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Strychnos nux vomica
1. Strychnine (seeds)
2. Brucine (seeds, root, stems, leaves)
– Strychnine is over 10 times more pote...
Strychnine
Morphology of Strychnos nux vomica
Molecular structure of strychnine
C21H22O2N
Common names- Kuchila, Kuchla
1/...
Seeds of nux vomica
 Circular (sometimes flat/biconvex)
 2 cm in diameter & 0.5 cm in thickness
 Very tough testa with ...
Signs & symptoms of strychnine
poisoning
• Intact seed doesn't cause any symptoms
• Crushed seed may cause signs & symptom...
Medicolegal aspects
• Poisoning is usually accidental either due
overdose or contamination by rat poison or by
accidental ...
Extraction
• Strychnine & brucine are alkaloids and are extracted
with basic chloroform extraction technique.
• Brucine in...
Colour Tests
• Mandelin’s Test: for strychnine
– one drop of Mandelin’s reagent (1% solution of ammonium
vandate in conc H...
Microcrystal Tests For Strychnine
Reagent Type/shape of crystal
Gold chloride Feathery rosettes
Potassium mercuric iodide ...
TLC of Strychnos nux vomica
 Solvent systems:
1. Methanol : Ammonia :: 100 : 1.5
2. Cyclohexane : Chloroform : Diethylami...
UV & IR Spectrometry
• After purification by TLC the elution is made with
chloroform (2 ml) and is evaporated to dryness
–...
• Spray Reagent:
1. Dragendorff’s reagent – orange/red coloured
spots
2. Acidified potassium iodoplatinate – violet/blue
v...
GC of nux vomica
• Methanolic solution of purified extracted
residue is injected to GC column of 6’x4mm
(ID) with 2-3/100 ...
Aconitum napellus
• Common Names:
– Aconite, Monk’s Hood, Wolfs bane, Blue Rocket, Mitha
Zahar, Dudhia Bish, Bikh, Mithabi...
Aconitum variegatum Aconitum napellus
1/21/2015 14saurabh bhargava
Poisonous Parts of Aconitum
• Part of plant which carries the active
components:
– Dried root is most poisonous part howev...
Sign & Symptoms
• Bitter sweet taste (hence ‘mithabish’)
• Causes tingling and numbness of oral cavity and limbs
• Constri...
Post mortem Appearances
• Pallor of mucus membrane of mouth
• Congestion of brain, lungs, liver and kidneys
• Mucus membra...
Medicolegal Aspects
• Ideal homicidal (easily available, cheap,
certainity of death, no specific antidote,
decomposes quic...
Colour Tests
• Palet’s Test:
– To the acidified extract residue is added a few drops of
mixture of 25 gm syrupy phosphoric...
TLC of Aconitine
• Solvent system:
1. Methanol : Water :: 70 : 30
2. Cyclohexane : Chloroform : Diethylamine :::30:70:0.5
...
UV and IR Spectrometry
• UV Spectrophotometry:
– After purification and elution from TLC plate the
elute is evaporated to ...
Dhatura fastuosa
• Dhatura plants are abundant in India.
• Dhatura stramonium is found in Himalayan regions
• Dhatura fast...
Morphology of Dhatura
• Fruit of Dhatura is commonly known as
“Thorn Apple” as it is a spherical shaped fruit
having multi...
Active Principles
1. Hyoscine
2. Hyoscyamine
3. Atropine
• Fatal dose:
 Atropine – 50-60mg
 Hyoscine – 10 mg
 Seeds – m...
Mode of Action
• Both atropine & hyoscine block the
acetylcholine receptors and thus resulting in
sympathomimetic or paras...
Signs & Symptoms
• Bitter taste
• Dried mouth (xerostomia), difficulty in speech and
swallowing
• Skin is dry and hot. Fac...
Medicolegal Aspects
• Used as stupefying agent in highway robbery,
rapes and kidnappings
• Quackery abortions
• Adulterant...
Post-mortem Appearance
• Signs of asphyxia
• Congested organs
• Fragments of dhatura seeds in stomach
1/21/2015 28saurabh ...
Tests for Dhatura fastuosa
1. A drop of the stomach content extract, if applied in a rabbit’s
eye, there will be an instan...
