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Chapter 5 perception attitude and personality

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Chapter 5 perception attitude and personality

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Perception, Attitudes, and Personality
  2. 2. Learning Goals <ul><li>Understand human perceptual processes and how people form impressions of others </li></ul><ul><li>Describe types of perceptual error and their effects on information people get from their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Explain attribution processes and their effects on perception and attitudes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Goals (Cont.) <ul><li>Discuss the nature of attitudes, how they form and how they change </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the different views of human personality development </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss some dimensions of personality and several personality types </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the effects of different cultures on perception, attitudes, and personality </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Perception, Attitudes, and Personality Perception Attitudes Personality Chapter 5
  6. 6. Perception <ul><li>A cognitive process: lets a person make sense of stimuli from the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Affects all senses: sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Includes inputs to person and choice of inputs to which the person attends </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus sources: people, events, physical objects, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Helps adaptation to a changing environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target: object of the person’s perceptual process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold: minimum information from target for the person to notice the target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection threshold: point at which person notices something has changed in her or his environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition threshold: point at which person can identify the target or change in the target </li></ul></ul></ul>See text book Figure 5.1
  8. 8. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual process (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target emerges from its surrounding context sometimes slowly, sometimes quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly discriminate a high-contrast target from its background; an ambiguous target takes more time to see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast can come from the target's size, color, loudness, or smell </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual process (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People attend more quickly to positively valued stimuli than to negatively valued stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: achievement-oriented employees notice announcements about promotion opportunities faster than an employee with less achievement motivation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual defense: shield self from negatively valued stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: block out annoying sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational example: block some feedback from a supervisor or coworker when it is negative </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual errors: mistakes in the perceptual process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs about a target based on information about the target or previous experiences with it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about the target from any source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs act like instructions for processing stimuli from the target </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Perception (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceptual errors (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype: beliefs and perceived attributes about a target based on the target’s group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American university students: energetic and spontaneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian university students: orderly and obedient </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Self-Perception: A View of Self <ul><li>Self-perception: process by which people develop a view of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Develops from social interaction within different groups, including groups encountered on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Self-perception has three parts: self-concept, self-esteem, self-presentation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-concept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of beliefs people have about themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View people hold of their personal qualities and attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors affecting a person's self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observations of behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall of past significant events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of the surrounding social context </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-concept (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People see their behavior, and their situation, in the same way they see the behavior of other people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person believes the behavior occurred voluntarily: concludes the behavior happened because of some personal quality or attribute </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-concept (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations of behavior (cont.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People learn about themselves by comparing themselves to other people with similar qualities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: you may want to assess your abilities to hold a supervisory position. You compare yourself to people with backgrounds similar to yours who have had recent promotions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-concept (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall of past significant events and effect of the surrounding social context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall events important in their lives; not error free </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to recall events they attribute to themselves and not to a situation or other people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often overestimate their role in past events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place more weight on the effects of their behavior and less on the surrounding situation or other people </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional dimension of self-perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive and negative judgments people have of themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with low self-esteem tend to be unsuccessful; do not adapt well to stressful events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with high self-esteem have the opposite experiences </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People differ in degree of self-awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private self-consciousness: behave according to attend to inner feelings and standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public self-consciousness: behave according to social standard correct for the situation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral strategies people use to affect how others see them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they think about themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals of self-presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affect other people's impressions to win their approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the person's influence in a situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that others have an accurate impression of the person </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Self-Perception: A View of Self (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-presentation (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly conscious of public image: change behavior from situation to situation. Readily conform to situational norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who want others to perceive them in a particular way behave consistently in different situations. They act in ways they perceive as true to themselves with little regard for the norms of the situation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Social Perception: A View of Others <ul><li>Social perception: process by which people come to know and understand each other </li></ul><ul><li>Forming impression of a person: perceiver first observes the person, the situation, and the person's behavior </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Form a quick impression by making a snap judgment about that person, or </li></ul><ul><li>Make attributions and integrate the attributions to form a final impression </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation biases lead the perceiver to hold tenaciously to it </li></ul>
  24. 24. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Elements of social perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three sets of clues help form the impression of another person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situation surrounding the person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observed behavior of the person </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Elements of social perception (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing first impressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use different physical aspects of the person: height, weight, hair color, eyeglasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes based on physical features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thin men: tense, suspicious, stubborn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blond women: fun loving </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neatly dressed people: responsible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes result from attributing qualities to people based on previously formed perceptions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Elements of social perception (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconceptions about the situations in which we see the behavior of other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop from experience with the same or similar situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation raises expectations about behavior the situation should cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: when two people are introduced, we expect both parties to acknowledge the other and probably to shake hands </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Attribution processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People use attribution processes to explain the causes of behavior they see in others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with a quick personal attribution followed by adjustment based on the characteristics of the situation </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Personal attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the person such as beliefs, disposition, or personality, and not the situation, caused the person's behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: when you conclude that another student spends many hours completing a project because he likes to work hard or values hard work, you are making a personal attribution </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Situational attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects of the situation, not qualities of the person, cause the person's behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a student worked hard because of the reward of a good grade </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Perceiver uses three types of information when forming an attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency information </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Consensus information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe other people in the same or a similar situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If other people show the same behavior as the target person, the situation caused the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If other people behave differently from the target person, the person caused the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Distinctiveness information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe the target person in a different situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the response is different in the new situation, the situation caused the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the response is the same, the person caused the behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Consistency information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe the target person in a similar situation, but at a different time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High consistency: same behavior at both times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low consistency: different behavior at both times </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Combine consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency information to form attribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal attribution: behavior high in consistency; low in consensus and distinctiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational attribution: behavior high in consensus and distinctiveness; low in consistency </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observer underestimates situation as cause of behavior; overestimates the as cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining their behavior: tend to ascribe causes to the situation, not to personal qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining other’s behavior: tend to ascribe its causes to personal qualities, not the situation </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>False consensus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimate the degree to which others agree with the person's view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces the view the perceiver has of another person </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Social Perception: A View of Others (Cont.) <ul><li>Integration of attributions to form final impression: disposition of perceiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of recent experiences: positive or negative event just before meeting someone for the first time can affect the impression of the person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood at time of first meeting: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive impressions in a good mood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative impressions in a bad mood </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Attitudes <ul><li>An attitude is “a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude object : physical objects, issues, ideas, events, people, places </li></ul>
  39. 39. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Parts of an attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive: perceptions and beliefs about an attitude object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective: feelings about an attitude object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral intentions: how the person wants to behave and what a person says about an attitude object </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Common work attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Play a role in employee turnover </li></ul>
  41. 41. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Some connection between attitudes and behavior, although not strong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People with strong attitudes about an object will likely behave in accord with their attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong positive attitudes about Macintosh © computers leads to buying one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ardent followers of Jesse Jackson will likely vote for him </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Attitude formation: affected by the person’s beliefs about an object and the amount and type of information the person has about the object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceives positive attributes: develops positive attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceives negative attributes: develops negative attitude </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Attitude formation (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family upbringing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General social experiences </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Attitude change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something persuades the person to shift his or her attitudes (persuasive communication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms of a social group can affect a person’s attitude (social norms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person becomes uncomfortable with some aspects of her or his beliefs (cognitive dissonance) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Persuasive communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to change cognitive part of attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes affective part will also change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude change process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Win target’s attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand message </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept the influence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the message </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Social influence on attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are embedded in social groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel pressures to conform to norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If person values membership in group, likely will align attitudes with the group norms </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Attitudes (Cont.) <ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold multiple beliefs or cognitions about an attitude object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel tension when discrepancies develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivated to reduce the tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change one or more cognitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other parts of attitude also change </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Personality <ul><li>Set of traits, characteristics, and predispositions of a person </li></ul><ul><li>Usually matures and stabilizes by about age 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Affects how a person adjusts to different environments </li></ul>
  49. 49. Personality Theories <ul><li>Cognitive theory: people develop their thinking patterns as their life unfolds </li></ul><ul><li>Learning theories: behavior patterns develop from the social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Biological theories: personality as genetically inherited </li></ul>
  50. 50. Personality Theories (Cont.) <ul><li>Cognitive theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop thinking patterns as life unfolds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects how the person interprets and internalizes life's events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexive behavior of infant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complex modes of perception and interpretation of events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither driven by instincts nor unwittingly shaped by environmental influences </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Personality Theories (Cont.) <ul><li>Learning theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn behavior from social interaction with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young child: early family socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuously learn from social environment: stable behavior forms the personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniqueness of each personality follows from variability in social experiences </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Personality Theories (Cont.) <ul><li>Biological theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethological theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop common characteristics as a result of evolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral characteristics that have helped survival over generations become inborn characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Personality Theories (Cont.) <ul><li>Biological theories (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual's unique gene structure affects personality development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality develops from interactions between a person's genetic structure and social environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. The Big-Five Personality Dimensions <ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: talkative, sociable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: reserved, introverted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: calm, relaxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: worried, depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: cooperative, tolerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: rude, cold </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. The Big-Five Personality Dimensions (Cont.) <ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: dependable, thorough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: sloppy, careless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Openness to experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High: curious, intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low: simple, conventional </li></ul></ul>Assess yourself on each dimension
  56. 56. Personality Types <ul><li>Locus of control: people control the consequences of their actions or are controlled by external factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External control: luck, fate, or powerful external forces control one’s destiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal control: believe they control what happens to them </li></ul></ul>Assess yourself against each type.
