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Infrared presentation

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Infrared presentation

  1. 1. Infrared Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the measurement of the absorption or emission of energy by matter (atoms or molecules) when it is subjected to electromagnetic radiation. A spectrophotometer measures the energy changes that take place within a molecule when it is irradiated and records these changes as spectra . In absorption spectroscopy , molecules absorb energy and undergo transitions from the ground state to an excited state of the molecule. The type of spectroscopy involved will depend on the region of the electromagnetic spectrum that is used as a radiation source. In Infrared Spectroscopy , molecules absorb infrared radiation which brings about changes in stretching and bending motions of the molecule. The radiation absorbed is in the energy range with wavelengths (λ) between 2.5 and 17 μm (4000 cm -1 to 600 cm -1 ). In Electronic (UV-visible) Spectroscopy, molecules absorb radiation in the UV-visible region (200 - 800 nm). This brings about electronic transitions within the molecule. Since absorption of radiation is quantized ( i.e. it is subject to certain quantum mechanical restrictions), only the allowed frequencies of radiation appear as absorption bands in the spectrum.
  2. 2. Vibrational Spectroscopy All chemical bonds have a natural frequency of vibration (C-H, O-H, C=O, C-C, C=C) but the exact frequency will depend on their environment, i.e. on the actual structure of the molecule involved. Identification of the vibrational frequencies indicates the different bonds present in a molecule and provides structural information about that molecule. An infrared spectrum is a plot of % transmittance (y-axis) versus energy (cm -1 ) (x-axis) in the range 4000 cm -1 to 600 cm -1 .
  3. 3. Infrared 10,000 cm -1 to 100 cm -1 Converted in Vibrational energy in molecules Vibrational Spectra appears as bands instead of sharp lines => as it is accompanied by a number of rotational changes Wave Number =>  (cm -1 ) => proportional to energy <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative masses of atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force constant of bonds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry of atoms </li></ul></ul></ul>Older system uses the wavelenght  (  m => 10 -6 m) cm -1 = 10 4 /  m 
  4. 4. The Units: The frequency  (s -1 ) => # vibrations per second For molecular vibrations, this number is very large (10 13 s -1 ) => inconvenient e.g.  = 3 * 10 13 s -1 = 1000 cm -1 Wave Length :  1  = More convenient : Wavenumber   =  c ( Frequency / Velocity )   =   s  3 * 10 10 cm s -1 
  5. 5. Intensity in IR Intensity: Transmittance ( T ) or %T Absorbance ( A ) IR : Plot of %IR that passes through a sample ( transmittance ) vs Wavelenght T = I I 0 A = log I I 0
  6. 6. Infrared <ul><li>Position, Intensity and Shape of bands gives clues on Structure of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Modern IR uses Michelson Interferometer => involves computer, and Fourier Transform </li></ul>Sampling => plates, polished windows, Films … Must be transparent in IR NaCl, KCl : Cheap, easy to polish NaCl transparent to 4000 - 650 cm -1 KCl transparent to 4000 - 500 cm -1 KBr transparent to 400 cm -1
