developing a more content type approach to a theme. This might include taking a typical topic such as house and home and carrying out a comparative study between house and home in an African country and in an English-speaking western culture;  Where it is possible to re-conceptualise the curriculum in an integrated way, then CLIL might consist of say the study of ‘water’ in a foreign language which is investigated from different perspectives such as scientific, geographical, historical, current catastrophes, water shortages, water for leisure, poetry, art, drama and music, linking wherever possible language to space and place;  A global project such as those organised by Science Across the World, where identical topics (eg global warming, renewable energy, what we eat, road safety) are studied by learners in different countries and in different languages and then the results compared.  There is no single model for CLIL. Different models all share the common founding principle that in some way the content and the language learning are integrated. Planning and Monitoring CLIL. Presenting 3 Tools for Teachers Ilektra Binta
  13. 13. Good Practice Catalogue 14 2.0 CLIL Topic Planning What is meant by integrating language and content? Does it mean that there are parallel teaching aims and that to satisfy both will involve some complex management between them or even some good luck? 2.1 Teaching aims/objectives and learning outcomes Whatever kind of model, it is fundamental to CLIL that the content of the topic, project, theme, syllabus leads the way. This means that:  The content is the starting point of the planning process.  However in considering the content, it is useful to think of the project in two ways: the teaching aims/objectives and the learning outcomes.  Teaching aims and objectives are what the teacher intends to do - the knowledge, skills and understanding which are intended to be taught and developed.  The learning outcomes focus on what it is we want learners to be able to do and understand at the end of the teaching unit. An example: The aim of this unit is to study specific aspects of water through the medium of English The teaching objectives are: to understand the water cycle, to raise awareness of the effects of climate and climate change on water supply, to explore ways of saving water The learning outcomes By the end of this unit learners will be able to:  give a small-group power point presentation explaining the water cycle;  discuss the concept of drought in a range of countries and create a policy for reducing its effects;  design a water saving poster and questionnaire to work with data on how the class saves water;  discuss and evaluate how to improve saving. 2.2 A CLIL topic or project planning framework: 4Cs curriculum There are four guiding principles upon which a CLIL programme can be built. Content- At the heart of the learning process lie successful content or thematic learning and the acquisition of knowledge, skills and understanding. Content is the subject or the project theme. Communication- Language is a conduit for communication and for learning. The formula learning to use language and using language to learn is applicable here. Communication goes beyond the grammar system. It involves learners in language using in a way which is different from language learning lessons (of course CLIL does involve learners in learning language too but in a different way). Cognition -For CLIL to be effective, it must challenge learners to think and review and engage in higher order thinking skills. CLIL is not about the transfer of knowledge from an expert to
  14. 14. Good Practice Catalogue 15 a novice. CLIL is about allowing individuals to construct their own understanding and be challenged – whatever their age or ability. A useful taxonomy to use as a guide for thinking skills is that of Bloom. He has created two categories of thinking skills: lower order and higher order. Take Bloom’s taxonomy for a well-defined range of thinking skills. It serves as an excellent checklist. Culture -For our pluricultural and plurilingual world to be celebrated and its potential realised, this demands tolerance and understanding. Studying through a foreign language is fundamental to fostering international understanding. ‘Otherness’ is a vital concept and holds the key for discovering self. Culture can have wide interpretation – eg through pluricultural citizenship. However it is content which determines the learning route. If it were language, imagine how limiting this would be eg where learners had not yet been introduced to the past tense. Try to have a conversation with someone using only the present tense in authentic settings- it is almost impossible. If the content requires use of the past tense and learners have not studied this, then CLIL lessons will enable learners to access the language needed in the defined context in different ways. This may initially be in the form of using key phrases in the past tense without studying the whole tense formation at this stage. The emphasis is always on accessibility of language in order to learn. To use the 4Cs planning guide: Start with content. Define it.  What will I teach?  What will they learn?  What are my teaching aims/objectives?  What are the learning outcomes? Now link content with communication.  What language do they need to work with the content?  Specialised vocabulary and phrases?  What kind of talk will they engage in?  Will I need to check out key grammatical coverage of a particular tense or feature eg comparatives and superlatives?  What about the language of tasks and classroom activities?  What about discussion and debate? Now explore the kind of thinking skills you can develop according to decisions made above.  What kind of questions must I ask in order to go beyond ‘display’ questions?  Which tasks will I develop to encourage higher order thinking-what are the language (communication) as well as the content implications?  Which thinking skills will we concentrate on which are appropriate for the content?
  15. 15. Good Practice Catalogue 16 Culture is not a post script but rather a thread which weaves it way throughout the topic. Think of it as a circle which envelops the topic. It is not enough to justify pluriculturalism by using another language without explicit reference via the other 3Cs to cultural opportunities which would not have existed in a mother tongue setting. E.g. Using target language countries where there is drought so that case studies can be used to examine the project from an alternative perspective – interviews with children whose lives have been changed when Water Aid has provided them with a village well.  What are the cultural implications of the topic?  How does the CLIL context allow for ‘value added’?  What about otherness and self?  How does this connect with the all Cs 3.0 CLIL Lesson Planning: the 3As tool Whilst the 4Cs curriculum provides a useful guide for the overall planning of a unit of work, the 3As tool can be used for more detailed lesson planning. Whilst there is clearly some overlap between the tools, their suggested use is significantly different. The 3As tool operates in 3 stages. The 3As are used with specific content. Stage 1: Analyse content for the language of learning Stage 2: Add to content language for learning Stage 3: Apply to content language through learning ANALYSE The content focus for a period of teaching- eg a lesson or a short series of lessons, needs to be defined. Once defined, then the content can be analysed for the language needed in order for conceptual learning to take place. This is systematic content analysis to identify key words (including specialised contextualised vocabulary) phrases, grammatical functions for concept formation and comprehension. This is NOT translation. This is the language of learning and this is stage 1. ADD Stage 2 puts the focus on the learner. Language experiences are added to the lesson plan for specific attention which enable the learner to operate effectively in a CLIL setting (eg strategies for reading and understanding a difficult text). This includes meta-cognitive or learner strategies, classroom talk, discussion, task demands. It also involves the teacher in considering ways in which the learning will be scaffolded eg through the use of language frames to help and support. This is the language for learning. This is a crucial stage if the content and the language are to be truly integrated and if the learners are to fully realise the potential of CLIL. APPLY/ASSURE The application stage (3) is one where the language which emerges through the learning context is built on to assure that there is cognitive and cultural capital. It is at this stage that tasks and opportunities which enable learners to extend their cognitive skills and cultural awareness are made transparent to learners. This will involve exploring how thinking skills
