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Webinar The Role of Trust in Digital policy 2016

The Role of Trust in Digital Policy - Applied ethics in Internet Governance Institutions dealing with global resources

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Webinar The Role of Trust in Digital policy 2016

  1. 1. D E S I R E E M I L O S H E V I C D I P L O A L U M N I T U E S D A Y , J U L Y 1 8 T H 2 0 1 6 WEBINAR ON THE ROLE OF TRUST IN DIGITAL POLICY CASE STUDY: APPLIED ETHICS IN IG INSTITUTIONS DEALING WITH GLOBAL RESOURCES
  2. 2. AGENDA • Trust etymology • Trust vs trustworthiness • Why is there so much focus on trust? • Trust concepts and frameworks • Applied ethics case study – data • Role of Trust for Digital Policy? • Can users’ trust be restored? • What are stakeholders’ roles? • Q&A
  3. 3. ETYMOLOGY OF WORD TRUST • Origin Old Norse –> traustr –> traust –> treysta: strong -> Trust - Middle English • C 1200, "reliance on the veracity, integrity, or other virtues of someone or something; religious faith," from Old Norse traust "help, confidence, protection, support," from Proto-Germanic abstract noun *traustam (source also of Old Frisian trast, Dutch troost "comfort, consolation," Old High German trost "trust, …Gothic trausti "agreement, alliance"
  4. 4. TRUST
  5. 5. TRUST VS TRUSTWORTHINESS • Research into the roles of trust in our society broad range of often conflicting theories. Some theorists maintain that trust is a social virtue that cannot be reduced to strategic self-interest; trusting another person is ultimately a rational calculation based on information about that person and his or her incentives and motivations. • our trust in persons whom we believe to have strong reasons* to act in our best interests. “We are correct when we assume that the main incentive of those whom we trust is to maintain a relationship with us— whether it be for reasons of economic benefit or for love and friendship. “I trust you to be trustworthy – type of trust we place in individuals or institutions”
  6. 6. TRUST VS TRUSTWORTHINESS • Hardin also makes an important differentiation between the trust and trustworthiness (Hardin, 2006)explaining that 1. trust is a positive belief that does not need to be proven 2. whereas trustworthiness is an earned quality, representing someone reliable, proven and honest
  7. 7. WHY IS TRUST THE HOTTEST SUBJECT IN IG? • After Snowden revelations, there is a growing anxiety among Internet users (See: Desiree Miloshevic, Crisis of Trust, Crisis of Accountability 24 june14- en.pdf) • Safety and Privacy of citizens is at stake, 45% are changing the way to use the Internet • Trust is on top of the mind of all users but also government policy • “We are at risk of undoing all the progress we have made on the Internet” Kathy Brown, OECD Ministerial • https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/02/24/internet-privacy-protecting- consumers-building-trust-creating-jobs • Framework of Trust: trusted networks/ technologies/ users / ecosystem See: https://www.internetsociety.org/sites/default/files/IG%20and%20Trust%20- %20BoT%20June%202016%20-%20Final-R.pdf)
  8. 8. TRUST IS… Can trust be measured? Trust is a subjective matter … Trust is contextual… Need to separate normative questions of Ethics and Trust from questions coming from psychology and other sciences (e.g. individuals don’t recognize it until it’s lost) We can only study how is trust perceived to get a more objective insight What kind of perceived trust is required for digital policies?
  9. 9. HOW MUCH TRUST IS THERE? Trust fell in businesses sector from 59% to 57% Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) from 66% to 63% Media (from 53% to 51%) between 2014 and 2015 Only trust in governments rose during this time (from 45% to 48%), but they were still perceived as the most untrustworthy form of organisation in the study. Source: The Edelman Trust Barometer 2015
  10. 10. restoring USERS’ TRUST IN? • Networks (Infrastructure) Layer I • Technologies (Protocol and Application Layers: Layer II and II • Companies, on-line platforms and devices! (facebook, gmail, laptops, tablets, mobile phones, desktops ) • Cloud services, ISPs • Internet governance Institutions • National governments “Trust takes years to build, seconds to break and forever to repair.”
  11. 11. TRUST AND APPLIED ETHICS ETHICS & RELATIONSHIPS NORMATIVE 1. INERNET USERS vs INTERNET USERS e.g. bullying, online violence 2. INTERNET USERS vs CORPORATIONS 3. USERS/MEMBERS vs INTERNET GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS e.g. USERS and DNS policies in ICANN e.g. MEMBERS OF RIRs POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY NORMATIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN USERS/CITIZENS AND THE STATE - Governments e.g. Snowden revelations CORPORATIONS AND GOVERNMENTS
  12. 12. IMPORTANT SEPARATION Ethical and Normative Level: How things should ideally look like with regards to trust, if we were completely rational beings? Empirical and Pshychological How things currently are with regards to perception of trust in real life, since there is always a lack of information, unrealistic beliefs and expectations, personal interests, and unequal power relations between stakeholders
  13. 13. SECURITY AND TRUST – David CLARK • On July 16, 1992, Prof. David Clark articulated what would become the creed of the Internet engineering community. He was giving a presentation A Cloudy Crystal Ball: A Vision into the Future at the IETF. It was era of turmoil and uncertainty as the privatization of the Internet (the transformation of the Internet from NSFNET to commercial networks) was in its infancy. “We Reject: Kings, Presidents, and Voting. We Believe in: Running Code and Rough Consensus Our best success was not computing, but hooking people together! The hacks of today are the commonplace of tomorrow! Security is a CRITICAL problem! What we should do: Fix insecure services: PASSWORDS, etc. The problem is assigning the correct degree of fear to distant elephants. If we have a problem it is due to too much success.” See http://cybertelecom.blogspot.de/2016/07/1992-july-16-david-clark- articulates.html
  14. 14. WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF STKHDRS? • There is no one treaty that would fix this or legislation that would solve issue of trust • Can’t just focus on technology, we need to take in law and global politics • Commercial interests have impact on the IG ecosystem not necessarily good for the Internet e.g, botnets, ISPs – slowing traffic • Commercial aspects are not apparent enough • Can we imagine a healthy development of our digital society without solving the post-Snowden challenges it brings to citizens, technology, community and governments as well?
  15. 15. RIR CASE STUDY • MOST CRITICAL FOR TRUST: Members of studied IG organisations perceive the role of the board and relationship of their organisation with the wider Internet community as critical for continuing to have trust in the organisation MOST DAMAGING FOR TRUST: • a non-transparent act of an organisation. • not addressing adequately external regulatory threats • deviation from policies CONCLUSIONS: • Demand for transparency • Demand for slightly conservative business predictability • Organisation/institution - True to its core mission.

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