Contemporary Issue in Management
Prepared By – Chaursiya Dhananjay C.
Exam No: 010013
MBA Sem - I
Guided by - Prof. Hitesh Shukla
Academic Year 2016-17
Department of Business Management
No Particular Page no
1 Introduction 3
2 Essential Quality Leadership 3
3 Different Leadership Style between Male and Female 5
4 Different Leadership Style 6
5 CEO of HDFC: Aditya Puri 7
6 CEO of ICICI: Chanda Kocchar 9
7 How leadership is different of
Aditya Puri and Chanda Kocchar
8 Factors affecting performance 12
9 Bibliography 14
In the broadest sense of the word, a “leader” is someone who brings people together and guides
them towards a common goal. Anyone can tell others what to do, but effective leadership requires much
more than the ability to assign task of the group.
Throughout history, much has been written about what it mean to be a leader. Chinese military
general and “Art of War” author Sun Tzu described a leader who “cultivates the moral law, and strictly
adheres to proper methods and discipline.” Nineteenth-century historian Thomas Carlyle believed leaders
were born and not made, while English philosopher Herbert Spencer argued that leaders were the result of
the society in which they lived.
The decades that followed brought countless studies and research reports that detailed a wide variety of
skills and characteristics related to leadership. Researchers at the university of Michigan identified three
specific types of leaders (task-oriented, participative and relationship-oriented) in1940s and ‘50s. In the
‘70s, author Ralph Stogdill named capacity, achievement, responsibility, participation, status and
situation as the six categories of personal factors associated with leadership. Research published in the
Harvard Business Review 2000 by author and psychologist Daniel Goleman uncovered six different
leadership styles: Commanding, Visionary, Afflictive, Democratic, Pace-setting and coaching.
With all of these differing schools of thought, it’s clear that there’s no single definition of leadership, and
that what works for one leader may not necessarily work for another, depending on the circumstances and
personality type. But there’s one thing that nearly every academic, historian and even leaders themselves
agree upon: A true leader must be able to inspire his or her team.
Essential Quality of Leadership
ÿ Good leaders know themselves
Knowing oneself is necessary when faced with challenges or ethical choices, communicating
with those who have different ideas, making decisions, and identifying sources of satisfaction.
ÿ Good leaders are committed.
A person who prompts others to be their best, someone who cares and listens, someone
confident in her beliefs and is willing to be there."
ÿ Good leaders know they don't know everything.
Believing that an effective leader is one who knows it all is one of the most dangerous
misconceptions about leadership.
ÿ Good leaders are open to change.
Change is one of life's most obvious factors.
Everything is in motion, continually changing, forever adapting." Effective leaders recognize
the value of change.
Quality of Male Leader
• They are fearless confidence.
• Always looking for opportunity.
• Attempts to be leaders in their field or will fail trying.
• Enjoys, almost lusts for competition. Has endless energy.
• Learns from failure. Prepares well.
• Refuses to wait for anything. Understands the value of time.
• Innovative and Has Focus in Learns from mistakes.
Quality of Woman Leader
• Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts.
• When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an
"I'll show you" attitude.
• Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem solving
and decision making.
• Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks.
Different Leadership Style between Male and Female
v Here there are two person consider to check how leadership different by gender.
The topic of gender differences in leadership style has been of great interest to researchers in
the fields of psychology, management, and sociology, especially in the recent years, as female
have began to assume more leadership positions. This article presents an overview of the
research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at
the organisational effects of various types of leadership, andargues for the acceptance of a
diversity of non gender linked leadership styles.
A laissez-faire leader lacks direct supervision of employees and fails to provide regular feedback to those under his
supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees requiring little supervision fall under the laissez-faire
leadership style. However, not all employees possess those characteristics. This leadership style hinders the
production of employees needing supervision. The laissez-faire style produces no leadership or supervision efforts
from managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and increasing costs.
The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the input of others. Managers
possess total authority and impose their will on employees. No one challenges the decisions of autocratic leaders.
Countries such as Cuba and North Korea operate under the autocratic leadership style. This leadership style
benefits employees who require close supervision. Creative employees who thrive in group functions detest this
Often called the democratic leadership style, participative leadership values the input of team members and peers,
but the responsibility of making the final decision rests with the participative leader. Participative leadership boosts
employee morale because employees make contributions to the decision-making process. It causes them to feel as
if their opinions matter. When a company needs to make changes within the organization, the participative
leadership style helps employees accept changes easily because they play a role in the process. This style meets
challenges when companies need to make a decision in a short period.
Managers using the transactional leadership style receive certain tasks to perform and provide rewards or
punishments to team members based on performance results. Managers and team members set predetermined goals
together, and employees agree to follow the direction and leadership of the manager to accomplish those goals. The
manager possesses power to review results and train or correct employees when team members fail to meet goals.