  16. 16. Good Practice Catalogue 17 have been incorporated into the lesson plan in order to advance learning. This puts task types and learning activities at the core. It uses emergent knowledge and skills to apply thinking skills and high level questioning. It demands cultural awareness. Since language and thinking are explicitly related, this stage is also necessary to assure that a translated transmission model of learning will not evolve. This is language through learning. Attention to this process assures learner progression. The 3As tool uses a pragmatic rather than a linguistic approach to language using and development. It is not built on a progressive grammatical model where there is chronology according to the perceived difficulty of acquiring grammatical concepts. Instead the language is related to the perceived progression of conceptual understanding. This approach to language is likely to be unfamiliar for both language and content teachers. However, there may be times when specific grammar is needed and teachers here will make decisions as to the range of options open. Types of Αssessment used in classroom instruction Typically, assessment is divided into different types, diagnostic, formative, summative or placement assessment. Formative and summative evaluation techniques are applied at different points across the educational cycle. Formative evaluation tracks student progress along the way. It may be iterative, occurring periodically throughout a training session, course, or workshop series. This allows instruction to be modified on the go. Summative evaluation represents a point in time usually either immediately after training or longitudinally. Diagnostic Evaluation. The aim of diagnostic evaluation is to find out the causes of learning problems and plan to take remedial actions. It detects pupil’s learning difficulties. It is more comprehensive and specific. This type of evaluation is concerned with finding out the reasons for students persistent or recurring learning difficulties that cannot be resolved by standard corrective measures or formative evaluation. Observational techniques or specially prepared diagnostic techniques can be used to diagnose the problem. Formative Evaluation. It identifies learning errors that needed to be corrected and it provides information to make instruction more effective. It is the type of evaluation used to monitor students learning progress during instruction with the purpose of providing ongoing feedback to students and teachers regarding success and failure of teaching/learning process. Formative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated. In addition, formative assessment implies that the results will be used in the formation and revision process of an educational effort. It provides feedback regarding the student’s performance in attaining instructional objectives. Thus, formative assessments are used in the improvement of educational programs. Since educators are continuously looking for ways to strengthen their educational efforts, this type of constructive feedback is valuable.8 8 and
  17. 17. Good Practice Catalogue 18 Placement Evaluation. It defines student’s entry behaviours. It determines knowledge and skills he possesses which are necessary at the beginning of instruction. Summative Evaluation. It determines the extent to which objectives of instruction have been attained and is used for assigning grades/marks and to provide feedback to students. This type of evaluation is given at the end of the course or unit of instructions to find out which student, to what extent has mastered the intended learning outcomes. Though the results of summative evaluation are primarily used for assigning the grades or for certifying learners’ mastery of instructional objectives, they can also be used to give feedback on the appropriateness of objectives and the effectiveness of instruction.9 Principles of Evaluation Evaluation should be:  Based on clearly stated objectives  Comprehensive  Cooperative  Used Judiciously Continuous and integral part of the teaching – learning process Tools of measuring learning outcomes: Types of Teacher – Made Tests 1. Essay type Advantages  easy to construct  economical  minimize guessing  develops critical thinking  minimize cheating and memorizing  develops good study habits 2. Objective type  Recall type – simple recall, completion type  Recognition type – alternate response (true/false, yes/no, right/wrong, agree/disagree); Multiple choice  Matching type  Rearrangement type 9
  18. 18. Good Practice Catalogue 19  Analogy type – purpose, cause and effect, synonym relationship, antonym relationship, numerical relationship  Identification type Qualities of a Good Measuring Tools  Validity  Reliability  Usability (practicality) Conclusion Educational research is tricky business. Methodologies that are used to measure student learning each have their own limitations and biases, and no method can be counted on to be completely error free. In other words, the strongest assessment programs will rely on a mix of direct and indirect measures. Games with flashcards Flash cards are a simple, versatile, yet often underexploited resource. I would like to offer some reasons for using flash cards and a selection of activities for use in the Young Learner classroom, although some of the activities could also be used with fun-loving, lower level adult classes. In this article there is one example for each type of activity. If you follow this link - Flash card activities - you will find more examples for each type of activity. Why use flash cards? Where to get flash cards? Activity types for using flash cards Memory activities Drilling activities Identification activities TPR activities Why use flash cards? Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory reminds teachers that there are many types of learners within any one class. Gardner's research indicates that teachers should aim to appeal to all the different learner types at some point during the course. It is particularly important to appeal to visual learners, as a very high proportion of learners have this type of intelligence. Flash cards can be bright and colourful and make a real impact on visual learners. Many of the activities outlined below will also appeal to kinaesthetic learners.
  19. 19. Good Practice Catalogue 20 For children at reading age, flash cards can be used in conjunction with word cards. These are simply cards that display the written word. Word cards should be introduced well after the pictorial cards so as not to interfere with correct pronunciation. Flash cards are a really handy resource to have and can be useful at every stage of the class. They are a great way to present, practise and recycle vocabulary and when students become familiar with the activities used in class, they can be given out to early-finishers to use in small groups. I sometimes get the students to make their own sets of mini flash cards that can be taken home for them to play with, with parents and siblings. Where to get flash cards?  Buy them - Some course books provide a supplementary pack of flash cards or they can be bought in sets.  Make them yourself - If you don't have access to professionally produced flash cards, don't worry, it's really easy to make your own even if you're not very artistic. You can use pictures from magazines, draw simple pictures or copy from the internet or clip art. The most important thing is to make sure they are all of the same size, on card (different colours for different sets) so you can't see through them. If possible you can laminate the sets as you make them and they will last for years. The advantage of making your own, apart from the fact that they're cheap and yours to keep, is that you can make sets for your specific needs. You may like to make a set to use in conjunction with a story book or graded reader, or even to accompany project work.  Students make them - I have recently begun to incorporate the production of flash cards into the classroom. After introducing a new lexical set, using realia or the course book, ask students to produce the flash cards for you. Give each one an item to draw. They can be mounted on card to make the set. Activities for using flash cards I have divided the activities into the following categories: Memory, drilling, identification and TPR activities. In this article there is an example for each type of activity. If you follow this link - Flash card activities - you will find more examples for each type of activity.  Memory Activities  Memory Tester Place a selection of flash cards on the floor in a circle. Students have one minute to memorise the cards. In groups, they have two minutes to write as many of the names as they can remember.  Drilling Activities  Invisible Flash cards. Stick 9 flash cards on the board and draw a grid around them. Use a pen or a pointer to drill the 9 words. Always point to the flash card you are drilling.