  7. 7. Infrared: Low frequency spectra of window materials
  8. 8. Bond length and strength vs Stretching frequency
  9. 9. Introduction IR is one of the first technique inorganic chemists used (since 1940) Molecular Vibration Newton’s law of motion is used classically to calculate force constant r r e F F The basic picture : atoms (mass) are connected with bonding electrons. R e is the equilibrium distance and F : force to restore equilibrium F(x) = - k x where X is displacement from equilibrium Where K i is the force constant and  i is reduce mass of a particular motion Because the energy is quantized: E = h  i   = 1 2  √ k i  i
  10. 10. Introduction Displacement of atoms during vibration lead to distortion of electrival charge distribution of the molecule which can be resolve in dipole, quadrupole, octopole …. In various directions => Molecular vibration lead to oscillation of electric charge governed by vibration frequencies of the system Oscillating molecular dipole can interact directly with oscillating electric vector of electromagnetic radiation of the same frequency h  = h  Vibrations are in the range 10 11 to 10 13 Hz => 30 - 3,000 cm -1
  11. 11. Introduction: Symmetry selection rule <ul><li>Stretching homonuclear diatomic molecule like N 2 does not generate oscillating dipole </li></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction with oscillating electronic Dipole is not possible </li></ul><ul><li>inactive in IR </li></ul>There is no place here to treat fundamentals of symmetry In principle, the symmetry of a vibration need to be determined
  12. 12. Calculating stretching frequencies Hooke’s law : : Frequency in cm -1 c : Velocity of light => 3 * 10 10 cm/s K : Force constant => dynes /cm  masses of atoms in grams C —C K = 5* 10 5 dynes/cm C =C K = 10* 10 5 dynes/cm C  C K = 15* 10 5 dynes/cm  = 1 2  c  K    m 1 m 2 m 1 + m 2  M 1 M 2 M 1 + M 2 (6.02 * 10 23 )  = 4.12  K 
  13. 13. Calculating stretching frequencies C =C K = 10* 10 5 dynes/cm C —H K = 5* 10 5 dynes/cm C —D K = 5* 10 5 dynes/cm  = 4.12  K    M 1 M 2 M 1 + M 2  (12)(12) 12 + 12    = 4.12  10* 10 5  = 1682 cm -1  Experimental  1650 cm -1  = 4.12  5* 10 5  = 3032 cm -1   M 1 M 2 M 1 + M 2  (12)(1) 12 + 1    Experimental  3000 cm -1  = 4.12  5* 10 5  = 2228 cm -1   M 1 M 2 M 1 + M 2  (12)(2) 12 + 2    Experimental  2206 cm -1
  14. 14. Vibrations www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/Virtual/Text/Spectrpy/InfraRed/infrared.htm Modes of vibration C —H Stretching Bending Symmetrical 2853 cm -1 Asymmetrical 2926 cm -1 Scissoring 1450 cm -1 Rocking 720 cm -1 Wagging 1350 cm -1 Twisting 1250 cm -1 Stretching frequency Bending frequency C O H
  15. 15. Vibrations www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/Virtual/Text/Spectrpy/InfraRed/infrared.htm General trends: <ul><li>Stretching frequencies are higher than bending frequencies (it is easier to bend a bond than stretching or compresing them) </li></ul><ul><li>Bond involving Hydrogen are higher in freq. than with heavier atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Triple bond have higher freq than double bond which has higher freq than single bond </li></ul>
