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The Now Wave to the Next Wave: public service delivery in a networked world

Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and FutureGov are working together to research the “now wave” and the “next wave” of web enabled public service delivery." This presentation reports back initial thoughts and findings.

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The Now Wave to the Next Wave: public service delivery in a networked world

  1. 1. From the “now wave” to the “next wave”: public service delivery in a networked world Frontiers of Service in a Networked World" March 2010
  2. 2. Stephen Goldsmith Daniel Paul Professor of Government, Harvard Kennedy School Zach Tumin Executive Director for Leadership for a Networked World , Harvard Kennedy School Dominic Campbell Director, FutureGov Published: March 2010 John F. Kennedy School of Government Images: 79 John F. Kennedy Street Slide 1 Cambridge, MA 02138 Slide 2 Slide 8
  3. 3. “a leap forward in the quality of life in communities will occur more frequently when government opens the door for catalytic social progress sprearheaded by the many...who make changes daily in their communities.  Together these acts can play a part in turning clients of the state into active, participating and productive citizens.”" Stephen Goldsmith, The Power of Social Innovation
  4. 4. about this research" Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and FutureGov are working together to research the “now wave” and the “next wave” of web enabled public service delivery." Today more than ever the prospect (and need) for network-enabled collaborations between governments, citizens, industry and non- governmental organisations is high. No one can go it alone; the costs of services are ever increasing, the influence of governments to control the entire agenda limited, and the need for quality and greater value critical. " Technology and networks open the door to new collaborations, and improved performance.
  5. 5. research focus " Our focus has been on the impact of the web on public service delivery (not democracy per se) and in particular: " - Personalisation of public services" - Co-production and re-design of public services" - Reducing the cost of government, in particular through joining up public service delivery within and across organisations" - New ways of governing in terms of formal governance arrangements but also re-balancing of power between the citizen and the state" - New ways of performance managing / measuring impact and outcomes" - New tools and technologies
  6. 6. about this report" Split into 3 themes, this report provides a view of the now wave of web enabled public service provision as well as a look at the direction of travel of public services 2.0. The report references a combination of tools and approaches, thoughts and examples. It is a conversation starter to provoke discussion, seek additional input and exemplars of best practice, and look beyond traditional forms of public service improvement to one where anything goes.
  7. 7. framing the debate: the power of social innovation " - an idea whose time has come" - global leaders looking for socially generated solutions" - from the big state to the big society
  8. 8. the big debate fix the system" or create a new one" eGov 2.0" WeGov More efficient and effective People powered public government ‘as is’ services redefining the role of government
  9. 9. report themes" - a co-produced government" - a personalised government" - making public services 2.0 happen"
  10. 10. trending topics: “the now wave” - review and reassessment of eGov / web 1.0 useable and accessible for public service delivery" - public service delivery ‘to’ / ‘at’ the citizen with government " - growth in structures and networks to support government employees and social entrepreneurs alike to innovate" - web 2.0 predominantly in use for campaigns, communications and engagement exercises" - emergent experimentation with new technologies and approaches within government and without" - the rise of ‘parallel structures’, creating a new kind of public service through social innovation
  11. 11. trending topics: “the next wave” - meshing the best of web 1.0 with web 2.0 – from transactions to conversations and relationships" - less (government delivery) is more – work with trusted (often micro) third parties as public service partners" - making mass insight meaningful – turning ideas into action" - collaborative customer service and crowdsourced citizen action" - customisation, personalised services and social data" - citizen authentication / identity " - vendor relationship management" - public service design and the citizen centred state mainstreams" - online meets offline: augmenting reality and ending exclusion" - geo-everything" - mobile matters
  12. 12. “Web 2.0 in public services is becoming more structured and is moving from the periphery to the centre of policy debate. Yet it is also clear that web 2.0 initiatives are still exceptional and marginal in the government context, and that progress is too slow so that the gap with web-based innovation is widening, rather than closing up. Governments are not in a position to decide on the direction of this evolution, as progress is being shaped by broader underlying forces such as generational trends and citizens’ expectation. But government can influence the speed and nature of this change, and make sure that it is less traumatic and confrontational, and more shared and inclusive” David Osimo, Public Services 2.0
  13. 13. a co-produced government" “co-production means delivering public services in an equal and reciprocal relationship between professionals, people using services, their families and their neighbours. Where activities are co-produced in this way, both services and neighbourhoods become far more effective agents of change.”" The challenge of co-production, Boyle and Harris. NEF and NESTA, December 2009
  14. 14. five principles for public services 2.0" 1. People are not consumers or users but participants" 2. The financial frameworks for public services will need to change to support greater participation" 3. Participative public services will only work with the support of staff as well as clients " 4. There needs to be a wider market for services created" 5. New measures of success defining standards and outcomes must be developed" Charlie Leadbeater, The User Generated State: Public Services 2.0!