  20. 20. Good Practice Catalogue 21  Gradually remove the flash cards but continue to drill and point to the grid where the flash card was.  When the first card is removed and you point to the blank space, nod your head to encourage children to say the word of the removed flash card.  Students should remember and continue as if the flash cards were still there. They seem to be amazed that they can remember the pictures.  Depending on the age group I then put the flash cards back in the right place on the grid, asking the children where they go, or I ask students to come up and write the word in the correct place on the grid.  This activity highlights the impact of visual aids. It really proves that the images 'stick' in students' minds. Identification Activities  Reveal the word  Cover the flash card or word card with a piece of card and slowly reveal it.  Students guess which one it is.  Once the card is shown, chorally drill the word with the group using different intonation and silly voices to keep it fun. Vary the volume too, whisper and shout the words. Children will automatically copy your voice.  Alternatively, flip the card over very quickly so the children just get a quick glimpse.  Repeat until they have guessed the word.  TPR activities  Point or race to the flash cards  Stick flash cards around the class.  Say one of them and students point or race to it.  Students can then give the instructions to classmates.  You can extend this by saying "hop to the cat" or even "if you have blonde hair, swim to the fish" etc.  You can also incorporate flash cards into a game of Simon Says. "Simon says, jump to the T-shirt" etc. Managing the classroom Student-Centred Approach to Learning In this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher’s primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and
  21. 21. Good Practice Catalogue 22 assessment are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction.10 Pair work, group work and individual work can all be effective, if used at the right times and if structured in an appropriate way. For teachers, pair work and group work can be excellent tools to promote student interaction; individual work, on the other hand is easier to assess and often appeals to students with intrapersonal intelligences. As a teacher it is important to vary groupings depending on the goals and context of the activity and it is important to know what supports to offer students for each situation. In this section we will discuss different ways to group students and how structure can be provided at each level. The Taxonomy of Teaching Methods11 The following methods have been arranged in terms of increasing sophistication of the thinking required of students. This is not to say that any one of the techniques is inappropriate for particular ages. However, when planning for educational experiences, teachers need to identify the level of cognitive processing they want to engage and select the technique that best encourages that level of thinking (Lasley, Matczynski, & Rowley, 2002). The following list of techniques parallels Bloom's Taxonomy,12 The taxonomy begins with the least sophisticated level of processing, that being the recall of knowledge and facts, and progresses to the highest level, thinking that involves evaluative processes. Teacher Centered  Direct Instruction: Teacher explains or demonstrates Direct instruction is usually listed in the teaching of skills as the lowest level of our taxonomy of instructional techniques because in this case the teacher decides what is important for the students to know and specifically explains or demonstrates a skill, and the student attempts to replicate it. There is very little abstraction involved here, though that is by no means intended to imply that the task is a simple one. As children struggle to reproduce the letters of the alphabet, they need all the concentration and control they can muster. Similarly, the high school student performing the steps of an experiment can be very focused and intent. Nonetheless, the demands for deep understanding and recombining of information on the part of the student are minimal in a direct instruction format. The emphasis is clearly on the acquiring of information or procedural skills.  Drill and Practice: Repetition to hone a skill or memorize information Drill and practice is one level up from direct instruction. Though it might seem that this technique is even more rote in nature than direct instruction, the implication is that something has already been learned, or at the very least been presented, and now the emphasis is on repetition to hone the skill or provide a strong link to the information to improve remembering it. 10 11 12 The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956).
  22. 22. Good Practice Catalogue 23  Lecture: Teacher provides information to students in a one-way verbal presentation The lecture, the mainstay of a traditional college education, shows up third in our instructional technique hierarchy. Lectures in their pure form serve only to offer information from one person to another in a one-way verbal transaction.  Dialogue Oriented  Question and Answer: Requires reflection as information is exchanged in response to a question At this point we begin considering techniques that actually require reflection on the part of the student and thus involve evaluation and the synthesis of new information, the two highest levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Reflection requires that a student receive information and then consider it with regard to his or her own experiences and interpretations. The question-and-answer technique supposes that to one degree or another the teacher and the student share a common body of knowledge. This does not mean that the student has the same depth of knowledge or understanding, but there are sufficient elements to the common core that allow the student and teacher to make consideration of the topic a two-way exchange. One purpose would be for giving the students practice with the recall (and perhaps application) of particular information. Another would be for assessing the students’ acquisition of particular information.  Discussion: An exchange of opinions and perspectives Discussion differs from the previous level in that neither the teacher nor the student holds the upper hand. In this situation the teacher is concerned with a very different treatment of information than possible using the previous methods. Discussions involve the exchange of ideas. With this approach a teacher hopes to develop greater depth of thinking and perhaps to foster the manipulation of information for solving problems rather than just the acquisition of knowledge. Student Centered  Mental Modeling: Assists students in managing their own learning by modeling a problem- solving technique  Mental Modeling (Culyer, 1987) and a variation of it, the “I wonder...” model (Bentley, Ebert, & Ebert, 2000), are techniques specifically intended to enhance students’ ability to direct their own learning by modeling the use of cognitive processes in the solving of some problem.  Discovery Learning: Uses students’ personal experiences as the foundation for building concepts  Discovery learning is an approach to instruction that focuses on students’ personal experiences as the foundation for conceptual development. The challenge is to provide your students with the opportunities for experiences they need in the context of discovery. That is, allowing students to find the information for themselves by virtue of some activity provided. The students will then share a common experience that can be developed as it relates to the concept under consideration.  Four-Phase Learning Cycle
  23. 23. Good Practice Catalogue 24  Introduction: a question, challenge, or interesting event that captures the students’ curiosity.  Exploration: the opportunity for students to manipulate materials, to explore, and to gather information.  Concept Development: With a common experience to relate to, terminology is introduced and concepts developed in class discussion.  Application: This could take the form of an enrichment activity, an opportunity to apply what has been learned, or a test to assess learning.  Inquiry: Allows students to generate the questions that they will then investigate and answer We have placed inquiry at the highest level of our taxonomy not only because it involves the use of prior knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge, but because it also involves generating the question to be answered Issues such as the developmental level of the students, the instructional venue (indoors, outdoors, individual desks, tables and chairs for group work, etc.), and the subject matter to be presented must be considered. As has previously been the case, the teacher may well determine that a combination of techniques would be most appropriate. Types of student work and their benefits13 Type of Student Work Benefits Challenges When It Is Suitable Connections to Theory Individual Students work at their own pace, they are confident about what they know and what they need to send more time on, they can use their preferred learning styles and strategies Students don’t get the benefit of learning from and working with their peers Giving it, Getting it, final tasks/assignment Deductive Learning, Learning Styles & Strategies, Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development 13
  24. 24. Good Practice Catalogue 25 Pair Students have the chance to work with and learn from their peers; struggling students can learn from more capable peers; it is especially useful for students who prefer interpersonal learning settings If students are not matched up well (i.e. low students together, high students together, a higher student with a low student but they don’t work well together, etc.) pair work won’t be useful; the ability of the students to work in this way needs to be taken into consideration Giving it and Getting it activities, Inductive learning activities Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, Inductive Learning Group Group work provides more opportunity for practice, an increased variety of activities is possible, increased student creativity, the Zone of Proximal Development increases As with pair work, the groups must be carefully selected to ensure students can work productively; not all students are able to work to their full potential in this situation; assessment of student progress can be challenging Giving it and Getting it activities Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, Assessment for/of learning A benefit of students working together is that, by explaining a concept or idea to peers, that idea or concept becomes clearer to the student doing the explaining. Each type of work-individual, pair and group- has its place in the language classroom. As the above table shows, there are certain pros and cons of each approach, but all can be connected to theory dealing with effective language learning. Some activities and topics may be best suited to one particular style of work, but the key is to use variety and give students a sufficient number of opportunities to work and learn from one another. How should pair work be structured? In order for it to be successful and a valuable use of class time, students need to be able to practice taking on each role to get maximum exposure with the material. For example, if students are practicing a two-person dialogue, each student should have a turn with each role. To take pair work one step further, the teacher should have students work on the same activity in different pairs; by working with several other students in the class, each student gets ample practice, they could make use of Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, and has the opportunity to hear and help other students.
