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The Now Wave to the Next Wave: public service delivery in a networked world
Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and FutureGov are working together to research the “now wave” and the “next wave” of web enabled public service delivery." This presentation reports back initial thoughts and findings.
The Now Wave to the Next Wave: public service delivery in a networked world
From the “now wave” to
the “next wave”: public
service delivery in a
Frontiers of Service in a
Daniel Paul Professor of Government, Harvard Kennedy School
Executive Director for Leadership for a Networked World , Harvard Kennedy School
Director, FutureGov www.futuregovconsultancy.com
Published: March 2010
John F. Kennedy School of Government Images:
79 John F. Kennedy Street Slide 1 http://bit.ly/azhGEb
Cambridge, MA 02138 Slide 2 http://bit.ly/cLa4Oy
www.hks.harvard.edu Slide 8 http://bit.ly/ds4eGn
“a leap forward in the quality of life in
communities will occur more frequently when
government opens the door for catalytic social
progress sprearheaded by the many...who
make changes daily in their communities.
Together these acts can play a part in turning
clients of the state into active, participating
and productive citizens.”"
Stephen Goldsmith, The Power of Social Innovation
about this research"
Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and FutureGov are
working together to research the “now wave” and the “next wave” of
web enabled public service delivery."
Today more than ever the prospect (and need) for network-enabled
collaborations between governments, citizens, industry and non-
governmental organisations is high. No one can go it alone; the costs
of services are ever increasing, the inﬂuence of governments to
control the entire agenda limited, and the need for quality and greater
Technology and networks open the door to new collaborations, and
research focus "
Our focus has been on the impact of the web on public service
delivery (not democracy per se) and in particular:
Personalisation of public services"
Co-production and re-design of public services"
Reducing the cost of government, in particular through joining up
public service delivery within and across organisations"
New ways of governing in terms of formal governance
arrangements but also re-balancing of power between the citizen
and the state"
New ways of performance managing / measuring impact and
New tools and technologies
about this report"
Split into 3 themes, this report provides a view of the now wave
of web enabled public service provision as well as a look at the
direction of travel of public services 2.0. The report references a
combination of tools and approaches, thoughts and examples. It
is a conversation starter to provoke discussion, seek additional
input and exemplars of best practice, and look beyond
traditional forms of public service improvement to one where
framing the debate:
the power of social
an idea whose time has
global leaders looking
for socially generated
from the big state to the
the big debate
ﬁx the system" or
create a new one"
eGov 2.0" WeGov
More efﬁcient and effective People powered public
government ‘as is’
services redeﬁning the role of
a co-produced government"
a personalised government"
making public services 2.0 happen"
trending topics: “the now wave”
review and reassessment of eGov / web 1.0 useable and accessible for
public service delivery"
public service delivery ‘to’ / ‘at’ the citizen with government "
growth in structures and networks to support government
employees and social entrepreneurs alike to innovate"
web 2.0 predominantly in use for campaigns, communications and
emergent experimentation with new technologies and approaches
within government and without"
the rise of ‘parallel structures’, creating a new kind of public service
through social innovation
trending topics: “the next wave”
meshing the best of web 1.0 with web 2.0 – from transactions to
conversations and relationships"
less (government delivery) is more – work with trusted (often micro)
third parties as public service partners"
making mass insight meaningful – turning ideas into action"
collaborative customer service and crowdsourced citizen action"
customisation, personalised services and social data"
citizen authentication / identity "
vendor relationship management"
public service design and the citizen centred state mainstreams"
online meets ofﬂine: augmenting reality and ending exclusion"
“Web 2.0 in public services is becoming more structured and is
moving from the periphery to the centre of policy debate. Yet it
is also clear that web 2.0 initiatives are still exceptional and
marginal in the government context, and that progress is too
slow so that the gap with web-based innovation is widening,
rather than closing up.