  16. 16. Structural Information from Vibration Spectra <ul><li>Spectrum can be treated as finger print to recognize the product of a reaction as a known compound. (require access to a file of standard spectra) </li></ul><ul><li>At another extreme , different bands observed can be used to deduce the symmetry of the molecule and force constants corresponding to vibrations. </li></ul><ul><li>At intermediate levels, deductions may be drawn about the presence/absence of specific groups </li></ul>The symmetry of a molecule determines the number of bands expected Number of bands can be used to decide on symmetry of a molecule Tha task of assignment is complicated by presence of low intensity bands and presence of forbidden overtone and combination bands. There are different levels at which information from IR can be analyzed to allow identification of samples:
  17. 17. Methods of analyzing an IR spectrum The effect of isotopic substitution on the observed spectrum Can give valuable information about the atoms involved in a particular vibration <ul><li>Comparison with standard spectra : traditional approach </li></ul><ul><li>Detection and Identification of impurities if the compound have been characterized before, any bands that are not found in the pure sample can be assigned to the impurity (provided that the 2 spectrum are recorded with identical conditions: Phase, Temperature, Concentration) </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Analysis of mixture Transmittance spectra = I/I 0 x 100 => peak height is not lineraly related to intensity of absorption In Absorbance A=ln (I o /I) => Direct measure of intensity </li></ul>
  18. 18. Analyzing an IR spectrum In practice, there are similarities between frequencies of molecules containing similar groups. Group - frequency correlations have been extensively developed for organic compounds and some have also been developed for inorganics
  19. 19. Some characteristic infrared absorption frequencies   BOND COMPOUND TYPE FREQUENCY RANGE, cm -1   C-H alkanes 2850-2960 and 1350-1470   alkenes 3020-3080 (m) and   RCH=CH2 910-920 and 990-1000   R2C=CH2 880-900   cis -RCH=CHR 675-730 (v)   trans -RCH=CHR 965-975   aromatic rings 3000-3100 (m) and   monosubst. 690-710 and 730-770   ortho -disubst. 735-770   meta -disubst. 690-710 and 750-810 (m)   para -disubst. 810-840 (m)   alkynes 3300     O-H alcohols or phenols 3200-3640 (b)     C=C alkenes 1640-1680 (v)   aromatic rings 1500 and 1600 (v)     C≡C alkynes 2100-2260 (v)     C-O primary alcohols 1050 (b)   secondary alcohols 1100 (b)   tertiary alcohols 1150 (b)   phenols 1230 (b)   alkyl ethers 1060-1150   aryl ethers 1200-1275(b) and 1020-1075 (m)   all abs. strong unless marked: m, moderate; v, variable; b, broad
  20. 20. <ul><li>IR spectra of ALKANES </li></ul><ul><li>C—H bond “saturated” </li></ul><ul><li>(sp3) 2850-2960 cm-1 </li></ul><ul><li> + 1350-1470 cm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>-CH2- + 1430-1470 </li></ul><ul><li>-CH3 + “ and 1375 </li></ul><ul><li>-CH(CH3)2 + “ and 1370, 1385 </li></ul><ul><li>-C(CH3)3 + “ and 1370(s), 1395 (m) </li></ul>
  21. 21. n -pentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 3000 cm -1 1470 &1375 cm -1 2850-2960 cm -1 sat’d C-H n -pentane CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 3000 cm -1 1470 &1375 cm -1 2850-2960 cm -1 sat’d C-H
  22. 22. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 n -hexane
  23. 23. 2-methylbutane (isopentane)
  24. 24. 2,3- dimethylbutane