  25. 25. Good Practice Catalogue 26 Group making Ideas We know that group work can be a useful tool in the language classroom but how should groups be chosen? Here are some strategies for forming groups in the language classroom: Examples of good pair or group work activities Index Cards Put matching stickers on every set of two index cards. When it is time to choose partners or groups, put cards face down on a table and have students come up and pick a card. Students then find their sticker match. Numbered Sticks Use tongue depressors and put a number on one end of each one - up to the number of kids in the class. Number the students in the beginning of the year as well. Keep the "sticks" in a cup, number down. When it's time for partner work, pull 2, or 3, or 4 (whatever size groups you need) at a time and those numbered kids work together. The "sticks" are also good for choosing who answers a question during a discussion. Puzzle Pieces Cut the pictures from an old calendar, and have them laminated, then cut them into puzzle shaped pieces. Have the kids each pull a puzzle piece from a basket and then tell them to go find the other pieces to their puzzle and when their puzzle is complete to sit at a group of desks and raise their hands. Map Quest Students are both given a map. One student asks for directions to a particular place on the map and the other student gives directions. Students switch roles and repeat activity. Picture Description Students work in partners and compete to draw the most accurate image. One partner holds an image in their hand and describes the image to the other partner who tries to draw the image. Once the image is competed partners can switch roles and repeat activity. Blindfolded Directions In partners, one student leads the blind-folded partner through an obstacle course by giving verbal directions. Students can switch roles and repeat activity. Spot the Difference Spot the difference is a name given to a puzzle where two versions of an image are shown side by side, and the player has to find differences between them. For this partner activity the pair has to figure out what those differences are by asking each other questions. For second language learning it is important to choose or create images that incorporate vocabulary known by the student. By asking students to work in stages (5 differences at a time) they will be less likely to get overwhelmed and find the task more motivating.
  26. 26. Good Practice Catalogue 27 Content Maths is one of the school subjects which can be easily taught during English lessons. Teachers can also use the reverse approach – they can teach mathematics using only the English language. Anyway, they must be aware of the ‘content’, which is the first word in CLIL, as curricular content leads language learning. For instance, learning mathematics often requires from learners making hypotheses and then proving whether the hypotheses are true or not. Maths teachers should pay attention to the language the learners need to think during the process of learning, make their hypotheses and provide their proof. The example is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1. Hypothesis and proof in CLIL maths lessons HYPOTHESIS If a whole number ends in 0 or 5, it can be divided by 5. PROOF 215 ends in 5, which implies that it is divisible by 5. Source: author’s own study based on ‘Teaching Maths through English – a CLIL approach’, University of Cambridge, p. 2. Teachers should teach this language, or help learners to notice it in order to let them communicate. During CLIL classes students need to hear language models many times before they are able to produce language in an accurate way. Cloy’s 4 Cs of CLIL While preparing a CLIL maths lesson it is suggested to take into consideration Cloy’s 4 Cs of CLIL. They are as follows: ‘C’ for Content: What is the topic of the maths lesson? (e.g. addition and subtraction, fractions, decimals, etc.), ‘C’ for Communication: What maths language learners are going to use during the class? (e.g. the language concerning addition, subtraction, comparison, etc.), ‘C’ for Cognition: What thinking skills are required from learners? (e.g.: calculating, classifying, identifying, etc.), Language use and learning in CLIL in maths lessons Tomasz Piotrowski
  27. 27. Good Practice Catalogue 28 ‘C’ for Culture (sometimes referred to Citizenship or Community): Is there a cultural context during the maths lesson? (e.g. students from different language backgrounds may not calculate in the same way and may also use different maths symbols). Planning a CLIL maths lesson Before the lesson it is suggested for teachers to activate the learners’ prior knowledge. Teachers need to find out what students already know about the curricular topic. Students may be familiar with many facts concerning the topic in their mother tongue but may have some difficulties in explaining this knowledge in a foreign language. Teachers should be aware of the fact that, while brainstorming ideas about a new topic, they may expect learners to use some L1 and then translate into a foreign language. Teachers should plan the input - the knowledge which is going to be conveyed during the CLIL lesson. They need to plan: - if the information is going to be presented electronically, in writing, on paper or orally, - if learners are going to work in groups, in pairs or individually, - if they are going to include practical demonstrations during the class. Teachers should also plan for student output - the content which is going to be produced and the language which is going to be spoken by students during the lesson. Teachers should know: - if the content and language are going to be communicated in writing, orally or by the use of practical skills (e.g. by presenting a project), - if the content and language are going to be done in groups, in pairs or individually, - what the success for the learners is going to be like. While planning the CLIL maths lesson it is advised for teachers to pay attention to ‘wait time’. It refers to the time teachers should spend waiting between their questions and learners’ answers. If maths elements are taught in a foreign language, students may need a longer wait time than it is usually required. It is really significant, especially at the beginning of the course. Consequently, teachers should allow for this so that all learners have possibility of taking part in classroom interaction. In order to make maths lessons attractive for learners, teachers need to organize interactive pair or group work tasks. This kind of activities involve learners in producing key subject-specific vocabulary and structures in meaningful learning. This may be at word level or at sentence level. Students can give short presentations on different parts of the curricular maths topic. They may be either digitally or face-to-face presentations. Maths activities should support the process of creating new content and language. Maths lessons (with the use of CLIL approach) should be some kind of cognitive challenge for learners who usually need significant support to develop their thinking skills in a foreign language. Students need to communicate not only the everyday functional language, but also the cognitive, academic language of maths. In CLIL, they have the opportunity to meet cognitively challenging maths materials from the beginning of their courses. Preparing a CLIL maths lesson teachers may provide scaffolding. This way they assure content and language support strategies which are very important. Teachers can write sentence
  28. 28. Good Practice Catalogue 29 starters (for example with some gaps) on the board to support skills of reasoning. The example is presented in Figure 2. Figure 2. Examples of sentence starters in CLIL maths lessons and answers to them We found that the number of ....... is ........ than the number of ....... We found that the number of Xs is greater than the number of Ys. We found that the number of Ys is less than the number of Ss. There are ...... ...... than ...... There are more dogs than cats. There are fewer cats than dogs. Source: author’s own study. Providing accurate scaffolding is a kind of challenge to all CLIL teachers due to the fact that students differ when it comes to the amount of support they require and the length of time the support is necessary for them. In maths lessons students may require more support and for longer time than in the case of other school subjects. That is because mathematics is one of the most complicated areas of science. While planning a CLIL maths lesson it is essential for teachers to develop thinking skills among learners. Teachers should ask ‘LOTS questions’, which encourage lower order thinking skills and involve for example the ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’ and ‘which’ questions, e.g.: What number is this? Which graph is linear and which is non-linear? How many acute angles can you see? In the lesson teachers should also employ ‘HOTS questions’, which demand higher order thinking skills. The questions involve mainly the ‘why’ and ‘how’ question words, so they demand the use of more complex language, e.g.: How can you check the equation: x = y + z ? Why the distance of student A is longer than the sum of distances of students B and C? In CLIL contexts, students usually have to answer ‘HOTS questions’ at the beginning of learning curricular content. Assessment Assessment is a matter of discussion among teachers and it does not refer to maths classes only. Teachers of all subjects are not convinced whether they should assess language,