Governments are not in a position to decide on the direction of
this evolution, as progress is being shaped by broader
underlying forces such as generational trends and citizens’
expectation. But government can influence the speed and
nature of this change, and make sure that it is less traumatic
and confrontational, and more shared and inclusive”
David Osimo, Public Services 2.0
a co-produced government"
“co-production means delivering public services in an equal
and reciprocal relationship between professionals, people
using services, their families and their neighbours. Where
activities are co-produced in this way, both services and
neighbourhoods become far more effective agents of
The challenge of co-production, Boyle and Harris. NEF and NESTA, December 2009
ﬁve principles for public services 2.0"
People are not consumers or users but participants"
The ﬁnancial frameworks for public services will need to
change to support greater participation"
Participative public services will only work with the
support of staff as well as clients "
There needs to be a wider market for services created"
New measures of success deﬁning standards and
outcomes must be developed"
Charlie Leadbeater, The User Generated State: Public Services 2.0!
government as a platform for social change
moving from steering to supporting role
creating the conditions for mutual support, civic
enterpreneurialism and innovation
“question the distribution of power at
a basic level” (@DanMcQuillan)
so less mob…
large public service provider
and more ﬂash
groups of well organised
individuals taking action
social innovation is…
“All innovation involves the application of new
ideas – or the reapplication of old ideas in new
ways – to devise better solutions to our needs.
Innovation is invariably a cumulative,
collaborative activity in which ideas are shared,
tested, reﬁned, developed and applied. Social
innovation applies this thinking to social issues:
education and health, issues of inequality and
Charlie Leadbeater (@wethink)
Social enterprise and social innovation: Strategies for the next ten years
from outsourcing partners to crowdsourcing partners –
working with social innovators for change"
- ‘micro public service uninstitutions’"
- work with trusted third party social innovators to deliver public value"
- consider and work to the strengths of both government and social innovators"
- a wide range of short-term projects solving problems for small groups of people"
- government should look to ‘do what you do best, link to the rest’ - Jeff Jarvis
“Even after a bold new idea proves worthwhile,
replication or growth depends on how well the
idea is disseminated, on how much it receives
in new resources or how much it gains from
new strategic partners... Social progress
requires that they overcome built-in barriers to
transform the delivery systems in which they
Stephen Goldsmith, The Power of Social Innovation
mainstreaming social innovation "
- brought in closer to the heart of government"
- beginning to be mainstreamed"
- increasingly seen as the ‘big idea’
“From Wikipedia to Craigslist to Amazon to
Google, the Web keeps rewarding those actors
who empower ordinary users, eliminate wasteful
middlemen, share information openly, and shift
power from the center to the edges”
Sifry, “You can be the eyes and ears”, Open Government, O’Reilly
system world meets life world "
or life world being co-opted by systems world?"
both School of Everything (peer to peer learning platform) and Patient
Opinion (reviews and ratings in the health service) are small social
enterprises doing deals with major UK government departments"
will these relationships destroy something that is inherently beneﬁcial to
the public or will they bring out the best in one another? "
can social innovation thrive without the support of government?
“ ‘parallel structures’ do seem to work. You don’t destroy or change
what’s there, you just resolutely go about building an alternative.
We’re starting to see the effects of this with the music and
newspaper industries – the web has provided a platform for parallel
structures and better alternatives have emerged. I think the same
could be achieved with public services. Many of them no longer
meet people’s needs, so rather than trying to change government
from the inside there is a good chance that building new public
services outside of its walls may be the answer. ”
parallel structures working in partnership
matching donors and doers to
community generated curriculum
create change and improvement in
open sourced and available for all to
water and sanitation projects with
system world stamps on life world "
a delicate relationship for the state to work with the innovators"
system often ill equipped to manage such relationships with
can result in clumsy or anti-innovative practice by government"
the case of MyPolice"
MyPolice.org – successful emergent innovation playing a useful
intermediary role for the state"
MyPolice.org.uk – the state knowingly adopts names and a web
address more usually associated with the ‘life world’ to mimic and seek
to increase trust and engagement with the system
location, location, location
sharing location based intention and
activity with open and closed networks
enabling connected and personalised
hyper-active local communities"
explosion of web based tools to enable citizens to report issues"
less co-production, rather more effective customer services and
more efﬁcient reporting for government itself to resolve
collective action for civic outcomes
“The web has dramatically reduced the cost of collective action” – Clay Shirky
Ushahidi (developed in Kenya) now being applied in Western context to organise
community response to snowmageddon, clearing bus stops of snow
Open street map rapid response to emergency in Haiti
crowd driven self-service
citizens as eyes and ears
#UKSnow crowdsourced weather service
a ‘poke’ to action
people ‘just do it’ with or without government
peer pressure for social good
from meetup to ‘I’m here now come meet!’
transparency increasing keep up with the joneses effect, with everyone
watching each other. Beginning to be harnessed to positive effect.
new ways of accessing information, joining
the dots and navigating and contributing to
- forming relationships
- collaborative education
Games for good: explore Games for good: getting
Games for good: using
and enjoy the city the word out and
video games to bring
building on existing smart engaging / educating
people together and work
card infrastructure in people in the work of
to tackle real social issues
a personalised government!
