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  1. 1. We Believe in The Power of Single Idea
  2. 2. • .Net Framework is a software development platform developed by Microsoft for building and running Windows applications. The .Net framework consists of developer tools, programming languages, and libraries to build desktop and web applications. It is also used to build websites, web services, and games. Introduction to .NET Framework
  3. 3. • The .Net framework was meant to create applications, which would run on the Windows Platform. The first version of the .Net framework was released in the year 2002. The version was called .Net framework 1.0. The Microsoft .Net framework has come a long way since then, and the current version is .Net Framework .NET Framework 4.8 . Introduction to .NET Framework
  4. 4. • .NET Framework supports more than 60 programming languages in which 11 programming languages are designed and developed by Microsoft. The remaining Non-Microsoft Languages which are supported by .NET Framework but not designed and developed by Microsoft. Introduction to .NET Framework
  5. 5. Introduction to .NET Framework • Components of .NET Framework • There are following components of .NET Framework: • CLR (Common Language Runtime) • CTS (Common Type System) • CLS (Common Language Specification) • BCL (Base Class Library) • FCL (Framework Class Library) • .NET Assemblies • XML Web Services • Window Services
  6. 6. CLR
  7. 7. IL Or MSIL • MSIL stands for Microsoft Intermediate Language. We can call it as Intermediate Language (IL) or Common Intermediate Language (CIL). During the compile time , the compiler convert the source code into Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) .Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to the native code. During the runtime the Common Language Runtime (CLR)'s Just In Time (JIT) compiler converts the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) code into native code to the Operating System.
  8. 8. IL Or MSIL
  9. 9. CLR
  10. 10. • First, the developer has to write the code using any dot net supported programming languages such as C#, VB, J#, etc. Then the respective language compiler will compile the program into something called Intermediate language (IL) code. For example, if the programming language is C#, then the compiler is csc and if the programming language is VB, then the compiler will be vbc. This Intermediate Language (IL) code is half compiled code i.e. partially compiled code and cannot be executed directly by the operating system. So, when you want to execute this IL code on your machine, the dot net framework provides something called CLR or Common Language Runtime which takes the responsibility to execute your IL Code. CLR
  11. 11. • The CLR takes the IL (Intermediate Language) code and gives it to something called JIT (Just-in-Time) Compiler. The JIT compiler takes the IL code and reads each and every line of the IL code and converts it to machine-specific instructions (i.e. into binary format) which can be executed by the underlying operating system. CLR
  12. 12. IL Or MSIL
  13. 13. • The Common Language Runtime in the .NET Framework is the Virtual Machine component that handles program execution for various languages such as C#, F#, Visual Basic .NET, etc. The managed execution environment is provided by giving various services such as memory management, security handling, exception handling, garbage collection, thread management, etc. The Common Language Runtime implements the VES (Virtual Execution System) which is a run time system that provides a managed code execution environment. The VES is defined in Microsoft’s implementation of the CLI (Common Language Infrastructure).. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  14. 14. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  15. 15. • There are multiple components in the architecture of Common Language Runtime. Details about these are given as follows: • Base Class Library Support: The Common Language Runtime provides support for the base class library. The BCL contains multiple libraries that provide various features such as Collections, I/O, XML, DataType definitions, etc. for the multiple .NET programming languages. • Thread Support: The CLR provides thread support for managing the parallel execution of multiple threads. The System.Threading class is used as the base class for this. • operability support. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  16. 16. • Type Checker: Type safety is provided by the type checker by using the Common Type System (CTS) and the Common Language Specification (CLS) that are provided in the CLR to verify the types that are used in an application. • Exception Manager: The exception manager in the CLR handles the exceptions regardless of the .NET Language that created them. For a particular application, the catch block of the exceptions are executed in case they occur and if there is no catch block then the application is terminated Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  17. 17. • Security Engine: The security engine in the CLR handles the security permissions at various levels such as the code level, folder level, and machine level. This is done using the various tools that are provided in the .NET framework. Debug Engine: An application can be debugged during the run-time using the debug engine. There are various ICorDebug interfaces that are used to track the managed code of the application that is being debugged. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  18. 18. • JIT Compiler: The JIT compiler in the CLR converts the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) into the machine code that is specific to the computer environment that the JIT compiler runs on. The compiled MSIL is stored so that it is available for subsequent calls if required Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  19. 19. • . Code Manager: The code manager in CLR manages the code developed in the .NET framework i.e. the managed code. The managed code is converted to intermediate language by a language-specific compiler and then the intermediate language is converted into the machine code by the Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  20. 20. • Garbage Collector: Automatic memory management is made possible using the garbage collector in CLR. The garbage collector automatically releases the memory space after it is no longer required so that it can be reallocated. CLR Loader: Various modules, resources, assemblies, etc. are loaded by the CLR loader. Also, this loader loads the modules on demand if they are actually required so that the program initialization time is faster and the resources consumed are lesser. Architecture of Common Language Runtime (CLR)
  21. 21. IL Or MSIL Role of MSIL in a .NET environment 1. Platform Independence:- Platform independence means that the same file containing byte code instruction can be placed on any platform; at runtime, the final stage of compilation can then be easily accomplished so that the code can run on that particular platform. In other words, MSIL defines a set of portable instructions that are independent of any specific CPU. 2. Performance Improvement:- Instead of compiling the entire application at once, the JIT compiler simply compiles each portion of code as it is called just in time. When code has been compiled once, the resultant native executable is stored until the application exists so that it does not need to be recompiled the next time that portion of the code is run. This process is more efficient than compiling the entire application code at the start. This shows that the execution of the MSIL code will be almost as fast as executing native machine code.