Employees receive rewards, such as bonuses, when they accomplish goals.
The transformational leadership style depends on high levels of communication from management to meet goals.
Leaders motivate employees and enhance productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility.
This style of leadership requires the involvement of management to meet goals. Leaders focus on the big picture
within an organization and delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish goals.
Different Leadership Style
Aditya Puri, the outstanding Business leader of the year CNBC-TV 18 India Business Leader
Award (IBLA) 2015-16. He is a Managing Director of HDFC Bank, India's largest private sector
bank. He assumed this position in September 1994, making him the longest-serving head of any private
bank in the country. Aditya Puri was born in Gurdaspur District (Punjab) and studied at Punjab
University, Chandigarh, gaining a Bachelor’s degree in Commerce. He qualified as a Chartered
Accountant with the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.
He has worked in the banking sector for 40 years, in India and other countries, and became CEO
of Citibank, Malaysia in 1992. In September 1994 he returned to India as Managing Director of HDFC
Bank. He presided over HDFC's acquisitions of Times Bank Limited in 2000 and of Centurion Bank of
Punjab in 2008.
Comes close on heels of receiving ‘Outstanding Business Leader of the Year’ award from CNBC TV-18
Mumbai, September 11, 2016. A journey that began over 20 years ago, when Mr. Aditya Puri joined
HDFC Bank as its Managing Director, has reached a milestone. One of India's eminent financial dailies,
The Financial Express has honoured Mr. Puri with its ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ for his outstanding
contribution to Indian banking.
At a function organized in Mumbai, Mr. Puri accepted the honour at the hands of Mr. Arun Jaitley,
Union Finance Minister. Few days prior to the milestone, CNBC TV-18 recognized Mr. Puri with
‘Outstanding Business Leader of the Year’ award. “I take this opportunity to acknowledge the
contribution of all our stakeholders who have been with us in this journey.
I humbly accept these awards on behalf of each one of them,” said Mr. Puri. The awards are a rich
recognition of the following:
∑ Unremitting focus on customer
∑ Creating value for all stakeholders
∑ Giving back to the society and
∑ All the above have helped create a highly respected and trust-worthy brand
∑ HDFC Bank is the only Indian brand that figures in the top 100 most valuable global brands list,
according to Milward Brown, a WPP group research agency. It has been rated among the most valuable
brands for two consecutive years, not just in India but globally.
HDFC faces tough competition from private sector banks such as ICICI and Axis Bank. ICICI, with $15
billion in revenue for the last fiscal year, is hailed for its trail-blazing approach. It was the first to make a
huge foray into retail banking. HDFC picked up on many of ICICI's innovations in its initial years. Last
year HDFC's net profits grew faster than ICICI's, and HDFC also has a lower level of nonperforming
In the public sector there's the formidable, ubiquitous State Bank of India, the country's largest bank. Puri
isn't deterred. "We'll not buy market share by diluting our credit standards," he says. "We'll not go into
businesses that we don't understand. We aren't foolhardy. We never bet the bank."
This ability to cut out the surround sound and focus on the essentials has pulled the bank through many a
crisis and many a mania, including the global financial meltdown of 2008. "He has an unparalleled
understanding of the business, both at a strategic and detailed level," says Shikha Sharma, who runs Axis,
which with $7.3 billion in revenue last year is India's third-largest private sector bank. "He also has a
clear focus on profits." Adds Tamal Bandyopadhyay, the author of a 2012 book on HDFC called A Bank
for the Buck: "HDFC watches and learns things at the expense of the other banks. It's very measured and
never volatile, and investors love that. This might make it a boring bank. But in banking, what you don't
do is more important than what you do do."
One of the keys to the bank's success has been its method of testing new products and services before
jumping in headlong. When one pilot is successful, it conducts more pilots and then slowly rolls out the
new offering bankwide. "We fail--but we fail small," says Puri. For instance, when the bank tried offering
loans taken out against gold jewelry or coins, it got burned. But it started scaling up gradually until it got
the hang of the business.
Chanda Kochhar (born 17 November 1961) is the managing director (MD) and chief executive
officer (CEO) of ICICI Bank. She is widely recognised for her role in shaping retail banking in India.
Kochhar was born in Jodhpur, Rajasthan and raised in Jaipur, Rajasthan. She was educated at St. Angela
Sophia School, Jaipur. She then moved to Mumbai, where she joined Jai Hind College for a bachelor's
degree. After graduating in 1982, she studied cost accountancy, and later acquired a master's degree in
management studies from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai. She received
the Wockhardt Gold Medal for Excellence in Management Studies as well as the J. N. Bose Gold Medal
in Cost Accountancy.
