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personality and attitude

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Personality and Attitude

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personality and attitude

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Understanding Individual DifferencesThe Concept of PersonalitySources of Personality DifferencesPersonality Structure*Personality and Behavior*The Concept of Attitude*Attitudes and BehaviorJob Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment*Individual Differences and Ethical Behavior*Case: Robert Princeton 1
  2. 2. Robert Princeton Case ProcedureBrief lecture review of chapter slides10 minutes in teams to prepare a team response tothe assigned team questionSpokesperson presents team’s response(maximum time of 1-2 minutes each)Instructor’s comments 2
  3. 3. Robert Princeton Case Questions1. Describe possible sources of personality differences between Robert and Mario. [Slide 5]2. Where on the continuum of the Big Five personality factors would Robert likely fall? [Slide 6]3. Where on the continuum of the Big Five personality factors would Mario likely fall? [Slide 6]4. Characterize Robert and Mario respectively on the specific traits of self- esteem, introversion-extraversion, and dogmatism. [Slide 7]5. How might the effects of work factors at Falls Video be related to Robert’s experience of job satisfaction? [Slide 11]6. What types of management ethics seem to predominate at Falls Video? Why? [Slide 15] 3
  4. 4. Concept of PersonalityDefinition: Personal characteristics that lead to consistentpatterns of behaviorImportant Note*: Personality alone accounts for only 2-12% of the variance in behavior (NOT IN TEXT)Interactionist Perspective*: (p. 48) Note that both theperson and the situation act as significant causes ofbehavior in organizations, thus reinforcing the importanceof properly managing the situations that employees workin. 4
  5. 5. Sources of Personality DifferencesHeredity: Research on the nature-nurture controversy*indicates that about 50% of the variance in personality isinherited, thus setting limits on developmentEnvironment: Shapes at least 50% of personality? Culture Family Group Membership Life Experiences 5
  6. 6. Personality Structure: The “Big Five” Personality Factors* (Each factor is a continuum of many related traits) Adjustment(Stable, confident, effective) (Nervous, self-doubting, moody) Sociability(Gregarious , energetic, self-dramatizing) (Shy, unassertive, withdrawn) Conscientiousness(Planful, neat, dependable) (Impulsive, careless, irresponsible) Agreeableness(Warm, tactful, considerate) (Independent, cold, rude) Intellectual Openness(Imaginative, curious, original) (Dull, unimaginative, literal-minded) 6
  7. 7. Personality and Behavior: Specific Personality Traits* and Their Linkage to the “Big Five”Self-esteem (“self-worth”) is part of adjustmentLocus of control (“fate vs. personal control”) is part ofconscientiousnessIntroversion and extraversion (preference for thinkingvs. interacting--NOT “social skills”) are part of sociabilityDogmatism (generalized rigidity of beliefs) andauthoritarianism (narrower personality type who prefersto follow orders) are part of intellectual opennessREMEMBER: Traits are continua—people may be high,low, or in-between. Most people are in-between! 7
  8. 8. Goal Orientation as a Personality TraitDefinition: The preference for one type of goalversus another. Two orientations are important inunderstanding individual job performance: Learning goal orientation – a predisposition to develop competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations; may be associated with better individual job performance Performance goal orientation – a predisposition to demonstrate and validate competence by seeking favorable judgments from others (e.g., a supervisor) and avoiding negative judgments; may be associated with a “helpless” response pattern and weak performance 8
  9. 9. The Concept of Attitude*Definition: Relatively lasting feelings, beliefs, andbehavior tendencies directed toward specific people,groups, ideas, issues, or objects.Attitudes consist of three components*: AFFECTIVE = feelings COGNITIVE = beliefs BEHAVIORAL = predispositions to act 9
  10. 10. Attitudes and BehaviorAttitudes do not normally predict or causebehavior in a simple and direct wayThree principles relate attitudes to behavior: General attitudes best predict general behaviors Specific attitudes best predict specific behaviors The less time that elapses between attitude measurement and behavior, the more consistent will be the relationship between them 10
  11. 11. Effects of Work Factors on Job Satisfaction* (Def: The general attitude toward a job--NOT directly related to performance, but IS related to turnover, absenteeism, and health)Job satisfaction is enhanced when: Work is challenging and interesting but not tiring. Rewards are equitable and provide feedback. Working conditions match physical needs and promote goal attainment. Self-esteem is high. Others in the organization hold similar views and facilitate reward attainment. Policies and procedures are clear, don’t conflict, and aid goal attainment. 11
  12. 12. Organizational Commitment*Refers to the strength of an employee’s involvement in andidentification with the organizationStrong organizational commitment entails: Strong belief in/acceptance of an organization’s goals and values Willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization Strong desire to maintain membership in the organizationHigher commitment is negatively related to absenteeismand turnover, and positively related to productivity 12
  13. 13. Changes in Organizational Commitment Over Time Initial Commitment is determined by individual characteristics and degree of congruence between their expectations and organizational realities Subsequent Commitment is influenced by job experiences, including many of the same factors which influence job satisfaction (such as pay, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, advancement opportunities, etc.) 13
  14. 14. Ethical Attitudes and BehaviorCharacterized by significant individual differencesPeople are more likely to behave ethically if*: They have reached a higher level of cognitive moral development They possess a high internal locus of control Organizational culture supports and reinforces specific ethical attitudes and behavior 14
  15. 15. Types of Management Ethics*Immoral management Devoid of any ethical principles, characterized by exploitation for corporate or personal gainMoral management Guided by appropriate ethical principlesAmoral management Indifference toward ethical principles, characterized by a lack of awareness of ethical issues 15
  16. 16. Steps for Instilling Moral Management*1. Identify ethical attitudes crucial for the organization’s operations, and use training programs to foster them2. Select employees with desired attitudes3. Incorporate ethics in the performance evaluation process4. Establish a work culture that reinforces ethical attitudes 16