  22. 22. IL Or MSIL 3. Language Interoperability:- The use of MSIL facilitates language interoperability. One can compile to MSIL from one language, and this compiled code should then be interoperable with code that has been compiled to MSIL from another language. In other words, MSIL architecture enables the framework to be language neutral. To a large degree, language choice is no longer dictated by the preference of the developer or the team. One can even mix languages in a single application. A class and an exception are thrown in a C#method that can be caught in a VB method. 4. Reducing maintenance headaches:- MSIL code can be analyzed by the CLR to determine compliance with requirements such as type safety. Things like buffer overflows and unsafe casts can be caught at compile-time, greatly reducing maintenance headaches.
  23. 23. IL Or MSIL
  24. 24. CTS Common Type System (CTS) describes a set of types that can be used in different .Net languages in common . That is , the Common Type System (CTS) ensure that objects written in different .Net languages can interact with each other. For Communicating between programs written in any .NET complaint language, the types have to be compatible on the basic level .
  25. 25. s CTS
  26. 26. CTS • The Common Type System (CTS) standardizes the data types of all programming languages using .NET under the umbrella of .NET to a common data type for easy and smooth communication among these .NET languages. • How CTS converts the data type to a common data type • To implement or see how CTS is converting the data type to a common data type, for example, when we declare an int type data type in C# and VB.Net then they are converted to int32. In other words, now both will have a common data type that provides flexible communication between these two languages.
  27. 27. CTS
  28. 28. CLS • Common Language Specification • Design a component that is language independent. • The .Net framework is language independent. This means the developer writes a program in many languages such as C#,VB.net. • Microsoft has defined CLS which is nothing but guidelines for languages follow so that it can communicate with other .Net languages. CLS defines a set of rules and restrictions that every language must follow which runs under the .net framework. CLS enables cross-language integration or Interoperability.
  29. 29. CLS
  30. 30. CLS • CLS is a subset of the Common type System. The code that follows the CLS rules is compatible with all other languages present in the .net framework.
  31. 31. BCL (Base Class Library) The base class library has a rich collection of libraries features and functions that help to implement many programming languages in the .NET Framework, such as C #, F #, Visual C ++, and more
  32. 32. BCL (Base Class Library)
  33. 33. BCL (Base Class Library)
  34. 34. .NET Framework Class Library (FCL) • NET Framework Class Library is the collection of classes, namespaces, interfaces and value types that are used for .NET applications. • t contains thousands of classes that supports the following functions. • Base and user-defined data types • Support for exceptions handling
  35. 35. .NET Framework Class Library (FCL) • input/output and stream operations • Communications with the underlying system • Access to data • Ability to create Windows-based GUI applications • Ability to create web-client and server applications • Support for creating web services
  36. 36. BCL (Base Class Library)
  37. 37. Thank you! Visit Us 3rd Floor, Mk Plaza Amrapali West Marg, Vaishali Nagar Jaipur-302021 Rajasthan 503,Shri Kriti CGHS,Plot No.64,Sec.55 Gurgaon -122002,Haryana Call :+91-9057710001,2,6 Email: training@horizonss.co.in http://www.mcainternship.online/

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