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The class of verb & verb phrases, presentation 7

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The class of verb & verb phrases, presentation 7

  1. 1. LANE 334 -EA: Syntax 2011 – Term 2The Class of Verb & 7The Verb Phrase By: Shadia Y. Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 1
  2. 2. VERBS Lexical: – eat, walk, write, give, dream, jump Auxiliary: – be, have, do, may, can, willDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2
  3. 3. Subtypes of lexical verbs Copula verbs: 1 participant, 1 attribute Mary is pretty. Intransitive verbs: 1 participant [Mary] is running. Transitive verbs: at least 2 participants [Mary] likes [cats].Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 3
  4. 4. Transitive Verbs • (mono)transitive: John ate the apple. • ditransitive: I gave John an apple. • complex transitive Sub. V. DO. OC • We consider him our boss. • We wiped the table clean. • We elected him president. • She called me a liar.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4
  5. 5. SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF VPs revolve around their verb. Of the obligatory elements in a sentence, the main verb isthe one that wholly or largely determines what form the rest ofthe structure will take. This means that, in technical terms, a sentence is a verbalexpansion, and the VP is its head, with all the other phrasessomehow subordinate to it. Verbs are the words that hold sentences together. Eventhough it is not difficult to find a verbless sentence, thedefinition of the unit ‘sentence’ requires the existence of a verbin every sentence.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 5
  6. 6. The unit sentence can be divided into two elements: Subject + Predicate. subject Noun Phrase Sentence predicate Verb PhraseDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6
  7. 7. Tree Diagram The girl chased the dog.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7
  8. 8. SENTENCE STRUCTURE Form + a { } with an [ ] the girl in first position and a [ ] in whichthe ( ) chased has another ( ) the dog attached to it. The first [ ] functions as a SUBJECT, the [ ] functions as a PREDICATE, in which, the ( ) functionsas a PREDICATOR and the last ( ) functions as a DIRECT OBJECT. Until this moment, we have been dealing with a SENTENCESTRUCTURE: Form + ( ). Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 8
  9. 9. If we analyze the same expression by its meaning structure, we willget a PROPOSITION. Imagine this simple analysis: the unit sentence can be divided into two elements: a Head,which is realised by a , and the rest of the dependents. The may have more than one dependent. The two most important dependents are theSubject and the Object, which are normally realized by . Apart from their different syntactic function and semantic role,Subjects and Objects differ in their position: (Subjects usually complement VPs in pre-position,whereas Objects usually appear in post-position), and in their relation to (Subjects but not Complements control forms, like in John likes Mary/People like Mary vs. John likesMary/John likes people). Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 9
  10. 10. have usually been classified according to thenumber and type of Objects and Complements thatfollow particular verbs into intensive and extensive verbs. VERBS INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 10
  11. 11. Intensive verbs are those that require a SubjectComplement or a Predication Adjunct. Examples: Jane seemed restless. The kitchen is downstairs. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 11
  12. 12. are subclassified intointransitive and transitive verbs. intransitive transitiveDr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 12
  13. 13. are verbs that do not need any Objector Complement. Semantically, only one participant isinvolved in the action expressed by the verb. Example: Even after the sun vanished, amazement continued. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13
  14. 14. In contrast, transitive verbs are verbs that do need some Object orComplement. They can be subclassified according to the numberand type of Objects and Complements they can take in as: Monotransitive verbs , Ditransitive verbs , and Complextransitive verbs. Monotransitive Verbs Transitive Verbs Ditransitive Verbs Complextransitive Verbs Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14
  15. 15. -Monotransitive verbs are those verbs that take one Object. -Example: - I saw your picture in the paper here just last week. -Ditransitive verbs are those verbs that take two Objects, a Direct and Indirect Object; -Example: -Mary sent me a card. -or a Direct and a Predicator Object; Example: I encouraged the English boy to move in one evening after he had taken me to a pub. -Complextransitive verbs are those verbs that take one Object and an Object Complement; -Example: -Nicole appointed him a fellow of the Shakespeare Institute in 1953. -or an Object and an Adverbial Complement; -Example: Daniel put the book on the table.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15
  16. 16. As can be seen, Subjects and Complements (Objects, SubjectComplements, Predication Adjuncts and Adverbials) modify andcomplement the meaning of the verb.John has been eating crisps all the morning,the meaning of EAT is modified by the following elements:- the Subject, which specifies the agent of the action (it is John and notany other person who has been eating),- the Direct Object, which specifies the patient of the action (it is crispsand not anything else that John has been eating),- the Adverbial, which specifies the time when the action took place (ithas been all this morning and not yesterday evening).These modifications are syntactic and external. They are realised byanother type of phrases (NPs in our example). They clearly contrastwith the way tense and number (-s), phase (have –en) and aspect (be–ing) modify the meaning of EAT. Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16
  17. 17. PREPOSITIONAL VERBS A prepositional verb consists of a verb and a preposition. Examples: •call on, • care for and •insist on.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17
  18. 18. phrasal verbs A phrasal verb is a complex verb consisting of a simple verb and an adverb particle. Examples: make up, turn on, put away, take off, fill up, run over, take in and do up. Note that phrasal verbs are different from prepositional verbs.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18
  19. 19. PHRASAL VERB AND PREPOSITIONAL VERB: DIFFERENCES A prepositional verb differs from a phrasal verb in many ways. 1) The particle in a phrasal verb is always stressed, but the preposition in a prepositional verb is not stressed.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 19
  20. 20. 2) Phrasal verbs are separable. That is the particle in a phrasal verb can be moved to the end. Prepositional verbs, on the other hand, are inseparable. Examples with phrasal verbs: They called up the teacher OR They called the teacher up. I picked John up. OR I picked up John. He filled the glass up. OR He filled up the glass. She turned the lights on. OR She turned on the lights. Note: The particle in the phrasal verb can be moved to the end. Examples with prepositional verbs: We called on the teacher. (BUT NOT We called the teacher on.) We called on them. BUT NOT We called them on. Note:The preposition in a prepositional verb cannot be moved to the end.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20
  21. 21. 3) You cannot put an adverb between the verb and the particle of aphrasal verb, but you can put an adverb between the verb and thepreposition of a prepositional verb.Examples:We called early on the doctor. BUT NOT We called early up the doctor.The adverb early can come between the verb called and the prepositionon in the prepositional verb called on. But it cannot come between calledand up.When to separate a phrasal verb?A Phrasal verb can remain together when its object is a noun or nounphrase. Note that phrasal verbs must be separated when the object is a pronoun.We called them up. BUT NOT We called up them.(Here the object of the phrasal verb is a pronoun.) Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 21
  22. 22. prepositional She is This is verbs are looking after possible. inseparable the baby. She is This is not looking the possible. baby after.Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22