  29. 29. Good Practice Catalogue 30 content or both of them. The assessment vary depending on the region, school and teachers. However, the most important thing is that assessment in CLIL subjects has both formative and summative character and that there is a coherency in students evaluation across maths in each school. Students, parents and teachers of other school subjects should be aware of what students are being assessed on and how they are being assessed. One of the most effective ways of formative assessment is called ‘performance assessment’. It makes students involved in demonstrating their knowledge of both content and language. For instance, they could: - explain ways of solving a set of equations or inequalities, - describe mathematical formulas applied to the solution of the task, - describe charts and draw conclusions from them. While assessment teachers observe and assess students’ performance using specific criteria, which students are familiar with. Learners can be assessed in groups, pairs or individually. CLIL promotes task-based learning. In connection with this, it is appropriate that students have opportunities to be assessed by presenting what they know about the topic and what they can do. In order to evaluate learners’ development of communicative and cognitive skills and their attitude towards learning, teachers may use the performance assessment, too. For instance, teachers can pay attention to students’ ability to justify their opinions (communication), give reasons (cognitive skills) and cooperate with others (attitude). What helps students learn According to two different surveys carried out by Kay Bentley and Sarah Phillips with Spanish CLIL students, the most important things which students really appreciate while learning in English are as follows [Bentley and Phillips 2007]: - greater number of vocabulary and diagrams on the worksheets, - more explanations, - use of easy words for the explanations and vocabulary, - games, - explanation of difficult vocabulary in a native language, - greater number of pictures, - vocabulary listings. One of the surveys reveals factors which help students learn school subjects in English. The results of the survey are presented in Figure 3. They indicate, how crucial is the role of the teacher who explains and translates the subject content and provides interactive tasks so that learners can support themselves as they learn. Maths lessons are a perfect school subject for presenting plenty of diagrams, graphs, pictures which are so essential in learning. That is why it is strongly advised for maths teachers to involve the sources in their process of conveying maths knowledge. Figure 3. Factors which help students learn school subjects in English Source: own study based on Bentley K., Philips S. (2007), Teaching Science in CLIL contexts, unpublished. 0 20 40 60 word lists diagrams use of computers friends pictures translations teacher… percentage of surveyed students
  30. 30. Good Practice Catalogue 31 Appropriate task types There is a wide array of task types which maths teachers can use in CLIL. It is essential for teachers to use the exercises in order to stimulate output of content and language. Some tasks are more time-consuming to create for teachers and take more time to be completed by learners. That is why teachers should be aware of this in order to conduct proper management of time spent on preparation and giving a CLIL maths lesson. It is advised to keep a list of task types and put a tick next to the ones that have been applied during a school term or a year. Some examples of task types, which can be used by maths teachers, are presented in a Table 1: Table 1. Tasks suggested to maths teachers while giving a CLIL lesson circle / underline information transfer classify jigsaw compare and contrast label match complete the diagram multiple choice crosswords sequence describe and guess odd one out domino games PowerPoint presentations find the mistake true / false gap fill word searches and web searches identification keys - e.g. a flow diagram with questions which help learners identify 3-D shapes yes / no - e.g. an elimination game to guess the angle: Is it less than 180º? Is it a right angle? Is it an acute angle? Source: own study based on ‘Teaching Maths through English – a CLIL approach’, University of Cambridge, p. 12. Conclusion The use of CLIL in teaching mathematics is very broad, and may be limited only by teachers’ creativity. In view of the above, advices presented in this guide should be treated as guidelines to further development of teachers’ skills concerning the application of this approach. There is a whole range of Internet websites dedicated to CLIL in maths lessons, e.g.: and many others. The links listed above lead to rich sources of ideas which will certainly help teachers in preparation of attractive and effective CLIL maths lessons. Thus, it is highly recommended for
  31. 31. Good Practice Catalogue 32 maths teachers to take ideas from the portals, as it will bring great benefits for both teachers and learners. Bibliography: Bentley K., Philips S. (2007), Teaching Science in CLIL contexts, unpublished. Coyle D. (1999), Theory and planning for effective classrooms: supporting students in content and language integrated learning contexts in Masih, J. (ed.) Learning through a Foreign Language, London: CILT. ‘Teaching Maths through English – a CLIL approach’, University of Cambridge. Why would a teacher of English choose to design an optional class based on drama? When deciding the theme of an optional class one should carefully list all the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and possible threats of the general process, i.e. build-up a SWOT analysis of the activity. A common SWOT analysis needs to take into account several key questions14 : STRENGTHS – what do we do exceptionally well? - what advantages do we have? - what valuable resources and assets do we have? - what do students/teachers identify as our strengths? WEAKNESSES – what could we do better? - what are we criticized for or receive complaints about? - where are we vulnerable? OPPORTUNITIES – what opportunities do we know about, but have not addressed? - are there emerging trends on which we can capitalize? THREATS – are weaknesses likely to make us critically vulnerable? - what external roadblocks exist that block our progress? - is there significant change coming in our teachers/students' sector? - are economic conditions affecting our viability? Although the above questions are not precisely designed to cover methodological problems, they can be easily adapted, and there will always be an answer to them from a didactic point of 14 How to Design an Optional Class-Teaching English Through Drama Florina Păsculescu