  25. 25. IR of ALKENES =C—H bond, “unsaturated” vinyl (sp 2 ) 3020-3080 cm -1 + 675-1000 RCH=CH 2 + 910-920 & 990-1000 R 2 C=CH 2 + 880-900 cis -RCH=CHR + 675-730 (v) trans -RCH=CHR + 965-975 C=C bond 1640-1680 cm -1 (v)
  26. 26. 1-decene 910-920 & 990-1000 RCH=CH 2 C=C 1640-1680 unsat’d C-H 3020-3080 cm -1
  27. 27. 4-methyl-1-pentene 910-920 & 990-1000 RCH=CH 2
  28. 28. 2-methyl-1-butene
  29. 29. IR spectra BENZENE s =C—H bond, “unsaturated” “aryl” (sp 2 ) 3000-3100 cm -1 + 690-840 mono-substituted + 690-710, 730-770 ortho -disubstituted + 735-770 meta -disubstituted + 690-710, 750-810(m) para -disubstituted + 810-840(m) C=C bond 1500, 1600 cm -1
  30. 30. ethylbenzene 690-710, 730-770 mono- 1500 & 1600 Benzene ring 3000-3100 cm -1 Unsat’d C-H
  31. 31. IR spectra ALCOHOLS & ETHERS C—O bond 1050-1275 (b) cm -1 1 o ROH 1050 2 o ROH 1100 3 o ROH 1150 ethers 1060-1150 O—H bond 3200-3640 (b) 
  32. 32. 1-butanol CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -OH C-O 1 o 3200-3640 (b) O-H
  33. 33. 2-butanol C-O 2 o O-H
  34. 34. Hydrogen bond and C=O
  35. 35. Intensity of C=O vs C=C
  36. 36. Band Shape: OH vs NH2 vs CH
  37. 37. Free OH and Hydrogen bonded OH
  38. 38. Symmetrical and asymmetrical stretch Methyl 2872 cm -1 Symmetrical Stretch Asymmetrical Stretch Anhydride 1760 cm -1 2962 cm -1 1800 cm -1 Amino Nitro 3300 cm -1 3400 cm -1 1350 cm -1 1550 cm -1 — C — H H H — C — H H H O O O O O O — N H H — N H H — N O O — N O O
  39. 39. General IR comments Precise treatment of vibrations in molecule is not feasible here Some information from IR is also contained in MS and NMR Certain bands occur in narrow regions : OH , CH , C=O Detail of the structure is revealed by the exact position of the band e.g. Ketones 1715 cm -1 1680 cm -1 Region 4000 – 1300 : Functional group Absence of band in this region can be used to deduce absence of groups Caution: some bands can be very broad because of hydrogen bonding e.g. Enols v.broad OH, C=O absent!! Weak bands in high frequency are extremely useful : S-H, C  C, C  N Lack of strong bands in 900-650 means no aromatic
  40. 40. Alkanes , Alkenes , Alkynes C-H : <3000 cm -1 >3000 cm -1 3300 cm -1 sharp C-C Stretch Not useful C=C C  C 1660-1600 cm -1 conj. Moves to lower values Symmetrical : no band 2150 cm -1 conj. Moves to lower values Weak but very useful Symmetrical no band Bending CH 2 Rocking 720 cm -1 indicate Presence of 4-CH 2 1000-700 cm -1 Indicate substitution pattern  C-H ~630 cm -1 Strong and broad Confirm triple bond
  41. 42. Alkane
  42. 43. Alkene : 1-Decene To give rise to absorption of IR => Oscillating Electric Dipole Symmetry Molecules with Center of symmetry Symmetric vibration => inactive Antisymmetric vibration => active
  43. 44. Alkene In large molecule local symmetry produce weak or absent vibration C=C R R trans C=C isomer -> weak in IR Observable in Raman
  44. 45. Alkene: Factors influencing vibration frequency 1- Strain move peak to right (decrease ) angle 1650 1646 1611 1566 1656 : exception 2- Substitution increase 3- conjugation decrease C=C-Ph 1625 cm -1 1566 1641 1675 1611 1650 1679 1646 1675 1681 C C C   
  45. 46. Alkene: Out-of-Plane bending This region can be used to deduce substitution pattern
  46. 47. Alkyne: 1-Hexyne
  47. 48. Alkyne: Symmetry
  48. 49. In IR, Most important transition involve : Ground State (  i = 0) to First Excited State (  i = 1) Transition (  i = 0) to (  J = 2) => Overtone