  15. 15. government as a platform for social change and innovation - moving from steering to supporting role - creating the conditions for mutual support, civic enterpreneurialism and innovation
  16. 16. “question the distribution of power at a basic level” (@DanMcQuillan)
  17. 17. so less mob… large public service provider workforces and more flash groups of well organised individuals taking action
  18. 18. social innovation is… “All innovation involves the application of new ideas – or the reapplication of old ideas in new ways – to devise better solutions to our needs. Innovation is invariably a cumulative, collaborative activity in which ideas are shared, tested, refined, developed and applied. Social innovation applies this thinking to social issues: education and health, issues of inequality and inclusion.” Charlie Leadbeater (@wethink) Social enterprise and social innovation: Strategies for the next ten years
  19. 19. from outsourcing partners to crowdsourcing partners – working with social innovators for change" - ‘micro public service uninstitutions’" - work with trusted third party social innovators to deliver public value" - consider and work to the strengths of both government and social innovators" - a wide range of short-term projects solving problems for small groups of people" - government should look to ‘do what you do best, link to the rest’ - Jeff Jarvis
  20. 20. “Even after a bold new idea proves worthwhile, replication or growth depends on how well the idea is disseminated, on how much it receives in new resources or how much it gains from new strategic partners... Social progress requires that they overcome built-in barriers to transform the delivery systems in which they are operating.”" Stephen Goldsmith, The Power of Social Innovation
  21. 21. mainstreaming social innovation " - brought in closer to the heart of government" - beginning to be mainstreamed" - increasingly seen as the ‘big idea’
  22. 22. “From Wikipedia to Craigslist to Amazon to Google, the Web keeps rewarding those actors who empower ordinary users, eliminate wasteful middlemen, share information openly, and shift power from the center to the edges” Micah Sifry, “You can be the eyes and ears”, Open Government, O’Reilly
  23. 23. system world meets life world " - or life world being co-opted by systems world?" - both School of Everything (peer to peer learning platform) and Patient Opinion (reviews and ratings in the health service) are small social enterprises doing deals with major UK government departments" - will these relationships destroy something that is inherently beneficial to the public or will they bring out the best in one another? " - can social innovation thrive without the support of government? + +
  24. 24. “ ‘parallel structures’ do seem to work. You don’t destroy or change what’s there, you just resolutely go about building an alternative.  We’re starting to see the effects of this with the music and newspaper industries – the web has provided a platform for parallel structures and better alternatives have emerged. I think the same could be achieved with public services.  Many of them no longer meet people’s needs, so rather than trying to change government from the inside there is a good chance that building new public services outside of its walls may be the answer. ” " @CarrieBish
  25. 25. parallel structures working in partnership matching donors and doers to community generated curriculum create change and improvement in open sourced and available for all to water and sanitation projects with use Dutch Government
  26. 26. system world stamps on life world " - a delicate relationship for the state to work with the innovators" - system often ill equipped to manage such relationships with networked organisations" - can result in clumsy or anti-innovative practice by government" the case of MyPolice" - – successful emergent innovation playing a useful intermediary role for the state" - – the state knowingly adopts names and a web address more usually associated with the ‘life world’ to mimic and seek to increase trust and engagement with the system +
  27. 27. location, location, location sharing location based intention and activity with open and closed networks enabling connected and personalised services
  28. 28. - it’s big news
  29. 29. hyper-active local communities" - explosion of web based tools to enable citizens to report issues" - less co-production, rather more effective customer services and more efficient reporting for government itself to resolve
  30. 30. collective action for civic outcomes “The web has dramatically reduced the cost of collective action” – Clay Shirky Examples - Ushahidi (developed in Kenya) now being applied in Western context to organise community response to snowmageddon, clearing bus stops of snow - Open street map rapid response to emergency in Haiti
  31. 31. WE.ather - crowd driven self-service - citizens as eyes and ears - #UKSnow crowdsourced weather service
  32. 32. a ‘poke’ to action - people ‘just do it’ with or without government - peer pressure for social good - from meetup to ‘I’m here now come meet!’ - transparency increasing keep up with the joneses effect, with everyone watching each other. Beginning to be harnessed to positive effect.