from eGov (using technology to join up government within
itself) to meGov (personalised services centred on/built by
reduce the burden placed on the citizen to navigate or
understand government structures"
improved efﬁciency and lower cost"
channel shift, moving ofﬂine and other contacts, online
We’ve got a digital gov, it’s just not
your’s guv …"
Direct (e)Gov delivers
centralised content and sign-posting driven
far more popular view around the world than in the UK
positives in terms of savings, rationalisation and streamlining process
EU eGov: “declaration of accessible, interactive and
customised online public services in Europe by
2015” – Malmo 2009
empower businesses and citizens through eGovernment services
designed around users' needs, better access to information and
their active involvement in the policy making process"
facilitate mobility in the single market by seamless eGovernment
services for setting up business, for studying, working, residing
and retiring in Europe"
enhance the effectiveness and efﬁciency of government services
by reducing the administrative burden, improving organisational
processes of administrations and using ICT to improve energy
efﬁciency in public administrations which will result in a greater
contribution to a sustainable low-carbon economy
the MyPage project: an example from Norway
- see all personal data and transactions in one place
- access and analyse personal data
but eGov has had its issues
“Put your customers ﬁrst, for real, not just advertising and lip service.”
Craig Newmark, Craigslist
Hardwired State project –
to identify those issues that kill agile
and innovative projects and ways of
working within the UK government.
Ofﬁcials to look to crack the problems
one by one as well as ﬁxing some
smaller quick wins as they crop up
along the way.
how do we blend the
best of web 1.0 and web
simple services done the right way
user centred approach
simple quick and easy to develop and use
small tools lightly connected
compare and contrast"
powering public service consumer choice
getting satisﬁed with Gov: collaborative customer
reducing unnecessary contacts, cutting costs
co-produced customer services with customers able to serve one another,
providing more trusted and reliable
government as the convener, trusted third party sites as the platform
growth in efficient and
- reaching out to where people
spend their time online and
spending money wisely
based on preference
- benefits of effectiveness and
efficiency in engaging people
in public service delivery
- providing a variety of
connecting the on and the
web driving more ofﬂine
need to link on and ofﬂine to
better meet people’s diverse
needs and move them online
over time where appropriate
role of mobile
alternate (reality) customer
providing alternative means of accessing
services and information"
co-designing the future, designing the future
ofﬂine online (NHS London Second Health)
making the beneﬁts of the eGov and web 2.0
accessible to all
Accessibility as key to widen out now
Access to public services 2.0 uneven based on a
variety of factors
Cost savings will only come once participation is
Push for 100% web enabled services and force
compliance and innovation
- key future technology
- end to exclusion / barrier to entry
creating truly new ways
of governing, inﬂuencing
- government as social glue
- need for new ways to better
understand social trends, norms and
networks if government is going to
remain relevant and able to help enact
Government as a human superorganism
Empower individuals to lead and make change
building social capital
build conﬁdence and trust
bridge building role – online and ofﬂine mutually reinforcing
lever social value/roi over the medium to long term
invest in social innovation to save of medium to long-term
it takes a village to raise a child… safeguarding 2.0
using social technology to connect a child’s social graph / network
making the invisible visible, connecting | sharing | aggregating tiny pieces of
disparate yet linked and important pieces of information about a child
closing the gap between systems and life worlds, providing professionals and the
wider network to provide a narrative of the real world “messiness”
the social data revolution
“Today, the online world has shifted to a model of collaboration and explicit data
creation. Successful ﬁrms develop systematic ways to encourage and reward
users who contribute honest data. A good system does not try to trick
customers into revealing demographics or contact information that is useful for
the company. Rather, it rewards users with information that is useful to them.”"