TLC of Dhatura fastuosa
• Solvent system:
1. Methanol (70) : water (30)
2. Cyclohexane (75) : chloroform (40) : Diethylami...
UV & IR Data of Dhatura fastuosa
• UV Spectrophotometry:
• Principal peaks in IR (sample in KBr disc)
Active principle Med...
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Strychnine nux vomica

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strychnine, aconitine & atrpine

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Strychnine nux vomica

  1. 1. Strychnos nux vomica 1. Strychnine (seeds) 2. Brucine (seeds, root, stems, leaves) – Strychnine is over 10 times more potent than brucine however it makes up only 1% of the ripe seed of the Strychnine nux vomica. 1/21/2015 1saurabh bhargava
  2. 2. Strychnine Morphology of Strychnos nux vomica Molecular structure of strychnine C21H22O2N Common names- Kuchila, Kuchla 1/21/2015 2saurabh bhargava
  3. 3. Seeds of nux vomica  Circular (sometimes flat/biconvex)  2 cm in diameter & 0.5 cm in thickness  Very tough testa with very fine, short silky fibres  Odourless  Bitter taste – Fatal dose – 1-2 seed or 30-100 mg – Fatal period – 30 minutes to 2 days maximum 1/21/2015 3saurabh bhargava
  4. 4. Signs & symptoms of strychnine poisoning • Intact seed doesn't cause any symptoms • Crushed seed may cause signs & symptoms within 15-30 minutes- – Anxious & restlessness (mainly due to increased CNS activity) – Sensations become acute – Respiration & circulation are slightly stimulated – Blood stained froth, cyanosis – Twitching & tremors of the muscles – Colonic convulsions with gradual increase in contractions – Severe convulsions may cause opisthotonous position & risus sardonicus • Death may occur due to respiratory/circulatory failure during a prolonged convulsion 1/21/2015 4saurabh bhargava
  5. 5. Medicolegal aspects • Poisoning is usually accidental either due overdose or contamination by rat poison or by accidental consumption (usually by children) of seeds of nux vomica. • Suicidal poisoning may occur due to rat poison • Homicidal use is rare • Used as abortificient • Used as tribal arrow poison 1/21/2015 5saurabh bhargava
  6. 6. Extraction • Strychnine & brucine are alkaloids and are extracted with basic chloroform extraction technique. • Brucine interferes with tests for strychnine so separation of strychnine from brucine is mandatory. – The chloroform extract is dried and 2 ml of H2SO4 is added followed by 2 drops of HNO3. – Allowed to stand for 30-60 minutes @ 10-200C. – Then made alkaline with NaOH and extracted several times with chloroform. – This chloroform is washed & evaporated to dryness. – The residue is now brucine free and tested for strychnine. 1/21/2015 6saurabh bhargava
  7. 7. Colour Tests • Mandelin’s Test: for strychnine – one drop of Mandelin’s reagent (1% solution of ammonium vandate in conc H2SO4) is added to brucine free extract. – Deep violet-blue or deep purple colour appears which finally changes to yellow on long standing. • Nitric Acid Test: for brucine – To dried residue of extract is added one drop of conc HNO3. – A blood red colour appears which changes to reddish yellow and finally to pure yellow. – Few drops of stannous chloride is added which causes development of intense purple colour which is destroyed by addition of few drops of conc HNO3 1/21/2015 7saurabh bhargava
  8. 8. Microcrystal Tests For Strychnine Reagent Type/shape of crystal Gold chloride Feathery rosettes Potassium mercuric iodide Wedge shaped curved crystal or Curved ferns Mercuric chloride Nail shaped crystal 1/21/2015 8saurabh bhargava
  9. 9. TLC of Strychnos nux vomica  Solvent systems: 1. Methanol : Ammonia :: 100 : 1.5 2. Cyclohexane : Chloroform : Diethylamine ::: 25 : 10 : 1 ACTIVE COMPONENT hRf in solvent sys 1 hRf in solvent sys 2 Strychnine 22 38 Brucine 28 18 Spray reagent: •Dragendorff’s reagent (orange/red colour spots) •Acidified potassium iodoplatinate (violet/blue or brown violet coloured spot) 1/21/2015 9saurabh bhargava