  33. 33. 3rd eye new ways of accessing information, joining the dots and navigating and contributing to the system
  34. 34. Social Gaming - forming relationships - collaborative education Games for good: explore Games for good: getting Games for good: using and enjoy the city the word out and video games to bring building on existing smart engaging / educating people together and work card infrastructure in people in the work of to tackle real social issues London government
  35. 35. a personalised government! - from eGov (using technology to join up government within itself) to meGov (personalised services centred on/built by the citizen" - reduce the burden placed on the citizen to navigate or understand government structures" - improved efficiency and lower cost" - channel shift, moving offline and other contacts, online
  36. 36. We’ve got a digital gov, it’s just not your’s guv …"
  37. 37. Direct (e)Gov delivers - centralised content and sign-posting driven - far more popular view around the world than in the UK - positives in terms of savings, rationalisation and streamlining process
  38. 38. EU eGov: “declaration of accessible, interactive and customised online public services in Europe by 2015” – Malmo 2009 - empower businesses and citizens through eGovernment services designed around users' needs, better access to information and their active involvement in the policy making process" - facilitate mobility in the single market by seamless eGovernment services for setting up business, for studying, working, residing and retiring in Europe" - enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of government services by reducing the administrative burden, improving organisational processes of administrations and using ICT to improve energy efficiency in public administrations which will result in a greater contribution to a sustainable low-carbon economy
  39. 39. the MyPage project: an example from Norway - see all personal data and transactions in one place - access and analyse personal data
  40. 40. but eGov has had its issues “Put your customers first, for real, not just advertising and lip service.” Craig Newmark, Craigslist
  41. 41. reprogramming the ‘hardwired state’ Hardwired State project – to identify those issues that kill agile and innovative projects and ways of working within the UK government. Officials to look to crack the problems one by one as well as fixing some smaller quick wins as they crop up along the way.
  42. 42. how do we blend the best of web 1.0 and web 2.0?
  43. 43. simple services done the right way - user centred approach - simple quick and easy to develop and use - small tools lightly connected
  44. 44. compare and contrast" powering public service consumer choice
  45. 45. getting satisfied with Gov: collaborative customer service - reducing unnecessary contacts, cutting costs - co-produced customer services with customers able to serve one another, providing more trusted and reliable - government as the convener, trusted third party sites as the platform
  46. 46. growth in efficient and personalised communications with measurable impact - reaching out to where people spend their time online and spending money wisely personalising messages based on preference - benefits of effectiveness and efficiency in engaging people in public service delivery - providing a variety of channels
  47. 47. connecting the on and the offline - web driving more offline interaction - need to link on and offline to better meet people’s diverse needs and move them online over time where appropriate - role of mobile
  48. 48. alternate (reality) customer service " - providing alternative means of accessing services and information" - co-designing the future, designing the future offline online (NHS London Second Health)
  49. 49. making the benefits of the eGov and web 2.0 accessible to all Accessibility as key to widen out now Access to public services 2.0 uneven based on a variety of factors Cost savings will only come once participation is widened Push for 100% web enabled services and force compliance and innovation
  50. 50. mobile everything - key future technology - end to exclusion / barrier to entry
  51. 51. creating truly new ways of governing, influencing and transforming services
  52. 52. networks matter - government as social glue - need for new ways to better understand social trends, norms and networks if government is going to remain relevant and able to help enact behaviour change
  53. 53. Lee Bryant, Headshift Government as a human superorganism Empower individuals to lead and make change
  54. 54. the service design movement
  55. 55. building social capital - build confidence and trust - bridge building role – online and offline mutually reinforcing - lever social value/roi over the medium to long term - invest in social innovation to save of medium to long-term
  56. 56. it takes a village to raise a child… safeguarding 2.0 - using social technology to connect a child’s social graph / network - making the invisible visible, connecting | sharing | aggregating tiny pieces of disparate yet linked and important pieces of information about a child - closing the gap between systems and life worlds, providing professionals and the wider network to provide a narrative of the real world “messiness”
  57. 57. the social data revolution “Today, the online world has shifted to a model of collaboration and explicit data creation. Successful firms develop systematic ways to encourage and reward users who contribute honest data. A good system does not try to trick customers into revealing demographics or contact information that is useful for the company. Rather, it rewards users with information that is useful to them.”" Andreas Weigend, Harvard" - using lessons from consumer sites" - making mass insight meaningful and " using it to good effect" - recommendation engines for " personalisation
  58. 58. offline user centred service design supporting online solutions: the Scottish Government’s ALISS project - providing people with long term health conditions with formal and informal local information all in one place - presenting the user government and community generated data
  59. 59. expert directed self-service " - new (government) professionalism enabled by the web" - from service provider to trusted broker of information" - point of reference, support and guidance
  60. 60. - personal informatics - social data and peer to peer support and comparison - analysis of your own data / know yourself - multiple public service uses EG socialised personal budgets for social care
  61. 61. online identity and citizen authentication: " from e-government to me-government Government 3rd party Citizen at the controlled (CRM) authentication centre (VRM) •  Government owned •  Citizen joins up •  Owns data provider •  Joined up government through 3rd party putting citizen in data from within silos provider control •  EG DirectGov •  EG US Govt approach •  EG Mine! - untested Useful link:
  62. 62. managing ID and personalised access to services through third party suppliers
  63. 63. or vendor relationship management - personal infomatics – do it yourself - originates from the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University - encourages tools that even the relationship between ‘vendors’ and customers - customers share their data on their own terms - organisations get a better view of the customer, which benefits both sides - the relationship between customer and organisation is restored
  64. 64. supporting change – 4 models of innovation for personalisation: 1.  mass Customer Insights 2.  mass Problem Solving 3.  mass Customisation 4.  creating new market places
  65. 65. 1. mass insight - sites as innovations in themselves yet unlikely to ever generate the innovation needed to disrupt and transform public services - important system for gathering customer views to inform innovation - collect mass customer insights, involving analysing web use and ‘chatter’, providing a platform for users to test and review innovations, and identifying ‘lead users’
  66. 66. 2. mass problem solving - allow companies to voice a need for innovation on a specific topic or product and ask a community of innovators like scientists and designers to come up with solutions. - clear intent on the part of an organisation to ensure that an innovation is carried forward
  67. 67. 3. mass customisation - generates constructive customer feedback that can help to deliver incremental changes to products and services that hone and build on existing good practice, while uncovering areas of dissatisfaction with a view to addressing issues - can struggle to be radical enough
  68. 68. 4. creating new markets Disrupting the traditional supply chain and giving individuals the ability to create and distribute their own products and/or services (services less well proven to date).