  57. 57. Personality Types (Cont.) <ul><li>Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds cynical views of other people's motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places little value on honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches the world with manipulative intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains distance between self and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally detached from other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspicious interpersonal orientation can contribute to high interpersonal conflict </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Personality Types (Cont.) <ul><li>Machiavellianism (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on personal goals, even if reaching them requires unethical behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspicious orientation leads to view of organizational world as a web of political processes </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Personality Types (Cont.) <ul><li>Type A personality: a keen sense of time urgency, focuses excessively on achievement, aggressive Type B personality: strong self-esteem, even tempered, no sense of time urgency </li></ul>Type A: significant risk factor for coronary heart disease.
  60. 60. Personality Types (Cont.) <ul><li>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular personality assessment device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four bi-polar dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extroverted (E) - introverted (I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing (S) - intuitive (I) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking (T) - feeling (F) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perceiving (P) - judging (J) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns people to one of sixteen types based on these dimensions </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Personality Types (Cont.) <ul><li>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extroverts look outward; introverts turn inward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensers use data; intuitives use hunches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinkers are objective; feelers are subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceivers are flexible; judgers want closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTJ type: extroverted, sensing, thinking, and judging </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality <ul><li>Culturally based stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss: punctual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans: task-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans: energetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who hold these stereotypes experience surprises when they meet people from these countries who do not fit the stereotypes </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Culturally based stereotypes (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project aspects of own culture onto people and situations in a different culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes that the new culture mirrors their own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Korean manager visiting Sweden assumes all women seated behind desks are secretaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such behavior would be inappropriate and possibly dysfunctional in Sweden where many women hold management positions </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Attitudes about organizational design, management, and decision making: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. managers: a hierarchical organizational design helps solve problems and guides the division of labor in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French and Italian managers: a hierarchical design lets people know authority relationships in the organization </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Attitudes (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italian managers: bypassing a manager to reach a subordinate employee is insubordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swedish and Austrian organizations: decentralized decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine and Indian organizations: centralized decision making </li></ul></ul>Conclusion: Organizations that cross national borders and draw managers from many different countries have high conflict potential.
  66. 66. International Aspects of Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People in individualistic cultures (United States) have a stronger need for autonomy than people in group-oriented cultures (Japan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People in cultures that emphasize avoiding uncertainty (Belgium, Peru) have a stronger need for security than people in cultures that are less concerned about avoiding uncertainty (Singapore, Ireland) </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality <ul><li>Stereotypes and workforce diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have inaccurate stereotypes about the ethics of people with different social, racial, and ethnic backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These stereotypes can affect the opinions people develop about the ethical behavior of such people in the workplace </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Self-presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberately managing self-presentations so decisions and behavior appear ethical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited experimental evidence suggests one can favorably manage other people's impressions of their ethical attitudes </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Attribution and accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual responsibility is central to ethical behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution of responsibility to a person: person behaved ethically or unethically </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution of responsibility to the situation: individual not held accountable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: observer believed the person had behaved unethically because of a directive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Errors in attribution: could conclude that he or she was not responsible for an unethical act </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Ethical Issues in Perception, Attitudes, and Personality (Cont.) <ul><li>Ethical attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little reliable and valid information about ethical attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence points to the absence of a fixed set of ethical attitudes among managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes about ethics in organizations and decision making are situational and varying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The morality of behavior and decisions is determined by their social context, not by abstract and absolute rules </li></ul></ul>