  10. 10. UV & IR Spectrometry • After purification by TLC the elution is made with chloroform (2 ml) and is evaporated to dryness – The residue is then dissolved in 2 ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 and studied in an UV spectrophotometer using 1 cm cell from 220-320 nm wavelength: – UV (λmax in nm): aqu acid - 254 – Absorption curve is then compared with that of control strychnine • Principal peaks in IR spectrum: – 1664, 764, 1050, 1110, 1282 1/21/2015 10saurabh bhargava
  11. 11. • Spray Reagent: 1. Dragendorff’s reagent – orange/red coloured spots 2. Acidified potassium iodoplatinate – violet/blue violet/ brown violet coloured spot 1/21/2015 11saurabh bhargava
  12. 12. GC of nux vomica • Methanolic solution of purified extracted residue is injected to GC column of 6’x4mm (ID) with 2-3/100 SE-30 on chromosorb W, @pressure 15 psi & temp 2220C.. Retention time for strychnine – 25.9 Retention time for brucine – 80.0 1/21/2015 12saurabh bhargava
  13. 13. Aconitum napellus • Common Names: – Aconite, Monk’s Hood, Wolfs bane, Blue Rocket, Mitha Zahar, Dudhia Bish, Bikh, Mithabish • Active component: Aconine (C34N49NO22) 1. Aconitine (acetyl benzoyl-aconine) 2. Picraconitine (benzoyl-aconine) 3. Bikhaconitine & indaconitine in traces 1/21/2015 13saurabh bhargava
  14. 14. Aconitum variegatum Aconitum napellus 1/21/2015 14saurabh bhargava
  15. 15. Poisonous Parts of Aconitum • Part of plant which carries the active components: – Dried root is most poisonous part however all parts of plant are poisonous. • Identification of root: – Conical in shape like monk’s hood – Usual length is 2”-4” with base diameter of around 1” – May be confused with horse-radish – Causes tingling, numbness of tongue & lips when tasted 1/21/2015 15saurabh bhargava
  16. 16. Sign & Symptoms • Bitter sweet taste (hence ‘mithabish’) • Causes tingling and numbness of oral cavity and limbs • Constriction of throat • Pain in abdomen with nausea and vomiting • Paralysis of peripheral terminations • Impaired hearing and vision • Hippus reaction in pupils • Circulatory collapse/respiration failure may leads to unconsciousness followed by death • Fatal dose: – 1 gm of root or – 25o mg of extract or – 2-6 mg aconitine • Fatal period: – 45 minutes to 24 hours 1/21/2015 16saurabh bhargava
  17. 17. Post mortem Appearances • Pallor of mucus membrane of mouth • Congestion of brain, lungs, liver and kidneys • Mucus membrane of stomach is inflamed • Remains of root may be present if crushed root was ingested 1/21/2015 17saurabh bhargava
  18. 18. Medicolegal Aspects • Ideal homicidal (easily available, cheap, certainity of death, no specific antidote, decomposes quickly in body) • Accidental poisoning by quackary medicinal use • Suicidal use is rare • Used as tribal arrow poison • Used in cattle poisoning 1/21/2015 18saurabh bhargava
  19. 19. Colour Tests • Palet’s Test: – To the acidified extract residue is added a few drops of mixture of 25 gm syrupy phosphoric acid & 1 gm sodium molybdate. – The content is then heated over a small flame until vapours appeared. – A violet colour is obtained. • Gold Chloride Test: – (0.01N HCl + 5% AuCl2) – Rectangular prism/ golden yellow needles • Alvarez’s Reaction Test 1/21/2015 19saurabh bhargava
  20. 20. TLC of Aconitine • Solvent system: 1. Methanol : Water :: 70 : 30 2. Cyclohexane : Chloroform : Diethylamine :::30:70:0.5 • HRf values for Aconitine are 20 & 65 for system1 & system2 respectively • Spray reagent:  Dragendorff’s reagent (orange/red colour spots)  Acidified potassium iodoplatinate (violet/blue or brown violet coloured spot) 1/21/2015 20saurabh bhargava