  32. 32. Good Practice Catalogue 33 view. A personal SWOT analysis of teaching English with the help of drama techniques might look as the following: Strengths It is an interactive activity It involves the entire group It promotes team work and cohesion of the group The language is use spontaneously It integrate language skills in a natural way It can be the answer to fill the gap of learner differences It is based on the students creativity and imagination It is a very enjoyable activity It does not need many resources Weaknesses It can be difficult to switch from a formal learning style to a more informal style for both the teacher and the students Lack of room Too many students (more than 30) Little time for some of the activities Opportunities Colleagues whe might offer their help or collaboration Other schools partnership Threats Lack of administrative support Lack of students involvement Now, having all the above in mind when designing an optional drama based course, one must bear the fact students are all different, have their pace of learning and interacting, and, most important, the teacher should choose the activities and games according to their level of language awareness. Activities are based on offering the opportunity to use language already learnt, so that one should keep the track of the National Curriculum when structuring the optional classes. The fact that a drama optional deals mostly with recycling known language does not preclude a certain amount of incidental learning triggered by the highly interactive character of such activities.15 Deciding for a drama optional doesn't involve a special training for the teacher, it is simply a matter of how willing is the teacher to experiment and relax in order to promote a friendly context for his /her students. There is a large variety of drama resource- activities books and online, some of which will be provided at the end of the present paper. As long as the teacher is convinced of what is he/she doing than a drama optional class can be nothing than a total success. The teacher is the one who plays an inspirational role and he/she can secure the success of the activity if he/she works out of conviction and passion. Such activities need energy and drive, a gifted teacher will show enthusiasm to a such a degree that it will be contagious. The Romanian educational system involves optional classes which should be designed according to a certain structure which should be in accordance to the National Curriculum and The Common European Framework Reference for Languages. There is a fixed pattern to build up an optional class in which the teacher should provide his personal school data (i.e. full name, school, school year), a title, an argument, main language 15 Alan Maley and Alan Duff, Drama Techniques, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005: 4
  33. 33. Good Practice Catalogue 34 and grammatical structures for the level, a plan for the school year and bibliography. With the aid of the bibliography the teacher then will choose and adapt activities to suit the themes for the weeks to come. An A1 level optional drama optional combines a clear and functional presentation of some grammar and vocabulary issues through a large variety of stimulative activities used in theatre. The students are involved in various games in order to use English languge as much as possible. As a secondary outcome, but not less important, this type of activity triggers a better cohesion among the students, trust, self-awareness, the ability to carry out differnt tasks and a better approach to verbal and non-verbal communication. The course presents vocabulary sections under headings in accordance to the National Syllabus for fifth graders: The Child about himself, Family, school, The Child and the World around Him, Fantastic Worlds, Culture and Civilization and The Common European Specific Aims Learning Activities Assessment By the end of the fifth grade students will be able to: 1. understand the main meaning of a clearly uttered message at a normal speed. 2. correctly articulate phonetically close sounds and groups of sounds in words. 3. briefly and fluently report an event. 4. talk about himself, about other people or activities around him. 5. use conversation patterns and to ask questions according to the situation. 6. get involved in verbal interactions on familiar issues. 7. ask and give (orally and in writing) personal details. 8. write about events, familiar people using a given plan. 9. write short texts on familiar themes. 10. show curiosity about customs and traditions specific to English culture and civilization. Q & A Comprehension questions Repetition using a model Phonetical discrimination Dialogues, simulations Pair-work, group-work, role- play Guided conversation Basic descriptions based on verbal support ( questions, supporting words) Sentence forming Personal date completion Writing activities – text, paragraph Writing simple structures Group activities: auditions, films watching, reciting, presenting traditional holidays and customs using authentic documents. Answers to teacher's questions Individual work Pair work Group work Continuous monitoring
  34. 34. Good Practice Catalogue 35 Framework Reference for Languages. It also contains sections of communicational structures which determines students to face grammar issues such as: the adjective, the numeral, the adverb of time, the verb, the preposition. This optional course is an effective plan for each school syllabus, implying a careful attendance to students needs and offering various and effective learning opportunities. MAIN THEMES 1. The Child about Himself: physical and moral features, nationality, the body, clothes, health. 2. Family: family members, jobs, food. 3. School: schedules, school activities, school subjects. 4. The Child and the World around Him: phone conversations, mail, means of transport, shopping, leisure. 5. Fantastic Worlds: fairy-tales characters, cartoons, film. 6. Culture and Civilization: city names, monuments, traditions and holidays. LEARNING CONTENTS: LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS: 1. Expressing opinion, preference, intention; 2. Starting a conversation; 3. Asking for information and suggestions; 4. Giving and confirming/refuting information; 5. Asking and giving directions; 6. Making propositions and sugestions; 7. Describing an object, a person; 8. Identifying tense, reporting activities using present, past, future; 9. Expressing physical and cognitive ability in the past; 10. Expressing reason. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATIONAL STRUCTURES: 1. TheAdjective – regular and irregular, comparison; 2. The Numeral - cardinal: 21-100, ordinal 1-30; 3. The Verb: Present Simple and Continuous, Future will (afirmative, negative, interrogative), going to (afirmative, negative, interogative) Past Simple of be, have, can (afirmative, negative, interrogative); 4. Adverb of time: yesterday, ago, last, tomorrow, next; 5. The Preposition: between, over, across, above, at. BIBLIOGRAPHY: The National Syllabus for English The Common European Framework Reference for Languages Vocabulary Activities, Mary Slattery, Oxford Grammar with Laughter, George Woolard - Thomson Învăţaţi engleza contemporană, Jacqueline Fromonot, Isabelle Leguy, Gilbert Fontane – Teora Drama Techniques, Alan Maley and Alan Duff – Cambridge University Press
  35. 35. Good Practice Catalogue 36 Theatre Games, Clive Barker – Methuen Short and Sweet 1, Alan Maley, Penguin Short and Sweet 2, Alan Maley, Penguin 1. Introduction According to the definition, CLIL means that the students study content through a second language and they study language with the content. Thus, the students will gain knowledge of the subject, i.e. geography, while learning and using the target language. (i.e. English) CLIL is an acronym for Content and Language Integrated Learning. The word 'content' comes first, which means that learning the content leads to language learning. By learning geography, the students will gain basic knowledge about the place where they live, about other places, about the way people relate to the place where they live, different environments, as well as geographical processes. In order to be able to communicate their knowledge of the content, the students will have to learn key content vocabulary or the language of geography as well as the grammatical patterns which facilitate communication. 2. Planning the activities The first step in planning a lesson is considering the outcomes. It is important to know exactly what students will know, what they will be able to do and what they will be aware of at the end of the lesson. When teachers plan a CLIL lesson they should keep in mind Coyle's 4Cs: content - which refers to the topic of the lesson (mountains, rivers, population, tourism), communication – the geography language (key content words such as: volcano, magma, lava, ash, cone, etc.) the grammar structures (e.g. Present Simple to talk about processes and general truths: Orangutans live in the tropical rain forests of Sumatra and Borneo.) and the function language that the students will use to communicate (classifying, comparing and contrasting, defining and Language Use and Learning in CLIL-Geography Andreea Stănculea