  69. 69. The change stack •  Making organistional change happen – and stick •  The world is not short of change theory •  But do we have theory fit for public services 2.0 purpose? •  How to open up government to the positive effects of the networked world while mitigating the risks? •  Managed transition or disruptive innovation?
  70. 70. 5 reasons not to embrace change - Dependent on social or networked innovation, which does lacks a sustainable business model - Dependent on behaviour change inside and outside government - Dependent on individuals coming together to act - Dependent on trust and a new take on risk management - Dependent on integrating with government IT and procurement systems
  71. 71. 5 reasons to embrace change - Greater understanding of social needs and wants - Greater relevance - Greater influence and ability to create change - Greater control for people over their own lives - Greater public service value for money, leveraging people power
  72. 72. making public services 2.0 happen – " the big 3 for government leaders" 1. lay the foundations:" digital inclusion, open data, IT infrastructure, technology " 2. foster culture change:" inside and outside of government, ‘be the web’, leadership, role modelling" 3. catalyse and nurture innovation: " competitions, changing models of procurement
  73. 73. laying the infrastructure for web-led change
  74. 74. technology infrastructure - moves globally to develop government cloud computing (Gcloud) to drive efficiency" - US led model at a Federal level with UK adoption recently" - others experimenting outside of Gcloud EG Los Angeles move to Gmail" - rise of the ‘cloud culture’ – Charlie Leadbeater
  75. 75. co(de)-production " - hackers getting in on the act of helping to co-produce for government" - first round of cities now chosen to participate in co-creating " code for government public service provision (code for America)" - efficient and effective, tailored to the needs of the sector
  76. 76. aggregate the work of others and share - use the huge communications and convening power of government to share work of others - potentially act as a trusted point of reference and access point in much the same way that Apple verifies apps for its apps store
  77. 77. there’s a (gov20) app for that - benefits – make best use of government data, provide new ways to access government in user centred way, high return on investment - issues – trust issue re accuracy of information and duplication
  78. 78. measuring impact and improving access to information •  data > dashboards •  new performance management •  empower choice of public service provision •  tooling up citizens to hold government to account directly
  79. 79. improving government’s ability to listen, learn and (re)act appropriately
  80. 80. “innovation rarely comes from big organizations; consider small skunk works”" Craig Newmark, Craigslist
  81. 81. government skunk works Can government create the conditions to innovate from within? What should the focus of government be and how can it best enable others to deliver the rest?
  82. 82. cutting edge consumer collaboration goes corporate -  government employees bringing from the home to the office -  convergence of communications -  enabling real time conversation and collaboration
  83. 83. support platforms for collaboration and change - the importance of social space for innovators inside and outside of government to work together - learning behaviours and new forms of leadership - creating a safe space to share, learn and collaborate
  84. 84. stimulating public services 2.0
  85. 85. create support platforms and ‘go to’ collaborators for social innovation role for interested third party funding bodies working with government, anyone from non-profits to foundations to old media companies and the private sector
  86. 86. take the culture change challenge: “be” the web Open Relaxed Collaborative Transparent Engaging Authentic Sharing Personalised Fun Honest
  87. 87. what comes out of the crash… “is not a return to the past, but after a period of chaos, confusion and pain, there is a period of innovation, usually around institutions and regulation, and these then allow the new technologies to be diffused throughout society, resulting in a period of extraordinary growth.” Geoff Mulgan, Young Foundation