  49. 50. IR : Aromatic =C-H > 3000 cm -1 C=C 1600 and 1475 cm -1 =C-H out of plane bending: great utility to assign ring substitution overtone 2000-1667: useful to assign ring substitution e.g. Naphthalene: Substitution pattern Isolated H 862-835 835-805 760-735 2 adjacent H 4 adjacent H out of plane bending 
  50. 51. Aromatic substitution: Out of plane bending
  51. 52. Aromatic substitution: Out of plane bending
  52. 54. Aromatic and Alkene substitution
  53. 55. IR: Alcohols and Phenols O-H Free : Sharp 3650-3600 O-H H-Bond : Broad 3400-3300 Intermolecular Hydrogen bonding Increases with concentration => Less “Free” OH
  54. 56. IR: Alcohols and Phenols C-O : 1260-1000 cm -1 (coupled to C-C => C-C-O) C-O Vibration is sensitive to substitution: Phenol 1220 3` Alcohols 1150 2` Alcohols 1100 1` Alcohols 1050 More complicated than above: shift to lower Wavenumber With unsaturation (Table 3.2)
  55. 57. Alcohol C-O : 1040 cm -1 indicate primary alcohol
  56. 58. Benzyl Alcohol OH sp 2 sp 3 Ph overtone C-O : 1080, 1022 cm -1 : primary OH Mono Subst. Ph 735 & 697 cm -1
  57. 59. Phenol OH sp 2 Ph overtone C=C stretch Ph-O : 1224 cm -1 Mono Subst. Ph out-of plane 810 & 752 cm -1
  58. 60. Phenol
  59. 61. IR: Ether C-O-C => 1300-1000 cm -1 Ph-O-C => 1250 and 1040 cm -1 Aliphatic => 1120 cm -1 C=C in vinyl Ether => 1660-1610 cm -1 appear as Doublet => rotational isomers ~1620 ~1640
  60. 62. Ether sp 2 sp 3 Ph overtone C=C stretch Ph-O-C : 1247 cm -1 Asymmetric stretch Ph-O-C : 1040 cm -1 Symmetric stretch Mono Subst. Ph out-of plane 784, 754 & 692 cm -1
  61. 63. IR: Carbonyl From 1850 – 1650 cm -1 Ketone 1715 cm -1 is used as reference point for comparisons 1715  1690 1725  1700 1710  1680 1810 Anhydr Band 1800 Acid Chloride 1760 Anhydr Band 2 1735 Ester 1725 Aldehyde 1715 Ketone 1710 Acid 1690 Amide Factor influencing C=O 1) conjugation Conjugation increase single bond character of C=O  Lower force constant  lower frequency number C=C C O C + — C C O -
  62. 64. Ketone and Conjugation Conjugation: Lower 
  63. 65. Ketone and Ring Strain Ring Strain: Higher Factors influencing C=O 2) Ring size 1715 cm -1 Angle ~ 120 o 1751 cm -1 < 120 o 1775 cm -1 << 120 o 
  64. 67. Factors influencing carbonyl: C=O 3)  substitution effect (Chlorine or other halogens) Result in stronger bound  higher frequency 1750 cm -1 4) Hydrogen bonding Decrease C=O strenght  lower frequency 1680 cm -1 — C — C — X O 
  65. 68. Enol
  66. 69. Factors influencing carbonyl: C=O 5) Heteroatom Inductive effect Stronger bond higher frequency e.g. ester Resonance effect Weaker bond Lower frequence e.g. amides Y C=O Cl Br OH (monomer) OR (Ester) 1815-1785 1812 1760 1705-1735 NH2 SR 1695-1650 1720-1690 inductive resonance
  67. 70. Ester Carbonyl Esters C=O ~ 1750 – 1735 cm -1 O-C : 1300 – 1000 2 or more bands Conjugation => lower freq. Inductive effect with O reinforce carbonyl => higher Conjugation with CO weaken carbonyl => Lower   
  68. 71. Ester carbonyl: C=O
  69. 72. Ester carbonyl: C=O C=O : 1765 cm -1 C-O 1215 cm -1 1193 cm -1 sp 2 C=O
  70. 73. Ester carbonyl: C=O
  71. 74. Ester carbonyl : effect of conjugation
  72. 75. Lactone carbonyl: C=O Lactones  Cyclic Ester 1735 1720 1760 1770 1750 1800
  73. 76. Carbonyl compounds : Acids Carboxylic acid Exist as dimer : Strong Hydrogen bond OH : Very broad  3400 – 2400 cm -1 C=O : broad  1730 – 1700 cm -1 C — O : 1320 – 1210 cm -1 Medium intensity