  36. 36. Good Practice Catalogue 37 describing, evaluating, sequencing), cognition – the thinking skills demanded of learners during the lesson (such as: identify location, compare maps, give reasons for changes in the environment) and culture – each lesson should have a cultural focus and the students should be able to compare the landscape, the environment, the human features of their home to those they are studying about and to be able to understand the reasons behind the differences. In addition, the teachers need to balance the 4Cs of CLIL and focus mainly on one of them. Any lesson should start by activating prior knowledge, encouraging students to produce language about the topic before it is taught. (e.g. tell 5 things you know about volcanoes). All four language skills should be combined during the lesson: listening – is a normal input activity, vital for language learning, reading – using meaningful material, is the major source of input, speaking – focuses on fluency while accuracy is seen as subordinate, and writing – is a series of lexical activities through which grammar is recycled, the focus of writing activities can be on accuracy. The next step for the teacher to take is to decide on the materials and resources they are going to use in order to help the students learn. There are several differences between materials for CLIL and general English. Unlike general English materials which are tightly graded, materials for CLIL lessons have a greater variety of language. When planning a CLIL lesson teachers should consider the language of learning. There are two types of language that students use during the lesson: content-obligatory language – words, structures and functions which are topic oriented (language associated with specific content: lava, magma, cone, eruption – to talk about volcanos) , content-compatible language – language needed to operate in a learning environment i.e. asking and answering questions, agreeing and disagreeing, language for project work, writing reports. When they learn about volcanos students use words such as hot, melt, ash – which are part of everyday vocabulary. Since the content-obligatory language can be difficult for students to acquire teachers need to provide scaffolding (content and language support strategies) to help students develop their thinking skills in a foreign language. It is a process in which the teacher supports the learners by breaking down the task into manageable steps, demonstrates the skills and strategies to complete the steps successfully. Scaffolding means transforming the abstract concepts in to more concrete ones. For example the teacher needs to explain the word infrastructure. So the teacher asks the students questions about their personal life: How do you come to school? (by bike) What do you need to ride your bike? (a road) – the road is part of infrastructure. Scaffolding can also be done through a substitution table which shows students how to put terms together. e.g. ( X is situated in the north/ north east. X is located X is on the coast Visual organisers also play an important part in teaching geography. Students have to interpret map features, to be able to read bar charts or line graphs (for example when studying
  37. 37. Good Practice Catalogue 38 population), to organize the information in tables, to use process diagrams to explain and understand the natural phenomena and processes. The maps, charts, diagrams also help students remember the content-obligatory language. In order to be successful, the teachers need to use a wide variety of media to explain the concepts. They can use photos to introduce content vocabulary, project video clips or PowerPoint presentations. They can also make use of online resources: pdf 3. Assessment As with all assessment, we can talk about summative assessment (at the end of a unit) and formative assessment (ongoing, continuous assessment). Since CLIL lessons have dual focus, assessment should also focus both on content (natural phenomena, processes) and language (grammar structures and function language). Teachers can use assessment scales or tables to make the goal of the assessment clear. It is important that students know how they will be assessed. e.g. Volcanoes - assessment criteria  can name the parts of a volcano  can describe a volcanic eruption  can locate volcanoes on the world map  can give examples of effects that volcanos have on people Students can also be assessed in a written form (tests) – they can be asked to label diagrams (e.g. write the parts of a volcano), transfer written information into visual organisers, match words to pictures or definition or can be asked to make a portfolio. 4. Games in CLIL Games can be used as icebreakers: • Tape a sheet of paper with a country to each student's back. Add a fact or two. The students have to ask three questions to guess the country’s name on his back. If he doesn’t guess, he has to move on to someone else; • Each student picks a folded piece of paper with the name of a country on it. They have to find the other matching country within the group. Without giving anything away, they have to rely on questions and yes or no answers to find their pairs;
  38. 38. Good Practice Catalogue 39 • Divide the class into groups/ continents. Give each group a list of facts about their continent, such as geography, number of nations and surrounding oceans. When they have determined which continent the clues point to, give them the clue to find their continent card; • When children arrive, give them each a giant puzzle piece labeled as a country. Send them to find another country in their continent before they are allowed to come and put their puzzle piece in place; • Give each child a country title and a paper outline of its continent. To finish the game, they need to meet the other countries in the continent and write their names into the appropriate outline on their maps. ( There is also a wide variety of games that can be played on-line: • • • 5. Managing the classroom To teach geography through English teachers need to possess appropriate levels of linguistic competence in the foreign language as well as knowledge of the subject matter. It is also important to be able to cater for the integrated learning of both content and language. One of the most important things is that the language used by the teacher should be comprehensible in order to facilitate language acquisition. Teachers also act as organisers: they engage the students in the tasks, give instructions and organise feedback. They should facilitate collaborative learning (for example, the students work in pairs to locate rivers on a map or to interpret a diagram of the water cycle.) CLIL takes place in a number of different teaching situations. There is a fundamental difference in the use of language between the language class and the content class. As Christine Price points out, in the language class the four skills (reading, listening, speaking and writing) are part of the end product and are also a tool for introducing new language and practising and checking linguistic knowledge. In the content classroom the four skills are a means of learning new information and displaying an understanding of the subject being taught. So the language is a means to an end, rather than an end in itself, and the structure and style of the language is often less colloquial and more complex. When we speak about Science in primary school we refer to elements of Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Environmental Studies, Food Technology. When planning the activities Teaching Science through CLIL methodology Florina Cordoș
  39. 39. Good Practice Catalogue 40 the teacher has to have in mind several aspects such as content, students' level of English, grouping, aims, objectives, procedures, techniques, methods, targeted skills, resources, tasks. S/he has to visualise how the lesson will take place and which might be the students' difficulties in getting the message. The roles of the teacher in this case would be that of a prompter because sometimes students lose the threat of what is going on or they are lost for words. In such situations we want to help but we do not want to take charge. S/he will occasionally offer words or phrases, suggest what could come next in a paragraph or in a phrase. When we prompt students we must do it sensitively and encouragingly, but with discretion. The teacher as a controller. When we act as controllers we are totally in charge of the class and of the activity that takes place, we organise drills, read aloud, exemplify. However if we place ourselves in the role of the controller we deny students access to their own experiencial learning, fewer individuals have the opportunity to say anything at all. Acting as a tutor. When we ask students to work on longer projects or preparation for a debate or delivering a speech, we can work with individuals or groups pointing them out in directions they haven't thought about taking. In this case we combine the roles of prompter and resource and we act as tutors. Organising students and activities When we want to organise an activity, the first thing we have to do is to get students involved, engaged and ready. This means to make it clear that something new is going to happen and that the activity will be enjoyable, interesting or beneficial. We must give students information, telling them how they are going to do the activity, putting them into pairs or groups and finally closing things when it is time to stop. Jim Scrivener suggest the following route map for planning the activities. 1. Pre-class: familiarise ourselves with the material and activity. 2. In class: Lead-in/prepare for the activity 3. Set up the activity 4. Run the activity (students do the activity) 5. Close the activity and invite feedback from the students 6. Post activity: do any appropriate follow-on work Below I suggest the project Discover Greenville Park – an alternative method of teaching/reinforcing the content from the lesson Save the dolphins from the 6th grade English Factfile coursebook, Oxford Press. Coursework project Discover Greenville Park Name: Teacher: Subject: Project:
  40. 40. Good Practice Catalogue 41 Assignment On your way to Deepwater Aquatic Park, you will pass through Greenville Village. During your exploration of the village and the park you have FOUR main things to find out: why the village is attractive for visitors, what effect tourists have on the village, what kind of animals live in the park, the effects life in the park has on the animals. You will need a variety of skills to practice: * map reading * finding your way * making decisions for yourself * returning to the starting point on time * having fun without getting in trouble Map of the Greenville Park. 1. Your bus has just stopped in the square in front of the church. In a few sentences describe what you see: e. g. In front of us there is a … Next to there are … Behind the church there is a big … 2. Trace your way to the park on the map and describe it in a few sentences. e.g. We must cross the square, then turn right and … 3. The village is picturesque and interesting. There is a park nearby and it is on a main road leading to a beautiful lake. As a result it is a really popular place for tourists and visitors. Tourists have good and bad influences on the village. It is one of your jobs to analyze these effects. You have one example. e.g. There is a lot of traffic in the area. This is dangerous for old people and children. 4. The park and its population
  41. 41. Good Practice Catalogue 42 In the spaces below give a brief description of five animals/insects/birds you have seen in the park. You should insist on: physical description, type of food they eat, region of origin, what they can/cannot do. In the right box draw a picture of the animal/insect/bird. e.g. The dormouse is small, four-legged animal with a long tail that lives in trees. It is a herbivore animal which lives in Europe, America, Africa and Asia. 1. The squirrel is an animal … 2. The beetle is an insect … 3. The woodpecker is a bird … The activity mentioned above is useful for revising vocabulary connected to animals, their habits, appearrance, grammar structures such as there is/there are, can/can't, has got and skills such as writing, speaking, understanding. An interesting outdoor game that can be used in making the activity fun and interactive is called ”Catch it!”. Twenty children sit in a circle. The teacher names two animals e.g. duck and goose. The children that get „Goose” have to run after the one that is „Duck” until they catch him/her to make him become goose too. The game goes on until several children catch the ducks. In this activity the teacher plays the role of observer.
  42. 42. Good Practice Catalogue 43 Bibliography & Web resources 3.1 Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching, Macmillan Book for Teachers, 2005. 3.2 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Longman, 2010. 3.3 Adriana Vizental, Metodica predării limbii engleze, Iași, Polirom, 2008. 3.4 Otilia Huțiu, The Discourse of Negotiation in English and Romanian – A Contrastive Analysis, Editura Universității ”Aurel Vlaicu”, Arad, 2007. 3.5 S. Deller, C. Price, Teaching other subjects through English, Oxford, 2005. 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Initially setting the CLIL method, it should mention that "The CLIL is an educational approach with a dual aim, which uses additional language teaching, learning both the language the content of a course." (Euro CLIL 1994). In other words students are taught every lesson through a target for learning language, in the specific European program Erasmus+ with title «Bilingual education: a step ahead» English, without the requirement that is perfect hold this language from earlier and learn and practice this together with the content of the course of Art. Thanks to the students learn to process active themselves, cooperate, communicate, solve problems, to present their projects and use the new language effortlessly and in addition to their mother in authentic teaching and communication situations. When designing an art lesson using CLIL method as the creator of teaching scenarios and in collaboration with other teachers I took account of some conditions and I followed a general lesson plan. Conditions Τhe desire of the student to participate in the learning process and to create a pleasant and safe environment in the classroom The acquisition of new a knowledge related to the desire of the student to participate in the learning process, for example during the course of different activities. A necessary precondition to induce the student to participate is to create a pleasant and safe environment in the classroom. The positive classroom climate works creative for the children and for this Design Art Lesson with CLIL method Tzimagiorgi Dimitra
  43. 43. Good Practice Catalogue 44 reason during the course they hear songs and play educational memory games, tic tac toe, musical and theatrical games and other related topic. Τhe students' proficiency level of the classroom I take into my account the students' proficiency level of the class that I will implement on the course in order to achieve the best design of the lesson and the main objective which I had put it. Incoming new knowledge with the overall objective to conquer and handle to new language learning appropriately based on continuous and effortless learning new words and their uses in spoken and written speech, in this European program of English, based on previous knowledge and integrated smoothly through activities and games thanks to their constant repetition during the course and at the same time allowing the students continuous possibility to produce spoken and written language. The arrangement of desks Also I gave weight to the arrangement of desks according to the availability of space for each class. I took care of the desks installed in such a way so that all students have visual contact with each other even when the work was individual and when the activity demanded to work in a team. It is proven research that students receive stimulus from their classmates even when they do not speak, with their eyes and posture of their body that influences positively the achievement of new knowledge. The corner of the class or school It is very important to be a special corner in the classroom or school in order to present or to hang the student’s works So that the creators to feel joy and satisfaction and students of other classes to informed, learn new words through their creations even to express an interest to engage themselves with the same subject of Art. General lesson plan • Title of course I planned the title of course in order to attract the interest of students and their concern about the issue which they would proceed in continuation. Sometimes it was more concrete and sometimes abstract not to be monotonous and to stimulate thinking and interest of students. Initially the teacher showed it with a picture (source of the picture was the Internet or any art book) and freely leave the children to express their initial thoughts about the title and the new academic subject. • Ideogram Next we formed an ideogram of this course. In its center the title of the course was written and around the rays with the ideas and thoughts of students around the subject. This was done in two ways either by kindspiration software or designing the pupils themselves in large measure paper. In this way the students learn new words related to the new topic with the help of teachers and restored the oldest in memory associated with the issue interacting with each other in an pleasant and creative atmosphere. • Basic target I was planning the main objective of the course according to the curriculum of my country and the CLIL method and special targets so that they relate to each other and with the main objective. I took care of my main aim to be simple and achievable.