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MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ININDIASanika Shah60878
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CAUSESENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN INDIAUncontrolled growth ofurbanizationIndustrializationExpansion- intensification ofagricultureThe destruction of forests-deforestation
MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Forest and Agricultural land degradation. Resource depletion- water, minerals, forest, sand,etc. Public health Loss of biodiversity Loss of resilience in eco-systems Poor water supply and sanitation issues Natural hazards like floods, annual rainfall due todeforestation. Poor agricultural practices
CONT’D Civil conflicts involving natural resources---coal, forest land for cultivation. Increasing pollution have led to an increase in airpollution, shifting precipitation patterns anddeclining intervals of drought recurrence Resource misdistribution.
SANITATION- WATER POLLUTION There is no proper sanitation in India which is oneof the major concerns India faces today. Statistics conducted by UNICEF have shown thatonly 31% of India’s population is using improvedsanitation facilities as of 2008. It is estimated that one in every ten deaths in Indiais linked to poor sanitation and hygiene. Diarrhea is the single largest killer and accounts forone in every twenty deaths. Around 450,000 deaths were linked to diarrheaalone in 2006, of which 88% were deaths ofchildren below five.
CONT’D With poor sanitation facilities in our country, we seepeople defecate in the open or in rivers. One gram of feces could potentially contain 10 millionviruses, one million bacteria, 1000 parasite cysts and100 worm eggs. The Ganges River, in India has a stunning 1.1 millionliters of raw sewage being disposed into it everyminute. The high level of contamination of the river by humanwaste allow diseases like cholera to spread easily,resulting in many deaths, especially among children whoare more susceptible to such viruses. More than 400 million live along the banks of Ganges.
DEFORESTATION Began in the 19th century with the arrival of Britishcolonialism Railroads and roadways built by the Britishexacerbated the situation Population explosion-Large areas of forests havebeen cleaned for agriculture, factories, road and railtracks, industries, mining and quarrying haveseriously affected the forest. Fires-Forest fires destroy trees, seeds and theanimal life. Pests-Many kinds of insect pests destroy forestsby eating the shoots and spreading diseases.
CONT’D Grazing and gnawing mammals-These animalseat, trample the young plants, and damage theirtrunks and roots. Weather-Storm and snow damage the forests.These natural forces are beyond human power tocontrol. Dams-Barriers constructed across rivers to preventfloods submerge and kill large tracts of forests. Jhuming (Shifting cultivation)-In certain parts ofIndia, forests are burnt and the ash is mixed withthe soil and the land used for cultivation.
EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION Rainforest microbes are extremely efficient at breakingdown and recycling waste organic matter - the leaf litterand layers of detritus on the ground. As a result, almostno nutrients reach the forest soil and it is consequentlypoor. Removal of the trees allows the soil to dry out and thelittle humus that exists to deteriorate. This causes therainforest microbes to die and the soil becomes largelyinert, biologically. The degraded soil is also prone to erosion by wind andwhen land floods, it can be washed away. Because of the resulting poor soil conditions, sustainedfarming after clearance is difficult and people regularlymove on, looking for more fertile soil. Causes loss in biodiversity
POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH These are contributing to many seriousenvironmental calamities in India. Heavy pressure on land Land degradation Habitat destruction Changing consumption pattern has led to risingdemand for energy The final outcome of this are air pollution, globalwarming, climate change, depletion of naturalresources, water scarcity and water pollution.
AIR POLLUTION Indian cities are polluted by vehicle and industrialemissions Road dust due to vehicles also contributing up to33% of air pollution In cities like Bangalore around 50% of childrensuffer from asthma One of the biggest causes of air pollution in India isfrom the Transport system Excessive air pollution was causing the whitemarble of the Taj Mahal was turning yellow The air pollution in the big cities is rising to such anextent that it is now 2.3 times higher than theamount recommended by WHO
LAND POLLUTION Although the British started deforestation in India,the pressures to modernize since the partition of1947 have only increased the rates ofdeforestation, which causes soil erosion whichleads to Land Pollution Land pollution in India is due to pesticides andfertilizers as well as soil errosion In March 2009, the issue of Uranium poising inPunjab came into light, caused by flyash ponds ofthermal power stations, which reportedly lead tosevere birth defects in children in the Faridkot andBhatinda districts of Punjab
CONSERVATION Forest cover Scrub cover, to maintain healthy soil Sustainable development – A certain proximity ofland can produce only a limited amount ofresources to sustain only a limited amount ofpeople Growing trees More dustbins in all public places Encourage a cleaner city is a better city to live in