  21. 21. UV and IR Spectrometry • UV Spectrophotometry: – After purification and elution from TLC plate the elute is evaporated to dryness. – The residue is taken into 2 ml of 0.1 N H2SO4 and absorption spectrum is drawn with the help of a UV spectrophotometer; – λmax @234nm • IR Spectrometry: – Principle peaks for Aconitine KBr disk- 1092, 1273 1/21/2015 21saurabh bhargava
  22. 22. Dhatura fastuosa • Dhatura plants are abundant in India. • Dhatura stramonium is found in Himalayan regions • Dhatura fastuosa is found in plains. – Dhatura alba (white flowers) – Dhatura niger (purple flowers) • Poisonous Parts: – All parts are poisonous – Maximum concentration of active principles are found in roots 1/21/2015 22saurabh bhargava
  23. 23. Morphology of Dhatura • Fruit of Dhatura is commonly known as “Thorn Apple” as it is a spherical shaped fruit having multiple spikes (about a hundred) on surface. • Hundreds of seed are present in each fruit. • Seeds are odourless, yellowish brown, kidney shaped with two distinctive ridges on convex surface. 1/21/2015 23saurabh bhargava
  24. 24. Active Principles 1. Hyoscine 2. Hyoscyamine 3. Atropine • Fatal dose:  Atropine – 50-60mg  Hyoscine – 10 mg  Seeds – more than 75 seeds are usually fatal for an adult while 40-50 seeds are enough to act as a stupefying dose • Fatal period: – Death occurs within 24 hours 1/21/2015 24saurabh bhargava
  25. 25. Mode of Action • Both atropine & hyoscine block the acetylcholine receptors and thus resulting in sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic actions. • Atropine is also responsible for vagolytic actions on heart and other vital organs 1/21/2015 25saurabh bhargava
  26. 26. Signs & Symptoms • Bitter taste • Dried mouth (xerostomia), difficulty in speech and swallowing • Skin is dry and hot. Face is flushed. • Conjunctiva is congested, pupils are dilated, diplopia • Pulse is rapid and voluminous • Tachycardia, mania, convulsions, delirium, hallucinations and hurried respiration • Depressive phase follows the initial excitation phase. – Deep sleep, coma and respiration depression may lead to death 1/21/2015 26saurabh bhargava
  27. 27. Medicolegal Aspects • Used as stupefying agent in highway robbery, rapes and kidnappings • Quackery abortions • Adulterant in country liquor • Occasionally used for suicides, rarely for homicides • Accidental poisoning in children 1/21/2015 27saurabh bhargava
  28. 28. Post-mortem Appearance • Signs of asphyxia • Congested organs • Fragments of dhatura seeds in stomach 1/21/2015 28saurabh bhargava
  29. 29. Tests for Dhatura fastuosa 1. A drop of the stomach content extract, if applied in a rabbit’s eye, there will be an instantaneous dilation of the pupils. 2. Microscopic Test: – one drop of glycerine is added to the dried residue of extract. – A characteristics structure similar to eyelids is seen. 3. Vitali’s Test: – The residue of the extract is treated with fuming HNO3 and then dried on water bath. – After cooling, a few drops of freshly prepared caustic potash KOH solution is added – The colour turns to violet very soon and turns to red on standing before finally disappearing. – The reappears on addition of a few drops of alcoholic KOH. 1/21/2015 29saurabh bhargava
  30. 30. TLC of Dhatura fastuosa • Solvent system: 1. Methanol (70) : water (30) 2. Cyclohexane (75) : chloroform (40) : Diethylamine (10) • Spray reagent: – Acidified iodoplatinate - violet/blue or brownish coloured spots Active component HRf system1 HRf system2 Atropine 33 31 Hyoscyamine 48 27 Hyoscine (scopolamine) 40 39 1/21/2015 30saurabh bhargava
  31. 31. UV & IR Data of Dhatura fastuosa • UV Spectrophotometry: • Principal peaks in IR (sample in KBr disc) Active principle Medium λmax (nm) Atropine Aqu acid 252, 258, 264 Hyoscine Aqu acid 251, 257, 263 Hyoscyamine Aqu acid 252, 258, 264 Atropine 1720, 1738, 1275, 1110, 712, 1037 Hyoscine 1730, 853, 1166, 736, 705, 1047 Hyoscyamine 1490, 1210, 1140, 810, 1020, 835 1/21/2015 31saurabh bhargava

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