  74. 77. Carbonyl compounds : Acids C=O OH C=O : 1711 cm -1 OH : Very Broad 3300 to 2500 cm -1 C-O : 1285, 1207 cm -1
  75. 78. Anhydrides C=O always has 2 bands: 1830-1800 and 1775-1740 cm -1 C —O multiple bands 1300 – 900 cm -1
  76. 79. Carbonyl compounds : Aldehydes Aldehydes C=O ~ 1725 cm -1 O=C-H : 2 weak bands 2750, 2850 cm -1 Conjugation => lower freq. C=O : 1724 cm -1 
  77. 80. Carbonyl compounds : Aldehydes
  78. 81. Aldehydes
  79. 82. Other carbonyl Amides Lactams Acid Chlorides C=O ~1680-1630 cm -1 (band I) NH 2 ~ 3350 and 3180 cm -1 (stretch) NH ~ 3300 cm -1 (stretch) NH ~ 1640-1550 cm -1 (bending) 1810-1775 cm -1 C — Cl 730 – 550 cm -1 ~1660 ~1705 ~1745 Increase with strain R — C — Cl O 
  80. 83. Amides NH 2 : Symmetrical stretch =>3170 cm -1 asymmetrical stretch => 3352 cm -1 C=O : 1640 cm -1 NH Out of plane
  81. 84. Amides
  82. 85. Acid Chlorides
  83. 86. Amino acid Exist as zwitterions C CO 2 - NH 3 + NH 3 + : very broad 3330-2380 (OH + NH 3 + ) C O O 1600 – 1590 strong
  84. 87. Amino acid
  85. 88. Amine NH 3500 – 3300 cm -1 NH : 2 bands NH : 1 band NH bending : 1650 – 1500 cm -1 C-N : 1350 – 1000 cm -1 NH out-of-plane : ~ 800 cm -1 Amine salt NH + 3500 – 3030 cm -1 broad / strong Ammonium  primary  secomdary  right Left  
  86. 89. Amine Primary Amine Secondary Amine Tertiary Amine
  87. 90. Aromatic Amine
  88. 91. Other Nitrogen Compounds Nitriles Isocyanates Isothiocyanates Imines / Oximes R-C  N : Sharp 2250 cm -1 Conjugation moves to lower frequency R-N=C=O Broad ~ 2270 cm -1 R-N=C=S 2 Broad peaks ~ 2125 cm -1 R 2 C=N-R 1690 - 1640 cm -1
  89. 92. Nitrile
  90. 93. Nitrile
  91. 94. Nitrile and Isocyanate
  92. 95. Nitro Aliphatic : Asymmetric : 1600-1530 cm -1 Symmetric : 1390-1300 cm -1 Aromatic : Asymmetric : 1550-1490 cm -1 Symmetric : 1355-1315 cm -1 — N O O + -
  93. 96. Nitro
  94. 97. Nitro
  95. 98. Sulfur Mercaptans S – H : weak 2600-2550 cm -1 Since only few absorption in that range it confirm its presence Sulfides,Disulfides : no useful information Sulfoxides: Strong ~ 1050 cm -1 Sulfones : Asymetrical ~ 1300 cm -1 Symetrical ~ 1150 cm -1 2 bands :
  96. 99. Sulfur: Mercaptan R- S-H
  97. 100. Sulfur: Sulfonyl Chloride S=O : Asymmetrical stretch: 1375 cm-1 Symmetrical Stretch : 1185 cm-1
  98. 101. Sulfur: Sulfonate S=O : Asymmetrical stretch: 1350 cm-1 Symmetrical Stretch : 1175 cm-1 S-O : several bands between 1000 – 750 cm -1
  99. 102. Sulfur: Sulfonamide S=O : Asymmetrical stretch: 1325 cm-1 Symmetrical Stretch : 1140 cm-1 NH 2 stretch: 3350 and 3250 cm -1 NH Bend: 1550 cm -1
  100. 103. Halogens C —F : 1400 – 1000 cm -1 C —Cl : strong 785 – 540 cm -1 C —Br : 650 – 510 cm -1 (out of range with NaCl plates) C —I : 600 – 485 cm -1 (out of range)
  101. 104. Halogens
  102. 105. Phosphorus Phosphines: R-PH 2 R 2 PH P —H : Sharp 2320 – 2270 cm -1 P H 2 bending : 1090 – 1075 and 840 - 810 cm -1 P H bending : 990 - 886 cm -1 Phosphine Oxide : R 3 P=O P =O very strong : 1210 - 1140 cm -1 Phosphate Esters : (OR) 3 P=O P =O very strong : 1300 - 1240 cm -1 P -O very strong : 1088 – 920 cm -1 P -O : 845 - 725 cm -1
  103. 106. Silicon IR-Organometallic Index Si-H : 2200 cm -1 (Stretch) 950 – 800 cm -1 (bend) Si-O-H : OH: 3700 – 3200 cm -1 (Stretch) Si-O : 830 – 1110 cm -1

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