Andreas Weigend, Harvard"
using lessons from consumer sites"
making mass insight meaningful and "
using it to good effect"
recommendation engines for "
offline user centred service design
supporting online solutions: the
Scottish Government’s ALISS project
- providing people with long term health
conditions with formal and informal local
information all in one place
- presenting the user government and
community generated data
expert directed self-service "
new (government) professionalism enabled by the web"
from service provider to trusted broker of information"
point of reference, support and guidance
- personal informatics
- social data and peer to peer support and comparison
- analysis of your own data / know yourself
- multiple public service uses EG socialised personal budgets for social care
online identity and citizen authentication: "
from e-government to me-government
Government 3rd party Citizen at the
• Government owned
• Citizen joins up • Owns data provider
• Joined up government through 3rd party putting citizen in
data from within silos
• EG DirectGov
• EG US Govt approach
• EG Mine! - untested
Useful link: http://blogs.hbr.org/now-new-next/2009/05/the-social-data-revolution.html
managing ID and personalised access to
services through third party suppliers
or vendor relationship management
personal infomatics – do it yourself
originates from the Berkman Center for Internet & Society
at Harvard University
encourages tools that even the relationship between
‘vendors’ and customers
customers share their data on their own terms
organisations get a better view of the customer, which
beneﬁts both sides
the relationship between customer and organisation is
supporting change – 4 models of
innovation for personalisation:
1. mass Customer Insights
2. mass Problem Solving
3. mass Customisation
4. creating new market places
1. mass insight
- sites as innovations in themselves yet unlikely to ever generate the innovation
needed to disrupt and transform public services
- important system for gathering customer views to inform innovation
- collect mass customer insights, involving analysing web use and ‘chatter’,
providing a platform for users to test and review innovations, and identifying
2. mass problem solving
- allow companies to voice a need for innovation on a specific topic or
product and ask a community of innovators like scientists and designers to
come up with solutions.
- clear intent on the part of an organisation to ensure that an innovation is
3. mass customisation
- generates constructive customer feedback that can help to deliver
incremental changes to products and services that hone and build on
existing good practice, while uncovering areas of dissatisfaction with a
view to addressing issues
- can struggle to be radical enough
4. creating new markets
Disrupting the traditional supply chain and giving individuals the ability to
create and distribute their own products and/or services (services less well
proven to date).
• Making organistional
change happen – and
• The world is not short
of change theory
• But do we have theory
ﬁt for public services
• How to open up
government to the
positive effects of the
networked world while
mitigating the risks?
• Managed transition or
5 reasons not to embrace change
- Dependent on social or networked innovation, which does lacks a
sustainable business model
- Dependent on behaviour change inside and outside government
- Dependent on individuals coming together to act
- Dependent on trust and a new take on risk management
- Dependent on integrating with government IT and procurement
5 reasons to embrace change
- Greater understanding of social needs and wants
- Greater relevance
- Greater influence and ability to create change
- Greater control for people over their own lives
- Greater public service value for money, leveraging people power
making public services 2.0 happen – "
the big 3 for government leaders"
lay the foundations:"
digital inclusion, open data, IT infrastructure,
foster culture change:"
inside and outside of government, ‘be the web’,
leadership, role modelling"
catalyse and nurture innovation: "
competitions, changing models of procurement
moves globally to develop government
cloud computing (Gcloud) to drive
US led model at a Federal level with UK
others experimenting outside of Gcloud
EG Los Angeles move to Gmail"
rise of the ‘cloud culture’ – Charlie
hackers getting in on the act of helping to co-produce for
ﬁrst round of cities now chosen to participate in co-creating
code for government public service provision (code for America)"
efﬁcient and effective, tailored to the needs of the sector
aggregate the work of others and share
- use the huge communications and convening power of government to
share work of others
- potentially act as a trusted point of reference and access point in much the
same way that Apple verifies apps for its apps store
there’s a (gov20) app for that
- benefits – make best use of government data, provide new ways to
access government in user centred way, high return on investment
- issues – trust issue re accuracy of information and duplication
measuring impact and
improving access to
• data > dashboards
• new performance management
• empower choice of public service
• tooling up citizens to hold
government to account directly
improving government’s ability to listen, learn
and (re)act appropriately
“innovation rarely comes from big
organizations; consider small skunk
Craig Newmark, Craigslist
create the conditions
to innovate from
What should the focus
of government be and
how can it best enable
others to deliver the
cutting edge consumer collaboration goes corporate
- government employees bringing from the home to the ofﬁce
- convergence of communications
- enabling real time conversation and collaboration
support platforms for collaboration and change
the importance of social space for innovators inside and outside of government
to work together
learning behaviours and new forms of leadership
creating a safe space to share, learn and collaborate
create support platforms and ‘go to’
collaborators for social innovation
role for interested third party funding bodies working with government,
anyone from non-proﬁts to foundations to old media companies and the
take the culture change challenge:
“be” the web
what comes out of the crash…
“is not a return to the past, but after a
period of chaos, confusion and pain, there
is a period of innovation, usually around
institutions and regulation, and these then
allow the new technologies to be diffused
throughout society, resulting in a period of
Geoff Mulgan, Young Foundation