In 2009 Kochhar was appointed as managing director (MD) and chief executive officer (CEO) of the
bank and has been responsible for the bank’s diverse operations in India and overseas. She also chairs the
boards of most of the bank’s subsidiaries, which include India’s leading private sector life and general
Under Kochhar's leadership, ICICI Bank won the "Best Retail Bank in India" award in 2001, 2003,
2004 and 2005 and "Excellence in Retail Banking Award" in 2002; both awards were given by The
Asian Banker. Kochhar personally was awarded "Retail Banker of the Year 2004 (Asia-Pacific
region)" by the Asian Banker, "Business Woman of the Year 2005" by The Economic Times and
"Rising Star Award" for Global Awards 2006 by Retail Banker International. Kochhar has also
consistently figured in Fortune's list of "Most Powerful Women in Business" since 2005.
up the list debuting with the 47th position in 2005, moving up 10 spots to 37 in 2006 and then to 33 in
2007. In 2009, she debuted at number 20 in the Forbes "World's 100 Most Powerful Women list". She
is the second Indian in the list behind the Indian National Congress party chief Sonia Gandhi at number
How leadership is different of Male and Female
The first generation of female managers had to adhere to the same rules of conduct for success
that applied to men. This new generation is making its way “not by adopting the style and habits that have
proved successful for men but by drawing on what is unique to their socialization as women and creating
a different path to the top”. Most of these women are working in medium size organizations that have
experienced fast growth and rapid change, organizations that have been most hospitable to women and
non traditional management styles.
Rosener borrowed the concepts first used by Burns (1978) to describe the different leadership
styles she found. The men in the study were typically “transactional” leaders, that is, they see job
performance as a series of transactions with subordinates. The transactions consist of exchanging rewards
for services rendered or punishments for inadequate performance.
Rosener found that men are more likely to use power that comes from their organizational
position. Women in her study were characterized as “transformational’’ leaders. They are skilled at
getting subordinates to transform their own self interest into the interest of the larger group. Women
ascribe their power not to their position within the organization but to their own personal characteristics.
The findings of this study corroborate those of the Eagly and Johnson (1990) meta-analysis, which found
that women leaders are more democratic.
These women actively work to make their interactions with subordinates positive for everyone involved.
More specifically, the women encouraged participation, share power and information, enhance other
people’s selfworth, and get others excited about their work. All these things reflect their belief that
allowing employees to contribute and feel powerful and important is a win-win situation-good for the
employees and the organization.
As Rosener states, until the 1960s, men and women received vastly different messages about what
was expected of them. While men were supposed to be competitive, tough, decisive, and in control,
women were allowed to be cooperative, emotional, and supportive. This is one reason that the women of
today are more likely to be transformational leaders. The other reason is that women’s career experiences
have differed from those of men who were more likely to have held staff, rather than line, positions.
Lacking formal authority over others, these women had to find other ways to accomplish their goals.
Rosener contrasts the men’s command and control style with the different style exhibited by the
women and argues for an increase in diversity in acceptable managerial behavior. She cautions against
linking transformational leadership to being female; women are capable of making their way up the
corporate ladder using traditional management style, and some men are transformational leaders. She also
fears that companies that perceive transformational leadership as “feminine” will automatically resist it.
THE CASE AGAINST
By Andrew Kakabadse, Professor of International Management Development
There is a myth about gender and leadership capabilities. This holds that female are better team player
than male; more open and mature in the way they handle sensitive issues; and more conscious of their
impact on others and hence better people managers than male.
But the myth is false. An international survey by Cranfield comparing top male and female managers in
the private and public sectors clearly showed those females are no better or worse than male in the
practice of management and leadership. It all depends on the man or woman in question, and the
organisation for which they work.
Factors affecting performance
Gender is a red herring. The factors that do significantly influence people’s performance, however, are
the length of tenure in the job and organisation, the age of the manager and their attitude. In essence, the
longer the manager has been in the job and been held to account for their performance, the more positive,
outward-looking and mature they are both in attitude and years; and the more responsive they are to the
demands of customers, the better they are as a manager.
However, context- the culture of the company, the leadership style of the boss and the attitudes in the
office –does play a powerful role. Male and female occupying comparable jobs but in different
organisations are likely to react differently, not because of differences of personality, or gender, but
because of contextual pressures.
The way forward
Today’s economic reality is oversupply. Too many products and services and chasing too few consumers.
In order to get that, ‘extra 2%’ which will make the difference, each organisation has to look to itself.
Helping people to become more motivated to sell or to provide a higher level of services, requires that
staff and management improve dialogue and their internal communication. In effect, internal diversities
need to be turned into unique strengths, which give the organisation that extra push. What is the value of
sending male and female on separate courses or being given different treatment, when aim is to ‘pull
together’ in order to survive and prosper?
Managing diverse groups to achieve a cohesive philosophy and consistency of performance is what is
required of today’s corporate leader. Evidence shows that female and male are adept, or as bad, as each
other at responding to this challenge.